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					          Nissan Business Strategy

Nissan Motor Company, Limited 日産自動車株式会社


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Nissan Business Strategy Report



Contents

Introduction .................................................................................................................... 3
Company Background of Nissan Motors Limited ......................................................... 3
Nissan – Renault Partnership ......................................................................................... 4
Nissan Culture................................................................................................................ 4
Nissan Information Systems Strategy ............................................................................ 9
Nissan Strategic Position ............................................................................................. 10
   Porter’s Five Force Analysis Summary ................................................................... 14
   Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Summary ................................................................ 15
   Nissan SWOT Analysis ........................................................................................... 16
     Strengths .............................................................................................................. 16
     Weaknesses .......................................................................................................... 17
     Opportunities........................................................................................................ 18
     Threats.................................................................................................................. 19
Nissan Future Strategies .............................................................................................. 20
Recommendations ........................................................................................................ 21
References .................................................................................................................... 23




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Introduction
        This report will investigate the business strategy of Nissan Car Company,
including the strategy, strengths/weaknesses, technological aspects, political aspects
and traits of their organisational behaviour.


Company Background of Nissan Motors Limited
        Nissan are a multinational automaker based in Japan. The company’s main
offices are located in Tokyo, but eventually they plan to move to Yokohama, by 2010.
Nissan have alliances with a few companies around the world, and one of these is an
alliance with Renault S.A. of France. Nissan is a major rival of company’s in the U.S.
as are two other Japanese companies’. Currently they are the third biggest Japanese
car manufacturer. In the last 12 years, Nissan have won straight awards for the Nissan
VQ engines, of V6 configuration. These were classified under “Ward’s 10 Best
Engines” Nissan are currently well known for the ‘Infiniti’ brand of vehicle.


        Nissan have been in existence as a company since 1914. However, up to 1934
they marketed there products as another well known name, “Datsun”. However, the
name “Nissan” has been used since 1930. Nissan was founded as “Nissan Motors” in
1934.


        Nissan and Renault both have a single CEO, named Carlos Ghosn, born in
Lebanon in 1954. He is largely credited with turning round the fortunes of Nissan. As
an outsider to the company he has been very successful. Ghosn became CEO of
Renault, Nissan’s partner and shareholder, in 2005, in addition to his CEO
responsibilities at Nissan.


        Nissan manufacturing productivity has been second to none around the world
for years. Nissan’s plant in Sunderland, U.K. has been ranked number one in Europe
for seven consecutive years up to 2004 by the World Markets Research Centre. Also,
in North America, the Smyrna Tennesee plant has taken top honors in the Harbor
Report. In 2003 Nissan commenced production at its second U.S. plant in Canton in
Mississippi. The Nissan growth strategy continues unabated in 2007 and 2008.


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Nissan – Renault Partnership
       A recent event of note, with regard to listen is the recent merger with Renault.
In March 1999. The French company under the Japanese company from two different
cultures have come to an agreement involved in joint ventures, including joint
platforms for production. Nissan hold 15% of shares in Renault, and Renault hold
approximately 44% shares of Nissan.

       The object of the merger is to provide common sales, which benefits both
parties, and ultimately, their profit margins. They are involved in a lot of joint
operations and benches including the choice of suppliers and they have both involved
in negotiation with suppliers. They both still operate independently, but this venture
has proved to be very successful. However, they have both from different cultures,
and the CEO has mentioned that independently, they operate within their all
framework and culture.


Nissan Culture
       Japan has always had its own management style and culture. This applies to
every organisation within Japan, including not just Manufacturers, but electronic
companies like NEC. Because of the way the economy works in Japan, Japanese
companies are not usually profit oriented. In Japan individuals do not hold shares as a
general rule. Their culture is based on work and the family. The Japanese culture is all
about market share, which ultimately means, often selling your products at a lower
price and making it higher quality In order to achieve higher market share. This is
why in the past that none-Japanese competitors have all found it difficult competing
against Japanese products, which are traditionally superior, but sold at a much lower
price. This is usually true of all Japanese products.


       However, for a while in the late 90s, Nissan had problems due to the
competition gaining ground, and they had to change their strategy, in order to survive.
Japanese management systems are usually very successful because research their facts
extensively and quickly exchange and evaluate information. There is a division of



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Labour within management. The decision making with the lower-level managers is
mostly in regard to the facts and the rapid and coordinated implementation of
decisions, and instructions which have been made higher up the hierarchy.


