In 1980 the USA was in the grip of a recession. However in the mid and late 1980s the economy grew steadily. Unemployment was almost 11% in 1982. It fell to 7% in 1985 and 5.5% in 1988. In 1999 it stood at 4.2%. Meanwhile inflation fell from 12.5% in 1980 to 4.4% in 1988. Meanwhile the Cold War came to a sudden end in 1989 when communism collapsed in Eastern Europe. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 leaving the USA the world's only superpower. In the 1990s and effort was made to roll back the welfare state. In 1996 the Welfare Reform Act was passed. In 2008 it was estimated that 12.5% of the US population lived in poverty. Although compared to most of the world the American people enjoy a very high standard of living. In 2001 the USA suffered a terrorist attack but it quickly recovered and remains the world's only superpower. In the late 20th century the population of the USA grew very rapidly, partly due to immigration. Today the population of the USA is 306 million.