Managing Change Resistance Conflict by gnAMGr1


									Managing Change,
Resistance and Conflict
Consultancy Skills

• To understand how to be
  proactive in managing change
  and reducing resistance
• To understand the good and bad
  sides of conflict
Resistance is to be expected when introducing
  It is in the nature of a project delivering major change to
  encounter and to have to manage resistance in many
  Some degree of resistance is normal and expected.

  The ‘buy-in to Resistance’ journey:

   Stakeholder         Tailored                 Buy-in            SUPPORT
   mapping and      communication
    movement       and involvement            No Buy-In           RESISTANCE

   People often resist because in the absence of communication, they assume
   the worst. The key to avoiding and minimising initial resistance is getting the
   communication and involvement right at the start
Managing change requires addressing three dimensions
of change
  •    Individuals experience a wide range of emotions when going through change.
       These emotions range from denial through to calm acceptance over time.
  •    The source of these emotions is influenced by three dimensions of change:

                                             • Why should
                                                 I change?
                                             • Is the new model really

                                      Political                      Emotional
                                                             • Am I going to be
                               • Is there a risk for
                                  my position?
                                                             • How will I look in the
                               • What will my power be          future?

  •    Addressing the rational of change is only a starting point
  •    Understanding and addressing political and emotional dimensions of change is necessary

      We need to help our clients constantly and consistently see all three perspectives
The Emotional Cycle of Change has five stages


               Certainty                                                   Satisfaction

 Level of
 Optimism                                                   Confidence



         Knowing where we and others are on the Emotional Cycle can help
         us to understand the effect change is having.
The way we deal with resistance and conflict is
a critical element of our professionalism

         The client is NOT always right, but the way
              you deal with him / her has to be

           …it requires humility, resolve, and patience.
                                                       Source: Thamhain and Wilemon.
As many as 13 different manifestations
of resistance have been identified
       What does resistance look like?

   A. Avoidance of                 H.Changing the subject
                                   I. I’m not surprised
   B. Flooding with detail
                                   J. Silence
   C. One-word answers
   D. Impracticality
                                   L. Nit-picking
   E. Attacking
                                   M.Pressing for solutions
   F. Compliance
   G. Confusion

        People resist by what they say AND by what they do
                                                  Source:   Flawless Consulting by Peter Block.
Most resistance often is hidden beneath the
surface and requires focused interpretation

                        Indirect Expressions
                   of Concerns / Visible Resistance

                     Real / Underlying
                        Concerns                Rational

                                         Political   Emotional

       Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern
       about making a change
Why resistance occurs . . .
     •   Losing their job                                 Loss of credibility or reputation
     •   Change in job role
                                                          Interpersonal rejection
     •   Job transfer
     •   Knowledge of what future                         Embarrassment / loss
         holds and place in the                            of self-esteem
         organisation                                     Fear of the unknown
     •   Lack of understanding of where
         you are going and why
                                                          Demotion
                                                          Threat to familiar contacts:
                                                           customers, colleagues,
                                          Rational         managers, group membership…

                                     Political Emotional

    Lack of career or financial
    Possible damage to relationships
     with their superiors
    Territory threat
“AIR” is a useful technique to manage
    • Acknowledge
      – What they have said in a genuine way
    • Investigate
      – Identify the main source of the resistance
      – Encourage them to talk more about it – and listen
      – Isolate and work the separate issues
    • Reinforce
      – Reinforce the positive aspects of anything you are
      – Calmly and clearly explain the reasons for change
      – Look for acceptance
Dealing with resistance: Do's and Don't
•   Do:                               Don't:
•   Explain why                       • Go into more data collection
•   Explain the benefits              • Re-plan the changes to get a more
•   Invite and answer questions         acceptable response
•   Set standards and clear targets   • Avoid the individual who is
•   Inform / involve key managers       resisting
•   Recognise and reward efforts      • Work only with people who agree
•   Communicate repeatedly            • Answer the same concern many
•   Give more feedback than usual
    to ensure people always know      • Give lots of reasons
    where they stand                  • Get caught up in the details
•   Allow some time for resistance,   • Expect approval, encouragement,
    but not too much                    support and / or affection
•   Measure results, step back and    • Lose your confidence
    take a look at what is going on   • Expect to have all the answers
•   Keep asking “Is the change        • Avoid giving “bad news”
    working the way we want it to?”   • Use aggressive language
•   Encourage people to think and     • Delay / wait one more day
    act creatively                                   Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block
As a summary
• Resistance is to be expected
   – They are not 'incidents' but are part of the change process
   – There are positive outcomes from dealing with them
• Understanding the Rational / Political / Emotional
  dimensions is a key to discovering real underlying
  issues beyond what people express
• Being aware of the emotional cycle of change helps
  us reassure our clients
• Managing stakeholders is key to secure success of
  our projects and achieve sustainable change
• Effectively and constructively dealing with
  resistance and conflict is essential to building trust
  and long relationships with our clients
• There are several methods and techniques to
  achieve this and gaining experience of them is a
  critical success factor for interacting with clients
One of the hardest parts of consulting is
managing conflicts
 The top seven sources of conflict on projects are
 • Schedules: Timing, sequencing, duration, feasibility of schedule for
    project-related tasks or activities
 • Project priorities: Lack of goals, poorly defined project
   mission, differing views of task importance, shifting goals
 • Resources: Competition for personnel, materials, equipment,
   facilities among project members or across teams
 • Technical options: From technical issues, performance
   specifications, technical trade-offs
 • Administrative procedures: How project will be managed,
   reporting relationships, interfaces, work design, plans for
   execution, negotiated work agreements with others
 • Cost objectives: Lack of cost control authority, allocation of
 • Personalities: Egos, personality differences, prejudice,
   stereotyping                                      Source: Thamhain and Wilemon.
The “Win-Win Matrix” is the background
to any conflict

                           Win / Lose           Win / Win
   The extent to
  which I achieve
     my goals

                          Lose / Lose            Lose / Win

                    LOW                                       HIGH
                            The extent to which I allow the
                          other person to achieve their goals

              Always seek to attain a position of ‘win-win’
In situations of conflict you can use 3
different styles
                                TOUGH            • Fighting, powerful,
                                                 • Pressing for results,
                                                   threatening, repetition
                                                 • Confident, persuasive,
                                    The three      forceful
                                    “pure” styles
                                    of influence
       LOGICAL                                      FRIENDLY
       THINKER                                      HELPER
 Logical, knowledgeable,                           Helpful, sympathetic, polite
  clarifying ideas                                  Encouraging, compromising,
 Facts, quoting rules, practical                    concerned, friendly

 Orderly, fair, thorough                           Trusting, optimistic, caring,
         You may need to exercise all three styles to resolve conflict
The “DESC” script is useful to resolve
 • Describe what you want, how you see
   the situation objectively, and factually
 • Express your feelings about the situation
   and why you feel that way
 • Specify the action you think should be
   taken and why
 • Consequences both positive and
   negative, of doing or not doing what you
   are suggesting
 There are 8 critical success factors for managing
 change through people
The Change Wheel

                            Behaviour &      Shared
                            Culture Gaps    Vision &
                             Addressed      Strategy
                People                                     Leaders
              Processes                                   Engaged &
               Updated                                     Aligned

               Aligned                                    Stakeholders
             Processes &                                   Prepared &
             Organisation                                   Mobilised
                              Upgraded         High
                               Skills &     Performing
                            Competencies   Project Team

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