        General management decisions and systems are sliced as such by the emphasis
on information flows. The system depends to a large extent on the key human
resource policies in the organisation. Japanese management style has benefited many
Western companies. Human resource management has been to for successful
Japanese business. This is probably necessary, given the Japanese culture in general.
The culture in Japan tends to control most aspects of life in that country.


        Japanese management style makes an emphasis on groups and hierarchy rather
than on individuals. As a result, the organisational structures of most multinational
Japanese companies are centralised. Japanese firms are usually specialised and can
therefore be ranked hierarchically by size. Japanese firms cluster together in groups
with the roles and responsibilities of each partner well defined and each firm’s
hierarchical position in the group is duly noted and recognised.


        Within the Nissan Company, the central management style dominates Nissan
Europe and has affected their success in Europe, but not in a positive sense. For
example. Every action has still have permission or instructions provided by the
general company. However, this has led to several problems in their performance in
different European countries. It will also be seen later in this report is that the culture
clashes with European and French culture, in particular with regard to Renault, has
been major problems for Nissan.


        Nissan failed in the UK to centralise they Nissan UK organisation, which is
owned by local businessmen and dealers. They tried to do this via acquisition, but
failed in their quest. Even in France, the marketing organisation was weak. This was
due to their marketing and management capability been directly managed from head
office in Japan. As a result, they have not been empowered to develop themselves.
There have also been problems in Spain, but of a different kind. In that the local
distributors of Nissan's commercial vehicles had very limited experience in selling
passenger cars. This is something that Nissan’s management would need to address.


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       Therefore, in the UK, Spain and France, countries that mission wished to
enter, they have not been very successful in the past. They have been uncertain with
regard to the European market way Europeans approach business. This would mean
some adaption on the part of Nissan's management and culture to adopt European
values in order to gain more control of the situation.


       The in recent times, Nissan has performed relatively well. This is particularly
due to the strong Nissan-Renault alliance. This merger is proving to have considerable
competitive advantage. However, it was also found that Mr and was at the risk of
cultural conflict with Renault, a French company, and this could threaten the alliance.

       Japan may have its own culture, but Europe is also a culturally diverse region,
with several countries, each with their own specific culture and subcultures.
Hofstede’s chart below (fig 1) shows how the various European cultures compared to
the culture of Japan. France is given a special mention in this chart due to the alliance
with Renault to show how it is different from Japans, and potentially how difficult it
is for them to make the alliance work in practice.




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Fig 1.




         Hofstede’s analysis views culture in three aspects that are significantly
different between Japanese and French. These are power distance, individualism and
masculinity (Hofstede, 1983). A country’s masculinity in this regard is with respect is
to the traditional role model of the males in society. Japan has a very different view
on this compared to France. In Japan the males are dominant and women still have a
secondary role under normal circumstances. In Japan males are the dominant party.
This is very different to France and European culture in general. It has been a focus
Japanese company in Europe as they have to be wary of the anti-discrimination laws
in regard to gender.

         The high-powered distance score relates to autocratic management style. In
France managers have a more centralised, and less consultative approach than their
Japanese colleagues. As an aside it should be noted that the European average ‘power
distance’ is far below that of both Japan and France, suggesting that the autocratic
style of both would be unusual throughout Europe.


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       Both Japan and France have similar high-power distance scores, but the source
of these strong hierarchies is different. Age is highly important in Japan with regards
to employees. Preference is usually given to older personnel. Even if junior staff is
capable and enthusiastic, this is still the case. As a consequence Japanese employees
understand that progression upwards in their organisation is a matter of persistence
and commitment to the group achievements and the company. This is probably why
Japanese employees stay with the same firm their whole life. Another important factor
in Japanese culture is the importance of seniority which is also associated with the
Japanese ideal of lifelong employment.

       When we look at the French system of hierarchy we can see that this, like
other European nations is based on the educational background of the individual. The
French education system is highly structured. The most talented students are usually
accepted to exclusive schools in France. A student who is accepted to one of the
schools has a status symbol which will prevail throughout their life. The French
concept of success is to be judged by an individual’s educational level, family
background, and their financial status as opposed to direct accomplishments. This in
itself may cause conflict if the Japanese do not respect their younger French
counterparts and the French do not respect their (possibly) uneducated Nissan
colleagues. It is also the case that the French have a different view on age compared
to the Japanese, in that age does not necessarily ensure you will be valued more than
anyone else in the organisation.

