When Islam entered Egypt after the defeat of the Romans on the hands of the Arabs, most Egyptians converted to the new religion while some Egyptians remained Christians. The conversion came as a normal result of the Arabs' virtues seen by Egyptians as the touch of Islam on them, in fact conversion happened gradually throughout years of Islamic rule. When Amr Ibn El Aas, the Arabian army leader, conquered the Romans he assured people that their lives and belongings will not be touched, they will be safe in their homes. The Egyptian patriarch was hiding in fear of the Roman suppression because of his beliefs, since the Islamic conquer, he got out of his hiding to practice his authority fearlessly. Actually, Egypt welcomed Arabs as religion callers, peace and good patrons. Amr Ibn El-A'as and his soldiers entered Egypt and struggled with the Romans, who occupied Egypt and Syria and caused their people all sorts of misfortune. That is why, so many of the Egyptians back then, joined the Islamic troops against the Romans, since they found in Islam, the freedom and dignity that they have missed during the Bezantian ages that someone of them said: "The history did not realize more merciful invaders than the Arabs". The commitment of the Egyptians in early ages with Islam, and the engagement of their history with the Islamic ideology, have strengthen the most powerful tie, and strongest relations between them and their faith. The thing that helped them a lot in their struggle against all the hard challenges, and the invaders campaign from tatar and crusades and the escape of the invaders throughout the history. Also, this helped them to maintain their Islamic ideology and the great Islamic culture, heritage and tradition. Amr had chosen Al Fustat as the capital of Islamic Egypt because a canal connected the city to the Red Sea, which provided easy access to the Muslim heartland in the Arabian Peninsula. He initiated construction of Cairo's oldest extant mosque, the Amr ibn al As Mosque, which was completed in 711. On the orders of the Khalif Omar, a town was built beside the fortress of Babylon called Fustat. It was from Fustat, instead of Alexandria, that Egypt was administrated as a province of the Khalifate, first the Khalifs in Medina, then the Ummayyads in Damascus followed by the Abbasids in Baghdad. From the conquest 642 A.D. until 868, Egypt was a province ruled either from Medina, Damascus or Baghdad, but from that time, 868, Egypt gained a sort of an autonomy when two dynasties the Tulunids followed by the Ikhshids ruled Egypt as a separate country until the Fatimids. Egyptian history was intimately involved with the general political development of Islam, whether unified or divided into warring states. Under the Umayyad caliphate many of the people continued their adherence to Coptic Christianity despite the special tax exacted from infidels. Eventually, the settling of colonists from Arabia and the increased conversion of peoples to Islam reduced the Christian population to a small minority. The Greek and Coptic languages went out of use, and Arabic became the predominant language. In 750 AD, Marawan II, the last Umayyad caliph was killed and the city of Al-Fustat was seized by Abbasid general Saleh. The Abbasids are descendents of Al-Abbas, uncle of Prophet Mohamed. They asserted themselves as rulers of the Moslem world in 750 AD and they conducted their rule from Iraq. Driven by their hatred for the Umayyad dynasty on the belief that they represent the legitimacy in ruling Moslems, the Abbasids vigorously fought over the Umayyads. Winning battle after another, they finally seized Al-Fustat, the then Arab capital of Egypt. To disengage themselves from the past they don't recognize, the Abbasids found a new capital to the north of Al- Fustat. The new capital was called Al-Askar. By time the new capital became nothing but a normal extension of Al-Fustat. Abbasids started to lose control over Egypt also because of skirmishes erupted with the Byzantines and inside the army. They attempted to make some reforms by introducing new taxation policies and new administration system. Abbasids began using Turkic war slaves who were very loyal. They used those slaves to tighten grip on territories. However those slaves were preparing to actually rule rather than to be ruled. The emerging power of the Turkic generals led practically to the independence of Egypt under Ahmed ibn Tulun who established the semi- independent Tulunid dynasty in Egypt.