International Human Rights Law: Development Scope and Enforcement/Monitoring By Muhammed Tawfiq Ladan ABSTRACT This chapter aims at introducing students to the meaning, impact, development, and scope of international human rights law, regional and domestic mechanisms for the enforcement of international human rights standard. International human rights law is defined as the law that deals with the protection of individuals and groups against violations by governments of their internationally guaranteed rights, and with the promotion of these rights. The branch of the law is sometimes also referred to as international law of human rights or international protection of human rights. Although scholars might disagree over whether one or the other of these labels is more appropriate, here they are used interchangeably. Human rights are a mater of international law, as the rights of humans do not depend on an individual’s nationally and so the protection of these rights cannot be limited to the jurisdiction of any one state. Of course, national protection of human rights is vital, and many states do specifically provide for such protection. Also, both the protection and the enforcement of human rights, as with all international law, can depend on national courts. However, as most breaches of human rights are caused by a state acting against its citizens or against those in its jurisdiction, much of international human rights law operates beyond the national legal system in order to afford redress to those whose human rights are infringed and to provide a standard by which states can be judged objectively. The crux of international human rights law therefore, is to afford legal protection of human rights. To do this it is first necessary to examine briefly the development and impact of international human rights law.
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