UNEAP English ED 15 04 by KQp8n3l0

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									UPDATED NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION
PLAN 2001

(UNEAP 2001)




Tirane 2001




National Environmental Action Plan
Updated National Environmental Action Plan 2001


Contents                                                                                                                                               Page

        Foreword ........................................................................................................................................ 4
        Working Group .............................................................................................................................. 7
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 1
        Country Profile............................................................................................................................... 1
        Economic development .................................................................................................................. 1
        Environment in Albania ................................................................................................................. 2
1. ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION ................................................................................................ 10
        1.1      The situation in the physical environment ......................................................................... 11
              1.1.1        Air quality ............................................................................................................................ 12
              1.1.2        Water Resources .................................................................................................................. 13
              1.1.3        Management of waste and chemicals .................................................................................. 14
              1.1.4        Land management ................................................................................................................ 15
        1.2      Situation in the build environment .................................................................................... 17
              1.2.1        Population migration ........................................................................................................... 17
              1.2.2        Environmental health ........................................................................................................... 18
              1.2.3        Urban Environment ............................................................................................................. 20
        1.3      Situation in natural areas ................................................................................................... 21
              1.3.1        Forests.................................................................................................................................. 21
              1.3.2        Protected Areas .................................................................................................................... 22
              1.3.3        Bio-diversity ........................................................................................................................ 23
2.      ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT .................................................................................. 25
        2.1      Legal, regulatory and institutional framework .................................................................. 26
              2.1.1        Application of Legal Acts and By-laws ............................................................................... 31
              2.1.2        Scientific research and environmental education................................................................. 31
        2.2      Environmental monitoring ................................................................................................. 32
        2.3      Environmental protection funding ..................................................................................... 33
        2.4      Economic tools for the environment .................................................................................. 34
        2.5      Privatization and environmental responsibilities ............................................................... 35
        2.6      International co-operation.................................................................................................. 36
        2.7      Public awareness and participation .................................................................................... 37
3.      NEAP UPDATE – OVERVIEW............................................................................................... 39
        31       The Need for an updated NEAP ........................................................................................ 39
        3.2      Methodology for NEAP update ......................................................................................... 39
        3.3      Objectives of UNEAP........................................................................................................ 40
        3.4      Identification of Priority Actions ....................................................................................... 40
        3.5      Discussion on the costs and benefits.................................................................................. 41
4.      ACTION PLAN COMPONENTS ............................................................................................ 43
        4.1 Integrated environmental management and main elements of the Action Plan. ................ 43
        4.2 Policies and Program Development................................................................................... 44
        Actions and projects ..................................................................................................................... 44
        4.3 Improvement and completion of the legal framework....................................................... 58
        4.4 Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building ............................................................ 59
        4.5 Directions of priority investments ..................................................................................... 60
        4.6 Public Information and Awareness .................................................................................... 62
        4.7 Environment and poverty reduction .................................................................................. 63
5.      EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACTION PLAN ........................................... 64


National Environmental Action Plan
     5. 1   Public awareness and participation of concerned parties .................................................. 64
     5.2    Institutional organization ................................................................................................... 64
     5.3    Financing ........................................................................................................................... 65
     5.4    Risks and mitigation measures .......................................................................................... 66
     5.5    Monitoring and Evaluation ................................................................................................ 67




National Environmental Action Plan
Foreword

The National Environmental Action Plan is the basic document that presents the governmental
policy in the area of environmental protection. The ultimate goal of its development, approval and
implementation is to meet the constitutional obligation towards the citizens who have the right to a
healthy ecological environment. It is aimed at a rational use of natural resources, as well as the
prevention and control of cross-border pollution and damage of the global environment.

The updated National Environmental Action Plan is not a repetition of the National Environmental
Action Plan, approved by the Government of Albania in 1994. It starts from the achievements in
Albania, the shortcomings and present national environmental problems, the regional and global
tendency in the environmental policies and respective action plans, the consideration of the
environmental protection as a national priority and the increase of awareness of the decision-
makers, public and community. Based on these considerations this plan establishes a series of
important tasks and responsibilities for many actors, whose successful fulfillment and
implementation will evidently improve the environmental situation at a low cost.

Some of the main directions for this Plan to achieve the abovementioned objective are:

- design of the environmental sectoral policies and the implementation of the respective action
         plans,
- strengthening of the national system of environmental management with all its components,
- preservation, development and sustainable utilization of the natural resources,
- increase of utilization of renewable resources compared to the non-renewable resources,
- completion and approximation of the legal regulatory framework with the European framework,
         and its enforcement,
- increase of the gradual transfer of natural resource management process to the community,
- strengthening of the role of the public and civil society,
- sustainable rehabilitation of the hot spots and sensitive environmental areas,
- promotion and education of prevention practices compared to the corrective ones,
- need for an environmental impact assessment for different activities,
- environmental strategic evaluation for plans, programs and policies,
- meeting of the obligations resulting from the membership in international agreements and the
         active participation in regional and global environmental programs,
- active involvement of the local government in the area of the environmental and the increase of
         their legal responsibilities,
- active participation in pan-European and global environmental processes,
- establishment of inter-ministerial monitoring structures in the field of environmental protection,
- strengthening of the inspectorates that promote the environmental protection, the preparation of
         environmental information and the increase of the access level for it by all the interested
         parties,
- promotion of clean production technologies,
- environmental education in schools,
- public awareness for environmental protection,
- urban administration that includes the treatment of urban discharges, and
- urban planning.

Every main direction is detailed into necessary activities to be implemented and monitored.

An important element of this document is presented through the analysis of the potential financial
resources, needed for its implementation. For the period 2001-2005 also, the main source in the
field of environmental management remains foreign technical and financial assistance.
Nevertheless, it is required that the support from the state budget for this sector increases
considerably, especially in relation to the rehabilitation of the sensitive environmental areas, the
national system of environmental management, monitoring of the environment and establishment
of the environmental data base, institutional strengthening at central and local level, the

National Environmental Action Plan
preservation and development of natural resources and the environmental infrastructure projects, as
well as the territorial planning taking into consideration the required environmental protection
measures.

The process of preparation of the NEAP 2001 coincided in time with the preparation of the
Strategy for poverty reduction and economical growth. This allowed for inclusion into this very
important document of the environmental dimension and elements of sustainable development.
Symmetrically, NEAP got from the strategy

The process of preparation of NEAP 2001 coincided in time with the preparation of the economic
development and poverty alleviation strategy. This timing offered the possibility for joint
consultation between both teems resulting in the inclusion in the economic development and
poverty alleviation strategy of environmental dimension. By doing so this very important document
incorporated the concept of sustainable development in it. On the other hand, this process had its
impact on the NEAP preparation itself by making possible that environmental protection was not
seen as stand alone objective, but also as a way for economic development and improving people’s
lives.

This plan requires the establishment of a steering committee, as a permanent body with the highest
level of representation of the ministries that have important duties in the implementation of this
plan, and that of the public and civil society. The secretariat of this committee can be MoE, and its
main role would be to oversee and assist the implementation of this plan.

Ministry of Environment has the pleasure to thank all people involved in the preparation of NEAP
2001. This document represents the successful collaboration between MoE, central institutions and
civil society. We are especially thankfully to the technical and financial assistance of EU that made
possible the preparation of this document in the framework of the PHARE program, Country
Operational program 1997, institutional strengthening component.
The preparation of this plan was coordinated by NEA, today Ministry of Environment, and was
directed by the Inter-Ministerial Committee headed by vice Minister.
National Action Plan for the Environment 2001 is the most important governmental document in
the field of environmental protection and comes at a time when environmental protection has
obtained a important place in the government and public attention. In this days its clear for all
people that the protection of the environment it is not a luxury but an essential need for achieving a
long lasting economic and social development for the present and future generations.