       The individualism aspect of the charts represents the degree to which society
prefers individual achievement to collective achievement. You can imagine, therefore
that in the case of Japan group achievements is more highly valued than individual
achievement. The chart measure indicates that employees with a higher level of
individualism typically work at than those with lower scores in this category. In this
regard France is close to the European average. They have an individual score of 71
compared with Japan's (unsurprisingly) 46. Therefore this implies that in their
European operations, Nissan must provide the opportunities for individuals to exert
themselves and achieve personal success. The overall effect of this should be that it
will lead to increased motivation and performance in Nissan's European operations.



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       The long-term orientation aspect represents the degree to which members of
society focus on the long-term or short-term goals. At the time this chart was taken
the French criteria was unavailable but the European average does indicate a much
shorter time focus than in Japan. Therefore this indicates that France has a longer term
goal than the Japanese. Implications for Nissan are that its managers must reach a
balanced compromise around time strategies and concepts, particularly when working
with Renault.


Nissan Information Systems Strategy
       Nissan's information systems are now part of a joint strategy with Renault in
regard to their Information Services and IT infrastructure of the organisation. They
have combined on both IT structures and production platforms so that the global
information services are available to both Reynolds and Nissan's information services
departments. This has been in operation since 2001.


       This has been necessary due to a number of joint production efforts which
have been rolled out. It also allows both Nissan and Reynolds to operate in a cost-
effective manner by having cost-effective systems and standard optimised
infrastructures.


       With regard to products, Nissan usually specialise in the open mid-size and
luxury market is while Renault specialised in the lower mid-size and the small and
basic cars. The companies have attempted to merge the two ideas and products so
they also have joint production lines. This also includes the engineering aspects.


       The diagram below (fig 2) illustrates the volume production of various
platforms owned by Renault on Nissan in their various guises. You can see that the
Renault-Nissan Master platform shows a substantial production level. Fig 3 shows the
platforms classified by product.




Fig 2. Shared Platforms




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Fig 3. Shared Platforms




Nissan Strategic Position


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        Nissan launched a plan in 2004, named Nissan Value-up, in which they aimed
to boost worldwide sales by 4.2 million units by 2007. This would mean one million
units in the U.S. alone. It is anticipated that this would double operating profit
margins and return on invested capital above 20 percent of Nissan goals, along with
their sales growth.
        When it comes to marketing strategy, the market in manufacturing is much the
same as it is in any other industry. In order to market successfully you must:


1. Get new products to the market place before competitors.
2. Seize market segments and niches that competitors have overlooked.
3. Do not attack established products and services. This is like attack in an opponent
who holds a fortified position. Bypass these until you have overwhelming advantage.
4. Avoid price wars. Trying to gain market share in a mature market is like fighting a
protracted war.
5. Shorten the distribution chain, or supply line. Cut out unnecessary middleman.


        Nissan, like many Japanese companies have fulfilled most of these aspects of
marketing in the past. However due to the nature of Japanese culture and the way the
Japanese work they have had a substantial success on point 4 and have not needed to
avoid price wars as such.


        In 1998 and throughout the 1980s some Europeans countries resisted the
imports of Japanese cars, by the governments of these countries implementing strict
rules for imports. To some extent this was to stave off the threat of Japanese
competition. Nissan's response in the longer term was to eventually persuade
companies like Spain, France to allow them to build plants and production facilities in
their countries.


        However, by the end of 1998 Nissan had poor financial performance and
needed to evaluate their position. They decided that a global strategy was needed to
capitalise on the potential cost savings and globally flexible production capabilities
that global platforms would allow as part of their rebuilding.




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       Eventually Nissan produced cars prolifically and launched many new models
until the marketplace. This in itself may seem a good thing. However, the result was
that it put a strain on quality control at Canton in the U.S. for example. Another side
effect was that Nissan had to form relationships with more and more suppliers. They
were not Japanese and this led to problems in the early stages. In order to address this
Nissan brought in engineers from Japan to help with the shop floor management.
They also exchange personnel between Canton and Japan in order to enhance the
relationship.


       Other steps Nissan took were to introduce the Nissan integrated manufacturing
system. This integrated suppliers and the logistics operations. Nissan have suppliers
located near to the plants in some cases. This also adds to the efficiency when this is
possible.


