"Scale and scope"
Access to Knowledge Defining and Measuring Economic, Legal, and Human Capital • Technological access, legal rules, human capital • Methodological considerations – Scale and scope, complexity, diversity, psychology • Possible components of a workable A2K index Jim Chen Dean and Professor of Law University of Louisville Components of A2K • Three core components of A2K: – Technological diffusion – Legal regime – Human capital/educational preparedness • An A2K index should measure all three – The real cost of technologial goods and tools – Rules regarding expression, IP, innovation – Computer interfaces and human languages Methodological considerations • Scale and scope – Comprehensive (GDP/IDP) – Jackknifing (Big Mac) • Complexity – Non-Gaussian models – Fractals v. finite models – Critical mass, tipping points – Dynamism and hysteresis • Diversity v. uniformity – Multiple dimensions of diversity – Network effects • The behavioral psychology of quantitative evaluation Scope and scale: Size does matter • Global indexes capture multiple factors – Comprehensive – Less vulnerable to bias and obsolescence • Local indexes are parsimonious jackknives – Feasible and inexpensive • Examples – CPI v. IPD – Yahoo v. Google – Borges, Precision in Cartography and Science Complexity • A2K deals with complex phenomena – Right-skewed, non-Gaussian distributions • Power laws and fractals are a first step – Good to know emergence and complexity – But avoid falling into “asymptopia” • Finite models: e.g., stretched exponentials • Critical mass and tipping points • Cheap speech and collective intelligence • Dynamic phenomena: e.g., hysteresis Diversity • Multiple dimensions of diversity – Dominance (power) – Heterogeneity (richness) – Equitability (evenness) • Network effects – Human and computer languages – Third-party applications (Window, iPhone) – Wisdom of crowds The behaviorial psychology of quantitative evaluation • Scale, scope carry their own temptations – Norman’s “paradox of technology” applies – Cleverly designed analysis minimizes apparent complexity • Choice of scales – 0 to 1: e.g., HHI (a.k.a. Simpson’s D) – Zero-centered: e.g., z-scores – Unbounded: e.g., GDP per capita • Heisenberg’s complaint A workable A2K index? • Economic indexes of technology and the real costs of its acquisition and diffusion – Overall well-being: GDP per capita – Technology-specific indexes: CPI-ITC – Always apply PPP for global comparisons • Inverse of Engel’s Law as a jackknife – Engel measured food as an inferior good – Discretionary income spent on copyrightables Components of A2K (cont’d) • Legal indexes (reliable ones) – Expressive freedom – Balanced IP policy (innovation’s Laffer curve) – Percentage of foreign origin within a country’s information flow (adjusted for language, etc.) – Degree of repression re: online content • Cultural and educational indexes – Wikipedia articles per native speaker equivalent – Measures of linguistic distance Thank you Jim Chen Dean and Professor of Law University of Louisville Louisville, KY 40292 email@example.com (502) 852-6879 http://www.law.louisville.edu