                                          Lufter Xhuvelli

                                      Minister of Environment




National Environmental Action Plan
                                     List of Abbreviations

   1.    AAP          Anglo-Albanian Oil Company
   2.    ASL          Above Sea Level
   3.    CGS          Center for Geographic Studies
   4.    CIDA         Canadian International Development Agency
   5.    CM           Council of Ministers
   6.    DFID         Foreign Department for International Development
   7.    DHE          Directorate of Hygiene and Epidemiology
   8.    ECAT         Environmental Center for Administration and Technology
   9.    EIA          Environmental Impact Assessment
   10.   EU           European Union
   11.   GDFP         General Directorate of Forests and Pastures
   12.   GDP          Gross Domestic Production
   13.   INSTAT       Institute of Statistics
   14.   IPH          Institute of Public Health
   15.   ISS          Institute of Soil Studies
   16.   LEAP         Local Environmental Action Plan
   17.   MAF          Ministry of Agriculture and Food
   18.   MECT         Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Trade
   19.   MF           Ministry of Finance
   20.   MH           Ministry of Health
   21.   MJ           Ministry of Justice
   22.   MNS          Museum of Natural Sciences
   23.   MPEP         Ministry of Public Economy and Privatization
   24.   MPW          Ministry of Public Works and tourism
   25.   MT           Ministry of Transport
   26.   MoE          National Environmental Agency
   27.   NGO          Non-Governmental Organization
   28.   REC          Regional Environmental Center
   29.   UNDP         United Nations Development Program
   30.   UNEAP        Updated National Environmental Action Plan
   31.   UNEP         United Nations Environmental Program
   32.   UT           University of Tirana
   33.   SIDA         Swedish International Development Agency
   34.   WB           World Bank
   35.   WHO          World Health Organization




National Environmental Action Plan
Working Group

MoE is grateful to the Inter-ministerial Group, Thematic Groups, Core Group, NGOs, the Co-
coordinator, all institutions and experts involved for their valuable contribution to the preparation
of the UNEAP.


Coordinator of UNEAP: Prof. Assoc. Dr. Lirim Selfo, MoE


Members of Inter-ministerial Group:

1.   Ms. Makbule Çeço, Deputy Chair of Council of Ministers, Chairperson
2.   Dr. Tatjana Hema, National Environmental Agency, Deputy Chairperson
3.   Mr. A. Çaçi, Ministry of Public Works
4.   Prof. Dr. Vjollca Ibro, Ministry of Food and Agriculture
5.   Mr. Gjergj Koja, Ministry of Health
6. Z. Viktor Doda, Ministria e Ministry of Public Economy and Privatization
7. Z. Blendi Klosi, Ministry of Local Government
8. Z. Sokol Tona, Ministry of Justice
9. Znj. Adriana Berberi, Ministry of Finance
10. Z. Marko Bello, Ministria e Mbrojtjes
11. Z. Engjell Skreli Ministry of Economic Collaboration and Trade
12. Ermal Mulosmani, Ministry of Transport
13. Z. Kolë Malaj, General Director of Forests and Pastures
14. Z. Leke Gjiknuri, Protection and Preservation of Natural Environment (NGO)
15. Znj. Alma Bako, Ministry of Environment

Core Group:

1. Dr. Tatjana Hema, Chairperson of National Environmental Agency, President
2. Prof. Dr. Dhimitër Haxhimihali, University of Tirana
3. Prof. Asoc. Dr. Lirim Selfo, National Environmental Agency

Thematic Groups

1. Air, Water, Waste

1. Dr. Majlinda Vasjari, MoE                    Chairperson
2. Mr. Petraq Krastafillaku, MPEP
3. Mr. Rikard Shllaku, MoE
4. Mr. Agim Hysko, MPW
5. Mr. Kushtrim Aliko, MT
6. Mr. Arben Maloku, MT
7. Prof. Dr. Elmaz Shehu, NGO
8. Prof. Dr. Alqi Çullaj, NGO

2. Bio-diversity

1. Dr. Zamir Dedej, MoE                         Chairperson
2. Prof. Asoc. Dr. Vasil Marku, MAF

National Environmental Action Plan
3.   Mr. Nihat Dragoti, GDFP
4.   Dr. Roland Kristo, MAF
5.   Prof. Asoc. Dr. Përparim Laze, ISS
6.   Dr. Ferdinand Bego, MNS

3.   Institutional Strengthening and Legal Framework
1.   Prof. Asoc. Dr. Bajram Mejdiaj, MoE        Chairperson
2.   Mr. Enio Haxhimihali, MJ
3.   Ms. Madalena Rroco, MoE
4.   Mr. Petraq Krastafillaku, MPEP

4.   Health and Environment
1.   Dr. Petrit Vasili, MH                     Chairperson
2.   Ms. Marita Selfo, MH
3.   Mr. Agim Shehi, MH
4.   Mr. Jorgo Kosta, MH
5.   Mr. Arben Luzati, IPH
6.   Mr. Kujtim Zazo, DHE

5.   Sustainable Development, Public Participation
1.   Ms. Drita Dade, MoE                        Chairperson
2.   Ms. Marjeta Mima, ECAT-Tirana
3.   Dr. Mihallaq Qirjo, REC-Tirana

6. Funding for Environment and Financial Instruments
1. Dr. MSc. Narin Panariti, AAP               Chairperson
2. Prof. Asoc. Dr. Vasilika Kume, UT
3. Mr. Xhafer Baloshi, MF
4. Mr. Trajan Vasili, MoE

7. Environmental Projects
1. Ms. Violeta Zuna, MoE                       Chairperson
2. Ms. Ermira Basha, MoE
3. Ms. Adela Franja, MECT

8. Population and Urban Development
1. Prof. Dr. Arqile Bërxholi, CGS              Chairperson
2. Ms. Alma Bako, MoE
3. M. Sc. Merita Dollma, CGS
4. Prof. Dr. Mevlan Kabo, CGS
5. Prof. Asoc. Dr. Dhimitër Doko, UT




National Environmental Action Plan
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Country Profile

The Republic of Albania is situated in South Eastern Europe, in the western part of the Balkan
Peninsula, facing the Adriatic and Ionic Sea on the west. Its surface is 28,748 km² with a population
of 3,373 million inhabitants (1999). Administratively, it is organized in 12 prefectures, 36 districts
(plus Tirana municipality that has a district status), 74 towns and 2,985 villages.

Albania borders north and north-east with Montenegro and Kosova, east with the Former
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and south-east and south with Greece. The overall length of its
borders is 1,094 km, of which 657-km are land borders, 316 km sea, 48 km are river borders and
73 km are lake borders. The coastal line is 427 km long, 273 km is the sandy Adriatic coast (70%
of the coast - sandy) and 154 km of the rocky Ionian Coast (30% of the coast – rocky).

The average altitude is 708.5 m ASL, which means that from the topographical and morphological
viewpoint, the country has a hilly-mountainous relief. Forests occupy 36% of the surface, pastures
over 16% and the arable land about 24%. The surface occupied by the protected areas (PA) is
109,000 ha or 3.7 % of the territory.

Albania is one of the richest countries of Europe in water resources, nevertheless, the per capita
consumption of water is still very low. About 33% of the catchment area of all rivers is situated
outside the Albanian state territories representing a rare case in the world regarding the
international border waters.

Although Albania is a small country, it is known for its rich biological diversity and its typical
landscape. The highest point is 2,751 m ASL (Korabi mountain), whereas the lowest point 8 m
BSL is found in the ex-marshland of Tërbufi. The great landscape diversity and different
microclimates associated with them have shaped the conditions for the existence and preservation
of a number of relic, endemic and sub-endemic species.

The climate of Albania is Mediterranean. The average annual temperature oscillates between 16-
17°C in the coastal area to around 7°C in the mountainous areas in the north. The average annual
rainfall throughout the country is 1430 mm. In Albania, unlike the other Mediterranean countries,
the distribution of the rainfall differs very much in various areas. The average of solar energy that
the Albanian soil receives is estimated to be 2,107 kWh/m2.

Economic development

Before 1990, the industry accounted for the biggest share of GDP – about 58%. After the
beginning of the transition period, the industrial production decreased considerably due to the
closure of the main branches of the heavy industry. In 1998 and 1999, the share of the industrial
production in GDP was 11.9%, whereas the share of agricultural production was 54.5% and 52.6%
respectively (current prices).

The mid-term economic program 1993-1996 was successful in stabilizing the main economic
indicators. The success was short-lived due to the deep economic crisis of 1997-1998
characterized by a quick fall of all the economic indicators.

After the distortion of macroeconomic balances in 1997, the economic policies implemented by
the Albanian authorities - in close co-operation and with the support of the international
institutions -have aimed at re-establishing the balances that guarantee the appropriate environment
for a steady economical growth. Despite the measures taken by the government, the budget deficit,
unemployment, lack of foreign investments, fiscal evasion, corruption, etc., remain items of
concern.

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
One of the important ways of reviving the Albanian economy is the continuation of public sector
restructuring. The drafted Program for Public Investments 1998-2001 responds better to the
priorities of the Albanian economy. It aims at the priority interventions for the stabilisation after
the crisis, as well as the creation of basic infrastructure for a stable and sustainable economic
development.