       Nissan now have several plants in Europe. As a result of this they need to
improve utilisation. Recently, they introduced a new sport utility vehicle and pick up
in the European market. They claim that overall plant productivity and performance
are in good shape. Their plant in Sunderland U.K. however, is having problems with
costs, due to the current exchange rate between the British pound and the Euro.


       The problem that Japanese car manufacturers are facing in general with regard
to Europe is that they face quota restrictions and the rapid valuation of the yen. The
recommendation to resolve this issue is that they should decentralise management in
their European organisational structure. They should be more flexible in their
management policy. This should help to alleviate some of the problems they have
been experiencing in the European market.


       Nissan have penetrated the European market, but perhaps they have not been
as successful as they could have been. They need to be flexible and organic with
regard to their organisation in Europe. For example, there is no unique shape to any
organisation. The Japanese also believe that there is a one best fit organisational
structure to fit all situations. This is not the case in the complex markets of Europe. It
is recognized that different organisational structures and processes are required for
effectiveness in different environments. Change frequents itself on a regular basis and


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there is a need for flexible organisational designs so that they can be changed on a
gradual basis to keep in line with current situations as and when they happen. In the
past Japanese industry has been caught out by this concept. It is a trait of Japanese
judging by the last 20 years or so that they can be hugely successful, but then when
the environment changes their competitors catch up and the Japanese are then found
wanting.


        Modern industry dictates that there is no a mechanistic form any longer, as
was the case in the past. Organisations need to be more flexible and open. Tasks are
more uncertain and roles are less rigidly defined. It is even the case at employees find
themselves determine their own rules and requirements in some cases.
Communication is more multidirectional, lateral and global if you include aspects of
technology such as the Internet. Decision making is less centralised and is shared by
several levels of managers. Organisations are much more open.


        To summarise the change for Nissan from a European perspective it must be:


A) Organic and decentralised,
B) Dynamic and flexible.
C) Process must be simple and efficient.
D) European companies of Nissan must have more power to set their own marketing
strategies.
E) Their European organisations must be given the freedom to make decisions to
choose or build-up their own distribution channels.


The table in fig 4 shows Nissan’s five year financial situation, as of 2004. This shows
strong, overall growth and a sound financial situation, overall.




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Fig 4. Nissan Europe Five Year Financial Summary




Porter’s Five Force Analysis Summary

       Nissan recognized that their business and traditional values would be in need
of a radical overall, to gain market share in Europe. Hence the improvements stated,
such as the localisation of production and distribution channels in Europe.

   1. Entry of competitors.

   There are many new products, but not many new competitors in the market place
at the moment. The established car manufacturers have been established for years.
This is a very difficult market for new organisations to enter. Although there is the
occasional new electric car hitting the market place now and again, through a new
company. They do not seem to last very long, however.

   2. Threat of substitutes.

   Nissan’s strategy of continual improvement should assist them in surviving the
threat of substitute products. The saturation of the manufacturer market place does not
assist the situation, so the threat of substitutes is very real. However, Nissan are well
equipped to handle it.

   3. Bargaining power of buyers.


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       At the moment the buyer is being provided with a proliferation of alternative
products in the car market. Advertisements show up on the television daily. In terms
of the bargaining power of buyers this is very good as there are so many choices and
products available.
   4. Bargaining power of suppliers.

                Renault-Nissan Purchasing Organisation

               This purchasing organisation, established in 2001 is no one of the key
ways in which Renault and Nissan combine their resources to create a more efficient
organisation. Currently both Nissan and Renault share 60% of the same facts and or
material suppliers.


       This means that Nissan have achieved greater purchasing power and have
served to reduce costs and reduced the bargaining power of suppliers. There still
remain still for the RNPO to decrease costs and provide increased competitive
advantage.


   5. Rivalry among the existing players.

       In total there are now roughly 15 companies trying to compete for market
share. To some extent, Nissan have staved off this particular threat, by focusing on
making their operations more profitable and differentiating themselves from their
competitors by creating unique vehicles. This allows Nissan to maintain their
competitive advantage.

Porter’s Value Chain Analysis Summary

       Nissan's strategy of localisation in the production process has provided a
sound basis for its development in the future. It can also overcome the valuation of the
yen and decrease the risk of currency exchange. Transport expenses are also reduced.
There is also the advantage of a national distribution system. European countries are
also pleased to be able to solve their unemployment problems when new foreign
subsidiaries have built on their patch. From this point of view the marketing strategy
of Nissan Europe is successful and appropriate. By concentrating on beating their




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competitors by investing in the value of their operations, rather than on chasing
market share they are still ahead in the demand stakes. This looks likely to continue.