Environment in Albania

At the beginning of the transition period the accumulated damage to the environment due
to unsustainable environmental practices of the centralized economy become quite visible
and occupied a important position in the public opinion. The Committee of Environmental
Protection (CEP) was established, a modern environmental legal system started to be
created, the first NEAP was prepared and e series of environmental projects and studies
were carried out with the financial help of the international donors. Despite the promising
start environmental movement lost momentum as result of economical hardships and
social and political unrest and that followed. The war in Kosovo also had its own impact
in further lowering the profile of the environmental issues in Albania.
Recently the Albanian Government has been turning its attention again towards
environmental issues. In 1998 CEP was transformed into National Environmental Agency
(NEA) that was reporting directly to the Prime Minster. This important step forward
increased the profile of environmental administration in Albania and paved the way for the
creation of the Ministry of the Environment on September 2001.

The role played by the environmental NGOs has steadily increased and the same can be said for
the time and space allotted to the environment into the public media. Nevertheless, the awareness
of public and business community is still low and the impact of the NGOs on the public life is
small.




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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
The environmental situation

The use of the natural resources of the country, during transition period has continued to be
unsustainable. The existing institutions lack human and financial resources as well as the
necessary experience for an effective management of the broad spectrum of environmental
problems. The legal and regulatory framework, despite the improvements in recent years, still does
not meet the demands whereas the monitoring and enforcement capacities are poor. The pressure
of the human activities on the environment is visible in all sectors.

The unplanned development of the cities under the conditions of a fast development of private
activities accompanied by the uncontrolled interventions in the existing infrastructure has had a
negative impact in the public health. The creation of new population centers and the fast growth of
the existing ones has put a huge pressure on the already derelict infrastructure exacerbating old
problems such as drinking water and sewer network overloads, lack of management schemes for
urban waste and contamination of soil and groundwater. The loss of bio-diversity, damage of
forests and land erosion have reduced the availability of natural resources that generate material
goods.

In summary, the main issues regarding the environmental situation are:

▪   Degradation of bio-diversity (loss of fauna and flora), deforestation
▪   Soil erosion
▪   Specific sectoral problems (pollution of surface and ground waters, air and soil pollution)
▪   The presence of hot spots with respect to pollution
▪   Shortcomings in the legal and institutional framework
▪   Low level of environmental awareness among the public and the institutions


National Environmental Action Plan 2001
The first NEAP was prepared in 1993 based on the earlier document of National Environmental
Strategy prepared with the assistance of foreign donors. Based on a detailed analysis of this
strategy, NEAP determined the duties and responsibilities of Albanian ministries and institutions
which activities impacted the environment.
From the very beginning NEAP was considered as an ever-evolving document representing the
development of the country. Keeping in mind the lessons learned during the implementation of
the first NEAP now it’s the time for preparation of a new NEAP.
NEA/MoE coordinated the preparation of the NEAP 2001 with the financial help of
PHARE program. The new NEAP is the result of coordinated effort of several thematic
groups from different Albanian ministries and institutions. It displays the process of
achieving the collective agreement on the environmental priorities and establishing a
continuous collaborative framework for the accomplishment of short, medium and long-
term goals through a series of preventive and reparative actions. The plan delineates key
measures to be taken for institutional strengthening, investment programs, and increased
public awareness. At the same it revaluates possibilities for mobilizing the necessary
resources needed for its successful implementation.

Objectives of the Action Plan
The main objective of the Action Plan is to provide the basis for ensuring an integrated form of
environmental management that optimizes the utilization of natural resources taking into account
environmental and economic sustainability. It aims at making environmental management more
effective by improving the institutional capacities, mitigating and preventing environmental
problems, strengthening the basis for the utilization of natural resources in conformity with the
principle of sustainable development, promoting economic growth and reducing poverty.
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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
The expected results from the implementation of the Plan are:

▪  Strengthened institutional capacities
▪  Improvement of the legal framework and its enforcement
▪  Prevention and mitigation of environmental problems
▪  Improvement of the environmental situation
▪  Reduction of the present level of poverty
▪  Participation of the public and business community in sustainable environmental management,
  as well as poverty reduction
▪ Increase of public participation in environmental protection
▪ Creation of conditions for the membership of the country to the European Union (EU)

Plans and actions to be taken for the implementation of environmental projects, policies, legal,
regulatory and institutional framework, capacity building, public participation and investment are
divided into three phases.
The plan will be implemented in a 5-year period and consists in:
         Short-term projects of relatively low cost, which can be considered as a pre-condition
            for implementation of the Plan.
         Mid-term projects of low or medium cost, many of which are included in the on-going
            economical programs.
         Long-term projects of medium or high cost, which are linked with considerable
            investments that do not have accurate estimates due to lack of feasibility studies for
            specific projects.

Main areas of the Action Plan

The Action Plan supports activities in the following areas:
1Development of policies and programs
a. General strategy for sustainable development:
   Based on the assessment of the overall economic, social and environmental situation in the
   country, the directions of development, through integration of environmental protection into
   sectoral policies are to be determined.


B Strategy of Sustainable Agriculture:
   - Analysis of the existing situation
   - Application of practices that promote ecological agriculture
   - Application of the system of integrated protection of plants

C Strategy for environmental monitoring:
   - Improvement and completion of the legal and regulatory framework for environmental
      monitoring
   - Identification of environmental indicators, driving forces, environmental pressures and
      status, impact and response.
   - Design of the national environmental monitoring program and assessment of the costs of its
      implementation

d. Strategy for managing the abandoned industries:
   - Assessment of environmental and health risks
   - Identification of measures and their classification according to priorities
   - Design of programs for controlling, eliminating and monitoring pollution

e. Strategy and Action Plan for the development of sustainable transport:
    - Analysis of the present situation and identification of problems

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
    - Improvement and completion of the legal framework
    - Determining directions for the development of a sustainable transport system

f   Strategy for sustainable tourism:
    - Inventory of tourist areas
    - Their classification according to the characteristics of the natural landscapes and their
       capacity
    - Determining areas where the environmental protection is a priority
    - Design of action plans for the priority tourist areas

g. Strategy development for public information and participation

h.. Strategy and Action Plan for land protection against erosion:
    - Analysis of existing situation and identification of priority actions
    - Completion of the legal framework

i. Strategy for the co-operation with business associations and introduction of environmental
    management systems into the economic activities:
    - Promotion of the organisation of businesses into professional associations
    - Capacity building in the field of environmental management of business and introduction of
       cleaner technologies
    - Determining the directions of co-operation and commitment of the business to
       environmental protection and sustainable development

j. Strategy and Action Plan for sewage treatment in urban areas:
    - Assessment of the situation and performance of this sector
    - Identification of the main problems and their solution

k Strategy and Action Plan for sustainable management of urban waste and sewage in rural areas:
   - Assessment of the present situation, improvement of legal and institutional framework
   - Design and implementation of demonstration projects

l. Development of programs for the implementation of water strategy:
   - Completion and improvement of legal and institutional framework
   - Inventory of water resources and their present use
   - Design of sustainable management plans for some watersheds

m. Strategy and Action Plan for the management of hazardous, industrial and medical waste:
   - Preparation of an inventory of hazardous wastes
   - Assessment of environmental and health risk by hazardous waste and its monitoring
   - Improvement of the legal and institutional framework

n. National program for banning substances that deplete the ozone layer:
   - Identification of sectors that use ozone depleting substances
   - Defining measures for replacing the ozone depleting substances

o. Design of the Strategy and Action Plan for sustainable management of wetlands:
   - Inventory of wetlands at country level
   - Analysis of bio-diversity and social-economic values
   - Assessment of their situation and the guidelines for the sustainable use

p. Program for safe closure of hazardous urban and industrial waste sites that pose a health risk:
   - Inventory of discharges of urban and industrial waste
   - Situation assessment
   - Determining the measures based on the environmental health impact

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
q. Strategy for natural disaster protection:
    - Situational analysis and identification of endangered areas
    - Improvement and completion of the legal and institutional framework
    - Determining of the organisational and technical measures

r. Strategy and Action Plan for physical territorial planning:
   - Situational analysis and assessment regarding land use
   - Preparation of the legal and institutional framework
         Design of action plans for the most problematic areas that rich in development assets

s. Development of local environmental action plans:
   - Assessment of environmental situation at local level
   - Identification of priorities and solutions
   - Development of the partnership between local government and NGOs

t. Strategy for the control of gases that cause climate change:
   - Preparation of the inventory of greenhouse gases
   - Guidelines for the control of greenhouse gases

II. Improvement and completion of the legal framework

The actions proposed aim at completing and improving the environmental legal and regulatory
framework. The proposed actions address sectoral problems and prepare the legal basis for
orienting the economic and social developments towards sustainability. The specific actions
include:

Amendment of several basic laws to incorporate the principle of sustainable development and
environmental protection (Penal Code, Civil Code, Law on Local Governments, etc.)
Drafting of the New Environmental Protection Law
Completion and further improvement of legal framework and EU approximation. In this context draft
laws that need to be prepared in the short-medium term are:
     Air protection and the standards for gas emissions
     Protection of land from pollution and erosion
     Water protection and standards for liquid effluent discharges
     Environmental impact assessment
     Environmental information
     Protected areas
     Biodiversity
     Waste management
     Protection of marine environment
     Industrial accidents
     Treatment of urban waste
     Burning of waste
     Coastal Area
     Management of dangerous chemicals

-   Improvement and completion of legal and regulatory framework on:
    - Liberalization of fuel prices
    - Introduction of carbon tax for vehicle fuels
    - Introduction of charges for gaseous, liquid and solid industrial discharges
    - Amendment of the law on taxation and other laws that provide for financial instruments
       and the introduction of taxes for the environmental rehabilitation of mining areas


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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
III Institutional strengthening and capacity building

   The goal of the proposed activities is to build the institutional capacity for management of
   environmental issues at central and local level.

a. Strengthening of MoE :
    - Increase of capacities in drafting the policies and legal documents and for environmental
       management
    - Improvement of the vertical and horizontal co-ordination within the structure of the
       Ministry
    - Capacity building and development of inter-sect oral collaboration
    - Strengthening of the international relations unit
    - Organization of the Inspectorate for Environmental Protection and making it operational, as
       a separate unit under the Ministry of Environment
     Training of the structures responsible for the development of local environmental policies
        and legislation
     Improvement of the project cycle from conception, financing, implementation and
        monitoring
     Establishment of a Center for Environmental Studies and Sustainable development
     Strengthening the control on enforcement of the environmental legislation by MoE, central
        institutions and local government

b. Establishment and strengthening of environmental protection units at the central institutions:
   - Training of the structures for the development of environmental sectoral policies and
       legislation drafting

c. Establishment and strengthening of environmental protection units in the local government
   bodies:

d. Strengthening of environmental monitoring institutions:
    - Strengthening the units for environmental monitoring in the responsible institutions
    - Implementation of the environmental monitoring strategy
    - Development of a coordinated pollution control system
    - Establishment of the monitoring networks for air, water, land, industrial pollution, erosion,
       etc.
E. Establishment of the National Council for Sustainable Development:
    - Establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial structure, in the Council of Ministers, for
       drafting, coordinating and controlling the implementation of the sustainable development
       policies.
    - Drafting of the respective legal framework

f. Establishment of a center for cleaner technologies:
   -


IV. Priority investments

Based in the policies for environmental protection and in compliance with the legal framework and
institutional capacity priority investments will be oriented mainly towards protecting biodiversity,
sustainable management of natural resources, improvement of the urban and rural infrastructure,
poverty alleviation, improvement of environmental quality and public participation.

1.Programs for sustainable management of watersheds:
   - A series of demonstration projects regarding the sustainable management of waters,
      agriculture production, animal farming, orchard-farming and forestry

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   - Implementation of projects to reduce erosion, regenerate the degraded forests, preserve the
      hydrologic balance and increase the agricultural, animal and fruit production
   - Development and introduction of integrated practices to combat pests and diseases of
      agricultural crops in selected areas
   - Encouragement of activities that reduce poverty and protect the environment
   - Feasibility studies and management plans for Prespa and Shkodra lakes and watersheds of
      Drin, Shkumbin and Vjosë rivers.
2 Forestry programs/programs for the Management of Biological Diversity:
   - Introduction of sustainable environmental practices for forest exploitation
   - Establishment of forest nurseries, private or state-owned
   - Reforestation of the areas under the threat of ecological damage
   - Regeneration of the illegally cut forests
   - Regeneration of degraded forests
   - Inventory of forests and bio-diversity
   - Development and introduction of integrated practices to combat forest pests and diseases in
      the most problematic areas
   - Urban forestry activities, including restoration of forests in urban areas that were cut during
      the transition years
   - Introduction of private forestry and pasture activities: creation of private forests and
      pastures
   - Strengthening the effectiveness of forestry service to prevent illegal cutting
   - Increase of the inventory of communal forests and pasture land

3. Mitigation of flooding and its effects in some areas of the country:
   - Preparation of a land improvement plan and the technical-economical assessment for an
      improvement program divided into stages

4 Improvement of solid waste management:
   - Improvement of the collection and transport system for municipal waste through training of
      personnel and supply of necessary equipment
   - Closure of dumping sites for municipal waste representing environmental hazard.
   - Construction of sanitary landfills of waste, starting with those cities that already have
      studies and projects prepared (Shkodër, Lezhë, Elbasan, Fier, Pogradec, Korçë), as well as
      for the cities Tiranë-Durrës
   - Safe closure of the old urban waste sites in those cities where the new landfills will be
      constructed

5 Improvements in the Water Supply Service as a first level priority in the cities Tiranë, Durrës,
  Elbasan, Vlorë, Shkodër, Fier, Korçë, Berat, and after that in other cities (Kukës, Lezhë, Krujë,
  Kavajë, Lushnjë, Pogradec, Gjirokastër, Sarandë, Has):
  - Reduction of water losses in the distribution network
  - Improvements of the disinfection process of potable water
  - Measures to avoid penetration of sewage waters into the potable water network
  - Increase of potable water quantity
  - Improvement of the management capabilities an day to day functioning of water and
     sewerage enterprises
6 Improvements in the sewerage networks and the treatment of waste waters:
  - Completion of the rehabilitation of sewerage system in Tiranë, Durrës, Korçë, Krujë, Vlorë,
     Sarandë, Lezhë, Kavajë, Shkodër, Gjirokastër, etc.
  - Construction of the sewage treatment plants in the cities with priority regarding
     environmental impacts of pollution: Vlorë, Pogradec, Sarandë, Shkodër e Lezhë, Kavajë,
     Krujë, Korçë
  - Design and construction of the sewerage and collector system for the beach area Durrës-
     Golem


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7 Plans for improving urban management:
  - Redrawing of urban plans for the cities following the present and future economical and
      social developments
  -    Preparation of action plans for interventions in the new and uncontrolled suburban
      developments outside city lines.
  - Development of programs for the rehabilitation of the industrial sites polluted by past
     activities that are close to important urban centers and/or areas of special ecological
     importance. Such sites are: PVC plant in Vlora, the Copper Processing Plants in Rubik and
     Laç, and the former Chemical Plant in Durres
  - Development of institutional capacities for management and urban planning within the
     Tirana municipality
  - Financing of basic infrastructure development in recently developed suburb areas of Tirana
     Municipality (Bathore, Laprakë, Kamzë)

V. Public Information and Awareness

The main activities foreseen in this field are:

1. Design of the National Strategy for public information and awareness
2. National Center of environmental information made fully operational
3. Capacity building to develop the process of public participation in the field of environmental
   assessment and decision-making
4. Training programs with representatives of central and local government, interested parties and
   civil society, regarding the public participation in the design of policies, development plans,
   monitoring activities and EIA
5. Integration of environmental aspects in education programs at all levels
6. Financial support for NGOs, in order to increase their activity and the quality of work in the
   area public awareness
7. Preparation of National Communication Programs for:
   -Water management
   -Waste management
   -Bio-diversity management
   -Development of the sustainable forestry
   -Training of journalists in the area of management of environmental problems

Securing an effective implementation of the Action Plan

A fundamental condition for the successful implementation of the Plan is a continuous political
and financial commitment together with the public support. Achieving the objectives of the Plan
and meeting its requirements asks for the commitment of the Government through legal changes,
institutional arrangements and respective financing. The successful implementation of NEAP,
beside public participation, depends on the active participation of the different parties involved in
its implementation. Interested parties have actively participated in the preparation process and are
expected to do so throughout the implementation process of the Plan.
The main responsibility for implementation of NEAP rests with the MoE. The co-ordination of the
specific activities foreseen in the Program will be the responsibility of a specifically created unit
within MoE. The executive responsibility for different activities will rest on different institutions
and will include several ministries. An inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral level Steering
Committee should be created chaired by the Deputy Chairperson of the Council of Ministers. The
Secretariat of the Committee will be left to MoE. The task of the Steering Committee will be the
analysis of policies and the monitoring of the NEAP implementation. Each of the ministries
involved will appoint a coordinator responsible for directing the specific projects.