Nissan SWOT Analysis

       The Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats for Nissan are as
follows:


Strengths


       Manufacturing Process


       One of the key strengths for Nissan Europe is in its manufacturing process and
technology. The company have concentrated efforts on fostering a culture of continual
improvement in many similar ways to Total Quality management (TQM)
(Drummond, 2001). As a result of these efforts, in 2004 Nissan's European operations
were rewarded financially for their culture of improvement. By looking at all the
elements of their workers and machinery they have developed core competencies in
all areas. In 2004 they were awarded the Best factory award in Europe (T&P, 2004).


       Build to Order Advances


       Because Nissan are now so strong and European market there are quantifiable
differences between them and the 'Big Three' (Ford, DaimlerChrysler and General
Motors). Another advantage addition have over the competition is that they can build
to order different vehicles on the same line resulting in no costly inventory
requirements (Treece. 2005).


       Local Management Development Programmes


       Nissan Europe continually invests in their management development
programmes. These focus on increase in both quality and speed of decision-making
(Datamonitor, 2005). This gives Nissan an advantage in that they are providing
coordinated management training. They have rotations of 12 to 18 months to



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incorporate training. They also have high performance benchmarks which each
manager must achieve within this time.
It
       Partnership with Renault


       The partnership with Renault has now reached the point that they now have a
common CEO in Carlos Ghosn. They both share production platforms and IT
infrastructure. The alliance is proving mutually beneficial despite the concerns of
cultural disharmony. The relationship is overseen by seven steering committees.
Nissan and Renault have both been successful in their own right in the past. They are
now merging the competitive advantages that each of them have from their history.
The alliance should ensure that new levels of competitive advantage are achieved and
this is core strength of Nissan.

Weaknesses

       Product Recalls 2004


       It isn't so much of a problem today, but in 2004, Nissan recalled more than 2.5
million cars worldwide and more than 300 million in Europe alone. This was due to
an engine defect. The direct cost was estimated to be EUR1.5 billion. Significant
harm has been done by this event to Nissan Europe's brand image.


       The unfortunate problem was that the engine defect occurred in their diesel
engines. This was their most popular engines in Europe at that time. The government
initiated product recalls, generally lead consumers to believe that any product from
Nissan would be of inferior build quality and has low reliability. This has the added
disadvantage that it may reduce market share. Fortunately no reports of accidents
were caused by the defect in the engines; it looked as a result of this incident Nissan's
image was severely affected.


       Lack of Diesel Technology




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Nissan Business Strategy Report


       Diesel still only counts for 0.4% of vehicles sold in the Japanese market. This
can be contrasted by diesel which is very popular in Europe and is roughly 50% of all
vehicle sold. This percentage is increasing year on year. Hence the number of diesel
cars sold increasing while unleaded sales are in decline. By the end of 2008 it is
expected that the diesel market will account for more than 80% of total vehicle sales
in Europe. Because Nissan's home country has low demand for diesel engines. Nissan
lack the technology and experience to produce diesel engines of comparative quality
for the European market. This is reflected in the market share for Nissan in the diesel
sector sales. This is shown in the diagram below (fig 5) for 2005:


Fig 5. Nissan Share of European Diesel Car Sales (Ricardo Plc., 2005)




Opportunities

       Until recently it was stated that that some eastern and central European nations
have joined the European Union, and are currently undergoing significant economic
growth. As a result of this the demand for non-essential goods such as vehicles is on
the increase. This would normally provide Nissan with a significant opportunity for


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Nissan Business Strategy Report


this in Europe to expand their market presence. Many of Nissan's direct rivals are
currently experiencing large growth in these markets. However, whether it remains to
be so will depend on the pending economic climate which could at any time turned
into recession, it due to the US credit crunch. At the moment it still looks like a good
opportunity for Nissan.


       There are still many countries within Europe awareness and does not have a
presence. While it is prohibitively expensive Nissan to set up new distribution is
within these countries, due to low market share there is the opportunity for Nissan and
Renault to set up a joint distribution network. This will serve to reduce costs for both
Nissan and Renault. It would also serve to gain increased market exposure for Nissan
across Europe.