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     Funding and International Co-operation with other organizations

     Although the Albanian Government recognizes the environmental problems that country is facing,
     spending for the environmental has not been among the national priorities. This can be first
     explained by the shortage in public funds and second by failing to identify and show to the
     Ministry of Finance the economics of the environment i.e costs and benefits related to
     environmental deterioration or improvement.
     Up till now, public funds for the environment have been allocated mainly for covering the
     administrative costs of MoE and its regional branches. The funds allocated for environmental
     investment are totally inadequate even for accomplishing environmental baseline monitoring and
     equipping of regional branches. The underdeveloped banking system combined with the economic
     instability (expressed in high interest rates in banking loans) makes virtually impossible to invest
     into environmental activities that have a long payback time. Due to reduced public funding and
     lack of other sources of financing there is strong need for prioritizing future interventions in the
     field of environment. Another source of environmental finding are user fees and charges.
     Nevertheless, up till now, the income generated through this mechanism goes directly to the state
     budget with the exception of the cleaning tax that goes to the local budget.
     In this situation, environmental taxes (Eco-taxes) remain the safest source of internal
     environmental income for the near future. These new taxes should not have negative effects on the
     economy , instead, they should have a progressive effect by stirring economy and public attitude
     towards more environmentally benign practices. The Eco-tax and eco charges must be
     accompanied by compensating measures, e.g. reduction of other taxes (regarding labor, income,
     etc.).

     In the future of financial resources will be focused on investment of mutual profit such as those
     that increase production output and at the same time bringing in environmental gains, such as
     investments on new technology. It will be encouraged the involvement of small and medium
     private enterprises in activities that protect the environment.

     Due to the economic transition and the very high demand for limited natural resources it is
     impossible to have in short and medium run big environmental investments without foreign
     partners or cofinancing.
     There is potential for increasing the role of the international donors although this would ask for a
     increase in the internal public spending for the environment in order to provide the proper
     infrastructure able to absorb the bigger flux of foreign money. At the present in Albania are a good
     number of environmental activities financed by donors and implemented by MoE. The technical
     and financial help comes from a series of collaborating programs of the EU, UNEP, UNDP, GEF,
     and international financing institutions such as World Bank Group, EBRD as well several private
     foundations. The first step in increasing the efficiency of the environmental financing is the
     preparation of the new NEAP that clearly identifies the priorities for environmental investment.
     These priories serve as the basis for the selection of projects to be financed from internal or
     foreign donors.

1. ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION

     At the beginning of the transition period, as a result of the serious adverse environmental impacts
     of a centralized economic development, the political attention for the environment and its
     protection was high. During this time, emphasis was mainly placed on the creation and
     strengthening of the institutional structure dealing with the environmental protection on central
     and regional level, the creation of a new effective legal framework, the development of sustainable
     policies, the adherence into a series of agreements and the co-operation in international
     environmental protection programs. The establishment of central and regional environmental
     protection structure constituted an important achievement, especially when considering the fact

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      that Albania lacked in the past almost any institutional and legal experience in the field of
      environment.

      Lately a number of projects with foreign and state budget funding have been implemented,
      including various feasibility studies, development and implementation of management plans,
      design of strategic documents for the management of natural resources, coastal areas management
      plans, etc. Nevertheless, the financial support for the environmental sector through the state budget
      is limited.

1.1   The situation in the physical environment
      The development of the economic activities and the difficult transition towards the market
      economy has put a strong pressure on the environment.

      The responsible governmental institutions without the necessary professional experience and
      without sufficient financial resources have not been able to sustainably manage all environmental
      problems. Despite the achievements to date, the present legal framework is still inadequate and is
      not being rigorously enforced.

      The unplanned urban development, the unsustainable consumption pattern, the lack of economic
      incentives for preservation, development and utilization of natural resources, the inherited
      historical pollution, the uncontrolled migration of people, the ineffective management practices on
      the issue of pollution discharges into the environment, and lacking a strong monitoring system, are
      some of the key factors that have aggravated the environmental situation and have furthermore
      deteriorated it to a certain extent. The unplanned urban development under the conditions of a fast
      development of private section activities is accompanied by unmonitored interventions in the
      existing infrastructure. The deficiencies in the urban infrastructure (such as the potable water and
      sewerage networks), the deficient management of urban waste, as well as by the damage of land,
      pollution of groundwater, etc. have in some cases aggravated the public health and environmental
      situation. The loss of bio-diversity, mismanagement of natural resources, particularly deforestation
      and land erosion have adversely affected the natural resources that generate material goods.

      The environmental deterioration has not merely been a result of activities that have not taken into
      consideration the environmental aspects. The deterioration was more a result of the cumulative
      effects caused by the lack of integrated planning in environmental management. The main
      environmental problems in the country are indicated in Table 1




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        Table 1 Main problems


         -   Deterioration of bio-diversity (deforestation, loss of flora and fauna)
         -   Massive deforestation
         -   Land erosion
         -   Specific sectoral problems (water, air and land pollution)
         -   Hot spots (high risk areas) with respect to environmental pollution
         -   Shortcomings in the legal and institutional framework and in its implementation
         -   Low level of environmental awareness
         -   Lack of inter-sectoral coordination


1.1.1   Air quality

        The air monitoring program is suffering from a lack of resources, is fragmentary in time and does
        not include all required indicators for air quality.

        Available data for air quality in urban areas, although incomplete, show that the composition of
        suspended particles and dust is of high concern. The values of other indicators, such as the
        concentration of lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ozone are below the national and WHO
        standards. The transport sector has an adverse impact on the air quality because of its uncontrolled
        development, which has resulted in an increase of the number of old vehicles using mainly diesel
        fuel.

        In areas with active industry large quantities of air pollution are discharged into the environment
        nevertheless, no air quality monitoring programs are implemented. In the last years, with funding
        from the state budget air quality monitoring has been carried out in 6 cities for a number of
        important indicators for air quality. There is no monitoring of air quality in the rural and suburb
        areas. In such a situation it is impossible to evaluate the effects of air pollution on sensitive
        ecological receptors, such as natural and agricultural vegetation.

        Industrial sources that have a large contribution to air pollution are the iron, metal and chrome
        industry, the oil extraction and refining industry, the hydropower plants and cement industry. The
        technologies of these industries are out-of-date and do not have off-gas treatment plants.

        The legal and regulatory framework for air quality monitoring is insufficient. The developments of
        the last years in the road transport sector are not accompanied by the necessary legal acts for the
        protection of environment from vehicles exhaust gasses.

        Albania has not succeeded yet to prepare an inventory of sectors with gaseous discharges that have
        an impact on air quality at national, as well as on global scale. Regarding greenhouse gases, based
        on the preliminary data from the studies in this field for 1994, it is concluded that the energy sector
        is the largest contributor.

        The development and implementation of a national program for air quality monitoring, the
        inventory of discharges according to modern methodologies, the preparation of emission
        registration, the collection, processing and interpretation of data, the determining of environmental
        indicators of impact and mitigation require the increase of institutional capacities in this field and
        with the necessary financial support.

        As a response to the obligations resulting from the adherence to conventions regarding air quality,
        inventories will be prepared and reported to control and reduce the national contribution in cross-
        border and global air pollution. Table 2 presents the main issues in the area of air quality.


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        Table 2 Main problems


         -   High levels of dust and soot in the urban air
         -   Partial and periodical monitoring
         -   Out-of-date monitoring equipment
         -   Lack of monitoring of indicators of impacts on the ecosystem
         -   Lack of monitoring of indicators of impacts on the human health
         -   Incomplete legal and regulatory framework
         -   Lack of financial resources



1.1.2   Water Resources

        Albania is rich in water reserves. Its hydrographic network comprises rivers, groundwater,
        streams, lagoons, natural lakes, artificial lakes and seas.

        The main source for potable water supply is the groundwater. The use of water for industrial needs
        has decreased due to the closure of a significant part of the heavy industry.

        The losses in the distribution network are high, due to the old network and illegal connections.
        These are some of the reasons why the water supply for the population is limited consisting only a
        few hours a day, especially during the hot season.

        The sources of groundwater pollution are the industrial activities and the sewer discharges. In
        some coastal areas the underground waters have high salinity due to mixing with seawater. The
        measures for the protection of this category of water are insufficient. The unsustainable use of
        groundwater is making this situation worse.

        The surface water close to urban areas is characterized by pollution from organic matter,
        originating mainly from the untreated sewage. The rivers upstream, far from the urban and
        industrial pollution sources have the characteristics of potable water, but deteriorate downstream.
        Organic polluters are present in high concentrations in the rivers flowing through oil fields and
        close to refining plants. Coastal waters are generally clean, except for some restricted areas that
        are polluted by urban discharges. Values above the standard for bacteriological pollution have
        been observed in these areas.

        Regarding water polluted by industrial discharges, it can be concluded that the quality of the
        surface water has improved compared to that of ten years ago. The reasons are: closure of most of
        industrial sites, reduction of waters for irrigation as a result of damages in the irrigation-draining
        network, as well as the limited use of chemicals in the agricultural sector.

        Floods occur mainly in the northern and central part of the western plain, and cause serious
        economic, social and environmental problems to the communities in these areas.

        The lack of necessary financial resources and inter-sectoral coordination has limited in time and
        space the monitoring of water resources. The analytical methodology is outdated and there is no
        system to monitor its quality. The need for upgrading the monitoring network is evident.

        From an administrative point of view, the competent decision-making authority for the utilization
        and use of water is the National Council of Water, with an inter-sectoral membership and chaired
        by the Prime Minister. In the same manner, the interdependent vertical bodies such as the technical
        Secretariat of waters and the Councils of basins are established. The legal framework in place is
        incomplete and is characterized by some conflicting and overlapping competencies of authorities.

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        Updated National Environmental Action Plan
        Especially, there is a need to elaborate and approve the quality standards of the groundwater,
        surface and marine waters, as well as the allowed levels for liquid urban and industrial discharges,
        depending on the absorptive capacity of the receiving environment.

        Albania is a signatory party in the UNECE convention for the Protection and Use of
        Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes, as well as the accompanying protocol “On
        water-related diseases”.

        In the year 2000, Albania ratified the agreements based on new documents of the Convention for
        the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution and Preservation of Bio-diversity, as
        well as the six accompanying protocols.

        Based on the obligations resulting from the adherence to these Conventions, the country should
        determine and apply clear and measurable objectives for the further reduction of pollution
        discharges into cross-border waters and coastal areas, the development of plans for the
        management of accidents, preventing sea pollution, etc. The main problems arising in the water
        protection area are presented in Table 3.


        Table 3 Main problems


           -   Pollution of ground and surface waters
           -   Pollution of potable water
           -   Limited monitoring
           -   Losses in the network
           -   Lack of management plans for water basins
           -   Lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination
           -   Shortcomings in the implementation of the legal and regulatory framework
           -   Phenomena of unsustainable use of water sources


1.1.3   Management of waste and chemicals

        The increase in the consumption of material goods in the last years was not accompanied by
        environmental awareness building, education and use of sustainable consumption practices. The
        average percentage of increase of urban waste production in the country is between 8 and 10%. In
        1998, the annual generation of waste reached 520,000 ton.

        The present treatment of urban waste consists only in their removal and dumping on sites
        designated by the local authorities. Despite the efforts made to designate urban waste sites based
        on environmental criteria, there are many cases where these sites are built in totally inappropriate
        areas. So far there is still no sanitary landfill built in Albania.

        The system for collecting and transporting urban waste is already privatized. The number of
        containers and vehicles is insufficient, and often the service does not cover the entire urban area.
        There is no recycling system and there is no analysis of urban waste composition. At rural level,
        there is no system for collecting and transporting wastes and there are no designated sites for
        dumping. Taxes for the existing service are low and the allocated funds are insufficient.

        Environmental situation around the closed industrial sites is a serious concern. Copper, chromium,
        iron-nickel and oil industries have produced several million tons of industrial wastes. The impact
        on the surrounding environment is considerable and has adversely affected the potential of natural
        resources. In addition, this situation constitutes a potential health risk for people who are


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        continuously exposed to this pollution. Some of the dumps, due to the fact that they are not
        maintained, are prone to landslide risks.


        Table 4 Main problems


         - The equipment for collecting and transporting the urban waste does not meet the
                 requirements
         - Dump sites for urban waste do not meet the environmental criteria
         - There is no waste recycling
         - There is no waste management service in rural areas
         - There is a lack of monitoring systems for urban and industrial waste dumping into the
                 environment
         - Low taxes for an efficient service
         - Lack of management plans for hazardous waste
         - Incomplete legal and regulatory framework
         - Lack in the use of economic instruments
         - Considerable quantities of chemicals and their unsafe storage
         - Lack of a management plans for chemicals
         - Low level of environmental and health awareness regarding the risks from hazardous
                 chemicals and wastes


        The management of industrial solid waste and especially of the landfills where they are deposited
        is a priority because of their polluting potential for humans and environment, especially
        considering soil, groundwater and effects on bio-diversity.

        In the country a number of unusable chemicals are stored (obsolete stock). They represent
        different levels of risks for health and environment and should be effectively managed. There are
        an estimated 3,100 tons of chemicals in the public economy sector and 1,000 tons of pesticides in
        the agricultural sector. In spite of this there is still no accurate inventory of these substances at
        national level and there is no plan to avoid or minimize their threat as hazardous waste. The main
        problems in the management of urban waste, industrial waste and chemicals are presented in Table
        4.
        A serious problem pose chemicals stored inside production lines of now closed chemical factories.
        It is necessary that their decommissioning must include measures for safe disposal of such
        chemicals.

1.1.4   Land management

        The inappropriate use of land for decades has caused its environmental degradation including
        erosion, salination, and pollution by urban and industrial discharges.

        At present, arable land is given as property or is rented to the farmers who, in many cases, have
        caused its degradation through the use of unsustainable agricultural and animal-farming practices.
        Recently, farmers in some areas of the country are applying more sustainable practices in
        agriculture.

        Data from research institutes show that the losses caused by erosion in our country are about 20-30
        ton/ha/year, but in special areas this value reaches 150 ton/ha/year. Besides the geologic
        characteristics and the country’s relief, responsible for 20% of the total erosion, this phenomenon
        is a consequence of a number of other factors. Causes are massive deforestation, especially in the


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hilly and mountainous areas, the uncontrolled grazing of goats that has increased during the last
decade, the damage of erosion protection works including the drainage channel network.
A new phenomenon in the last decade is abandonment of land. This caused exposure to
inappropriate use and degradation. This category includes the arable land created in 60’s to 80’s
far from inhabited areas, arable land in steep and very steep terrain, arable land of low fertility and
shallow lands. The total figures of land with a limited fertility factor, is 300,000 ha. These lands
need a strategy for their rehabilitation/improvement.

Floods and landslides occur frequently as a result of damage and destruction of infrastructure for
the land improvement. The occurrence considerably depends on weather conditions. Erosion
problems are more visible in hilly and mountainous terrain where landslides often occur. All these
factors influence the reduction of land fertility.

Soil pollution is caused by the oil industry and extraction and processing of minerals, the obsolete
stocks of chemicals in closed plants of the chemical industry, urban and industrial waste dumping.
This is more visible in urban and industrial areas.

The high growth rate of the population and its migration to urban areas has brought an
uncontrolled increase of population in the largest cities and their suburbs. Besides other negative
effects that are connected to environmental damage and pollution, this phenomenon has caused
damage of the landscape and tourist values, especially in the coastal areas because of illegal
constructions.

Another serious concern is the compensation of owners by giving them land in the coastal area. In
many cases, the tourist facilities in the compensated lands have not considered measures for
environmental protection. These facilities have even damaged and polluted the environment. As a
result of non-compliance with the law, numerous illegal constructions in the coastal areas have
been built without the necessary infrastructure. The awareness and willingness to respect the law is
low and the organisations that are in charge of its enforcement are still weak.

The responsibility for land management and use belongs to several ministries. There is an overlap
in the responsibilities of different institutions and the tasks of each institution are not very clear. At
national level the highest decision-making body regarding land use and territorial planning is the
Territorial Planning Council of the Republic. At local level, the authority is the municipal and
prefecture council. Several master plans have been designed for territorial planning in the coastal
areas. The majority, however, does not take the environmental protection into full consideration.
In practice there is no integrated policy for land use. The main problems in the land management
areas are given in Table5.

Table 5 Main problems


 -   Land degradation (erosion, fertility decrease, salinity)
 -   Land pollution (urban and industrial)
 -   Landslides and floods
 -   Unsustainable land management
 -   Lack of plans for integrated land use
 -   Unclear responsibility of responsible institutions
 -   Uncompleted legislation and poor law enforcement
 -   Uncontrolled urbanization




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1.2     Situation in the build environment

1.2.1   Population migration

        The substantial changes that started in Albania during the ’90 have induced a demographic
        development that is completely different from the previous periods. It is linked to the migration,
        internal and external. In 1994, the population of Albania was 3.2 million inhabitants, while at the
        end of 2000 the number was 3.4 million inhabitants, having an annual growth rate of about 1%.
        Excluding emigration, the population growth rate would be 1.2 % per year.