       Until recently it was stated that that some eastern and central European nations
have joined the European Union, and are currently undergoing significant economic
growth. As a result of this the demand for non-essential goods such as vehicles is on
the increase. This would normally provide Nissan with a significant opportunity to for
this in Europe to expand their market presence. Many of Nissan's direct rivals are
currently experiencing large growth in these markets. However, whether it remains to
be so will depend on the pending economic climate which could at any time turned
into recession, partly due to the US credit crunch. At the moment it still looks like a
good opportunity for Nissan.


       There are still many countries within Europe awareness and does not have a
presence. While it is prohibitively expensive Nissan to set up new distribution is
within these countries, due to low market share there is the opportunity for Nissan and
Renault to set up a joint distribution network. This will serve to reduce costs for both
Nissan and Renault. It would also serve to gain increased market exposure for Nissan
across Europe.


Threats

       Cross-Cultural Disharmony




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       Due to the cultural clash Nissan Europe could find itself faced with a number
of problems in Europe. Nissan and Renault will inevitably become further integrated
with each other. This means that the risk of cross cultural clashes will increase. Nissan
is currently trying to find a way to reduce the likelihood of this happening. It has
come up with a programme called 'Business Way'. However it does take time for
corporate and national culture to change.

       Commodity Prices

       Nissan Europe could incur higher costs because China is now expanding. Over
the past two years the price of steel in Production has risen substantially. There is also
the increase in oil prices to consider which continues unabated. Demand for new
vehicles is now reducing. This threatens Nissan’s viability in the area.

       Competitive Rivalry

       There is currently a high level of competition as rivals attempt to increase their
market share. Europe is an incredibly competitive market with 15 companies trying to
gain market share. As previously discussed because Nissan cars made strides to
concentrate on differentiating themselves from the competition they have alleviated
this threat to some extent. However the threats is always there and should never be
taken lightly from Nissan's point of view.



Nissan Future Strategies
               Nissan are now intending to venture into the East European market.
One of the key challenges in doing this is managing the logistics in countries like
Romania. There are very few major row is and are relatively long supply chain would
exist to consumer markets in Western Europe. It is vital to understand how to supply
and ship goods to and from Romania in an effective manner. This problem could also
occur in other Eastern countries. However, longer term it is Nissan's aim to venture
into the East European market and those countries that are committed to the European
Union, thus fulfilling one of the opportunity is outlined.


               Another venture that is missing is currently considering is to seek new
opportunities in light commercial vehicles. They are also promoting the infinity


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luxury brand on an ongoing basis on a global scale. In addition to this they plan to
increase their market share and continue to follow their current strategy while sorting
out their cultural differences where this is possible.


Recommendations
Based on this report, here are the recommendations we would currently make

regarding Nissan's business strategy.



A) Continue to pursue new markets in Eastern Europe, while focusing less on the

currently saturated Western European markets.



B) Develop the existing alliance's Renault to provide further competitive advantage.

One idea for this would be shared distribution network to increase Nissan's presence

and at the same time reduce costs.



C) Diesel technology is lacking was Nissan are concerned. They should greatly

increase their expenditure on their development of the technology and apply this to

the whole range. If they do not do this with a market potential could fall drastically

and have severe effects on the company.



D) The cultural differences are still a problem in their alliance with Renault. Their

business Way programme seems to address the issue in an adequate way, but there is

no way of measuring the success of this project currently. The process should be

continually reviewed to measure effectiveness and adapts the programmes

accordingly.




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E) Nissan should aim to achieve ISO 9001 accreditation for their European

manufacturing processes. This ensures that they are following this practice. Products

to recall should be limited in both scope and frequency, although since 2004 no

product recalls have occurred.




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References
Papers

Sales and Marketing, Nissan Annual Report 2002

Matt Woolley,Siang (Christine) Low, Joel Irwin, Roslyn Haynie Nissan In Europe
2004


Internet

GoAuto Enews, 2002: Accessed on 25/05/2008, available from:
http://www.theautochannel.com/news/press/date/19980616/press013493.html

Growing Pains: Automative Industry John McCormick, Sep 2004: Accessed on
25/05/2008 available from:
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3012/is_9_184/ai_n6214096

Auto Romania Announcement, 2008, Accessed on 21/05/2008, available from:
http://www.wbr.co.uk/autoromania/full.htm

Wikipedia, 2008, Accessed on 22/05/2008 available from:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nissan

The Art of Marketing, Accessed on 24/05/2008 available from:
http://www.ganesha.org/wos/market.html

Nissan Motor @ Webspawner report, Accessed on 26/05/2008 available from:
http://www.webspawner.com/users/nissanmotor/index.html




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