        The region Durrës-Tirana, is the most preferred area considering internal migration. More than 1/3
        of the population is concentrated there, while in 1990 the concentration was less than 1/5 of the
        country’s population. In 1994 the urban population was 42% of the general population, while the
        rural population was 58%. In 2000 these figures were respectively 46.3% and 53.7%. Within this
        period the urban population has increased with 2.9% per year, while the rural population has
        decreased by 0.01% per year. This means that the main role has been played by the internal
        regional and inter-regional migration from rural to urban areas, especially in the area of the
        Western Lowlands.

        According to the demographic prognosis the general number of the population can reach 3.6
        million inhabitants, while in 2010 this figure can be 3.76 million inhabitants. Only in Tirana-
        Durrës region, the population may already reach 1.7 million inhabitants or 45% of the whole
        population of the country. The specific population density in this region and the whole western
        lowlands, creates a number of problems regarding the biophysical and social-human environment,
        problems that need a solution.

        With the increase of population, the density of the population has increased, from 111.4
        inhabitants/km2 in 1994, to 118.2 in 2000. This figure presents also the increase of human pressure
        on the environment, especially if we consider what it is called the biological density of human
        population, which has increased from 4.6 inhabitants/ha to 4.9 inhabitants/ha, respectively in 1994
        and 2000. This was a result not only of the general population increase, but also of the
        abandonment of the arable land. In the lowland regions the density of the human population is 4
        times the country’s average, while in the internal hilly areas around the lowlands the average
        oscillates around the country’s average. This means that there is a decrease in population density
        in the hilly and mountainous areas, and an abandonment of the bio-physical environment, while in
        the lowlands there is an increase of human pressure on the physical environment. 43.5% of the
        country’s population has settled in the Western Lowlands close to Adriatic Sea, which is 23% of
        the country’s surface. The population density here is 223 inhabitants/km2, reaching 467
        inhabitants/km2 in the field between Tirana – Durres – Elbasan. The lowest density is in Albanian
        Alps area.

        The characteristic of the average human population in relation to the altitude, is linked to several
        environmental problems, such as a) The abandonment of cultivated land and its exposure to
        natural erosion; b) Increase of pressure on the environment in some other areas and the
        impossibility to meet the needs of the community; c) Direct and indirect impact on environment,
        such as: forest cutting, exposure of arable land by construction, human pollution, etc.

        Human migration has been spontaneous, thus, it has impacted the urban, suburban and rural
        planning, as well as the rural living environment itself. In this framework, there should be
        revisions of the law on urban planning, in the sale of cultivated and non-cultivated land, and in the
        competencies of the Territorial Planning Councils, so that the legislation would be applicable.

        All the elements of the demographic prognosis if they are developed outside of the policies on
        population, economy or territory planning will have the same negative impact on the environment
        as they did so far.

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1.2.2   Environmental health

        The transition in Albania has had a considerable impact on the public health, especially in urban
        areas.
        The health problems are directly linked to the social-economic situation and the way of living. In
        many cases are related to the exposure of the people to air, water and land pollution, as well as
        other factors that influence the quality of environment.

        The economic collapse of the beginning of ’90 caused a reduction of the industrial production
        directly reducing the discharge of pollutants into the environment. This phenomenon was
        accompanied by the reduction of health problems and occupational diseases. Nevertheless, other
        health problems emerged.

        The urban development, often not based on technical standards and criteria, was accompanied by
        damages in the potable water supply system, its contamination and ineffective urban waste
        management system. The above-mentioned problems have caused a high level of water borne and
        food related diseases compared to other European countries, even though there is a lack of data to
        confirm this connection.

        Important steps have been made in the institutional and legal aspect, and a number of studies and
        projects have been carried out. They aim at the modern treatment of the environmental health
        problems and the integration of social and economic developments with the environment and
        health protection.

        Despite these achievements, there are still shortcomings in identifying the cases of diseases caused
        by environmental pollution. The level of public information regarding environmental health is also
        low.

        The Government has approved the National Environmental Health Plan in June 1999. Its objective
        is to lay the ground for a sustainable ecological development, effective prevention and control of
        environmental health risks, as well as equal access to a healthy environment. This plan foresees in
        the necessary measures for environmental rehabilitation in different areas. The central and local
        institutions, civil society and public are involved in the implementation of the plan. In the process
        of implementing this plan, local action plans for environment and health are being prepared for
        cities of Durrës and Vlora.

        From an institutional point of view the respective infrastructure exists, but there are considerable
        deficiencies regarding the exchange of environmental health information. Its improvement would
        create a better management of these problems.

        Water Pollution

        The surface and ground waters are exposed to pollution by urban sewage and industrial waste, and
        by infiltration of chemicals used in agriculture. As a result of the non-existence of treatment plants
        sewage from coastal cities causes bacterial pollution during summer time in some beaches near
        these cities.

        Groundwater is the main source of potable water for urban and rural areas.

        The present system for monitoring the groundwater quality is poor with regard to legal,
        institutional, organizational aspect, or considering the technical aspects related to the monitoring
        network. The monitoring of drinking water in the cities by public health laboratories during 1997
        has shown that over 5% of the samples had chemical or bacteriological pollution.



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The incidence of water borne diseases are considered high compared to other European countries.
Over 50% of the epidemics of enteric typhoid in rural areas, have been spread through drinking
water. The contaminated drinking water is responsible for the increased cases of dysentery and
viral hepatitis.

Solid Waste
While the quantity of industrial waste has decreased as a result of the closure of the activity of
many industrial sites, the quantity of urban waste has increased as a result of the population
growth and the increased use of paper, plastic or metal products in packaging materials.

The industrial waste, deposited for years is not subjected to any public health and environmental
control. The urban waste represents an acute problem for the main cities, especially for Tirana,
Durres and Korça, considering collection, transport or their disposal at sites designated by the local
authorities. The municipal collection and transport system suffers from lack of containers and
vehicles. The facilities at disposal sites do not ensure the protection of ground and surface water
from pollution.

The deliberate burning of urban waste in the open air is typical for many dumpsites. Illegal
constructions near these sites have increased in the last years with the inhabitants near these dumps
being potentially endangered by infections and intoxication from the chemical products formed
during the burning process.
There are no epidemiological studies to determine the impact of waste on the health of people
living close to dumps. Measures should be taken to stop this activity and the construction of
landfills is required that meet the criteria for preserving the health and environment.

Air Pollution
Air pollution problems are mainly related to urban pollution caused by transport and to a lesser
extent to the pollution by industry and energy production.
During recent years the number of private vehicles has continued to increase. The vehicles
entering Albania are mainly second hand cars and their majority has diesel engines. There are no
legal barriers to limit this phenomenon.

Data from IPH on the nitrogen oxides for main cities and sulfur oxide for Tirana during 1998 show
that in all cases, the concentration of these gases in urban areas is below the allowed levels.
Regarding the determination of the levels of dust, only measurements for particulate matter
(PM10), carried out at several locations in Tirana have been carried out starting from 1996. The
comparison of the measured values with the values recommended by WHO (due to the lack of
local standards), shows that the level of PM10 is higher than WHO recommendations.

The lack of a national network for air quality monitoring, as well as the lack of data on morbidity
caused by air pollution, makes impossible the assessment of the health impact of air pollution. The
data of the health service show that the diseases of the respiratory system are responsible for 16%
of the deaths in Albania and are in second place in the mortality causes. In these figures the infant
mortality due to respiratory diseases is high.

Noise
The nuisance caused by noise is reduced as a result of the closure of the majority of industrial
activities.
Developments during the last decade in transport and economic activities have increased the noise
level in many cities. There are no maximum allowed levels for noise in inhabited areas. There is
need for monitoring noise levels in the critical urban and industrial spots, as well as the impact of
noise on the most exposed groups of population.




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        Spatial planning, urban developments, new industrial developments and constructions, must be
        accompanied by appropriate measures for limitation of noise. In this framework, the noise levels
        allowed in urban and industrial areas should be reviewed based on WHO recommendations.

        Hot Spots

        Based on the environmental information provided by MoE and the recent country evaluations
        made by UNEP some environmental "hot spots" can be identified. These are:
        - Chemical Plant in Durres
        - Sodium and PVC Plant in Vlora
        - Oil-fields in Marinëz-Patos
        - Oil-refining Plant in Ballsh
        - Urban Waste Dump in Sharrë-Tiranë

        The land, air and water pollution level, according to the specifications for each "hot spot", is very
        high. Families migrating north and northeastern part of the country have occupied many of these
        “hot spots” representing abandoned industrial sites.
        The new inhabitants are continuously exposed to toxic and carcinogen substances such as mercury,
        hexavalent chromium, lindane (isomers of hexachloride), thiram, dioxine, furam and other
        residues of pesticides or oil products.

        Despite the lack of monitoring and the poor information on the level of toxic substances in air,
        land and water, the surveys carried out by several Albanian and foreign institutions have identified
        very high concentrations (hundreds and thousand times over EU levels) of some toxic and
        carcinogen substances in drinking water, agricultural products and animal milk.
        In many cases, the walls in the premises occupied for living in the former industrial sites are higly
        contaminated by toxic substances like mercury, etc., which further increases the health risks.

        Table 6 Main problems


             Cross-sectoral cooperation for implementing environmental health policy is not at the
              proper level.
             Set of environmental health indicators is missing and its is not integrated into the
              actual information system
             Support for the activity of NGOs and public participation in the process of decision
              making for the environment must be a priority
             Providing safe drinking water for cities and rural communities, and monitoring of
              drinking water supplies, surface and waste water will be priorities
             Preparation of new legislation and discharge limits on air and water quality based on
              WHO standards
             There is very high exposure of people living in the hot spots to harmful environmental
              polluters
            Identification monitoring and implementation, of measures for nose reduction in urban
              and rural areas is inappropriate


1.2.3   Urban Environment

        The degradation of the urban environment and the urban pollution are serious environmental
        problems that have developed in recent years. The situation is critical not only in large urban
        centers and in the coastal areas, but also in rural areas. The lack of management of urban solid
        waste has created problems throughout the country. At present, the collection, transport and
        dumping of waste is done through simple processes. As a rule, the wastes are directly thrown into
        specific areas, without any environmental protection measures and without establishing strict

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        criteria for selecting disposal areas. Also the urban wastewater situation is critical. Up to now,
        there is a total lack of sewage treatment facilities in the cities, and some of the new residential
        areas in the suburbs are not connected to the sewerage system.

        The considerable demographic changes in urban areas during the transition period have caused the
        spread of the urbanized area. This coincided with environmental damage and especially with the
        destruction of green areas. The damage of green spaces still continues due to construction
        activities, such as those for kiosks and high buildings, without taking into consideration the criteria
        for urban and territorial planning.

        It is estimated that in the main cities green spaces have decreased by 2 m2/person in recent years.
        This is a direct result of the environmental damage caused by uncontrolled migration, and as a
        consequence, by the illegal occupation of these areas. At country level, the green space is 14-17
        m2/person, with an average of 5-6 m2/person in the urban areas. The green surface in Tirana has
        decreased from 12.3 m2/person to 5 m2/person.

        The considerable increase of vehicles and traffic has created big problems in the urban
        environment regarding pollution by sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, dust, lead and noise.

        The rates of changes in urban areas, and especially in Tirana, are unprecedented and urban
        planning does not guide these developments. The existing urban plans date back to before 1990,
        hence they are completely outdated they do not meet the present requirements of urban
        development. These plans show environmental damage also outside the city limits.

        Table 7 Main problems

         - Increase of pressure on the physical environment by the internal migration from rural to
                 urban areas, especially towards lowland areas.
         - Degradation of the urban environment and urban pollution.
         - Lack of management of urban waste and lack of sewage treatment, wit sewage being
                 directly discharged into rivers and irrigation systems.
         - Uncontrolled extension of the urbanized area, resulting in environmental damage,
                 especially destruction of green areas.
         - Non-respect for environmental criteria of urban and territorial planning.
         - Decrease of green space in main cities, especially in Tirana.
         - Damage of historical, cultural and archaeological centres.
         - Lack of capacities and financial resources in the field of urban planning.
         - Low level of public awareness.




1.3     Situation in natural areas
1.3.1   Forests
        The present situation of the forests in Albania is a consequence of the continuous over-exploitation
        during 60 years, and especially during the last 10 years. It reached a peak in 1997, when more than
        550,000 m3 timber was cut.

        Fires that in the majority of cases were intentional have caused considerable damage to forests and
        grasslands in recent years. The existing structures in the GDFG are powerless to manage these
        situations, whereas the commitment of local and central institutions in this field has been
        insufficient. Funds are needed for fire protection in forests and grasslands.

        The data on forest cutting are not acuurate. It is necessary to prepare an accurate inventory of the
        general volume of standing timber.

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        The forest situation brings out the immediate need for designing and implementing plans for the
        regeneration of forests damaged by uncontrolled cutting.

        The lack of investments and organizational measures for silvicultural work, for new forestations or
        reforestation, for combating pests, maintaining forest roads, for fire protection, etc., has caused the
        loss and degradation of the habitats of many vegetal and animal forest species. After 1998, there
        have been improvements through investments by GDFG as well as through the Forestry Project
        supported by the World Bank. Nevertheless, the reforested areas during all these years are
        insignificant compared to the cut areas.

        The forests close to the villages are the most damaged and degraded. The majority of these forests
        are oak forests that are known for their high biological diversity. Due to poor economic conditions
        and due to tradition the villagers continue to over-exploit the forest through cutting without
        technical criteria, in order to secure wood for heating and cooking. The over-grazing by animals,
        mainly goats, is another related phenomenon.

        Recently forest protection is better organized through the creation of communal forests around the
        rural areas, which are managed by the communities. The pace of the creation of private forests
        should be accelerated. These measures will considerably mitigate illegal cutting and other forest
        damages.

        The cutting in the coastal makia and forests has created problems, especially for birds that use
        these areas for nesting. In this framework, it is imperative that the nurseries and reforested areas
        managed by GDFG grow in number, and the private sector is encouraged to be involved.

        Weaknesses are identified in the legal and institutional framework. The present organization of the
        forest management bears a conflict of interests, because the protection and production belong to
        the same institution. There is also a need for field staff to be trained to increase its capacities.
        Although the legislation has been visibly improved, its enforcement and implementation is not
        sufficient. The institution for fine collection can be considered almost to be non-existent.

        Table 8 Main problems


         -   Massive forest damage and degradation.
         -   Unsustainable forest exploitation.
         -   Reduction of bio-diversity.
         -   Lack of complete inventory of forest fund.
         -   Ineffective collection of fines.
         -   Present institutional organization bears conflict of interests.
         -   Slow pace in creating private and communal forests.
         -   Low forest protection awareness.
         -   Local personnel does not have necessary qualification.
         -   Considerable logistical lack in the Forest Policy and the fire protection structures.


1.3.2   Protected Areas

        The Protected Areas constitute some of the biggest economic and ecological values in the country.

        The general surface of the protected areas is 109,048 ha, which is 3.9% of the territory of Albania.
        The network of protected areas includes forests, lakes, lagoons and nature reserves, which are
        famous for the diversity of land and marine flora and fauna. There are a lot of endemic species
        among them. Their classification is based on the IUCN system. For this classification, it is

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        necessary to review the status of some areas and, in some cases, to merge two or more areas in
        order to properly manage them. In some other cases different ecosystems and habitats must be
        combined with others aiming at creating more representative areas.

        The biggest challenge for the protected areas is now to protect these areas from damage and illegal
        constructions. Special attention should be paid to the national park of Lura, where massive tree
        cutting has occurred. The same occurred in the national parks of Valbona, Qafë-Shtama, Bredhi i
        Hotovës, Llogora and the hunting reserves of Kune-Vain, Rrushkull, Pishë-Poro, Levan, Maliq
        and Cangonj. It should be stressed that there is a lack of qualified staff and equipment for an
        effective protection of these areas.

        The restructuring of the protected areas, based on the IUCN concepts, has started after 1992, based
        on the new legislation on environment, forests and wild fauna.

        Despite the achievements in the classification of protected areas, there is still a lot to do regarding
        the increase of their surface, as well as their conservation and management.

        The sustainable conservation and management of the protected areas requires the preparation of a
        specific legal and regulatory framework, and the design of management plans for each area. All
        these activities must be preceded by stringent measures for their protection from anthropogenic
        damages. In this direction, the private services that promote the natural values of the protected
        areas will be encouraged.

        From the institutional point of view, more space should be given to local government regarding the
        management of the protected areas that are situated within their territory.
        Table 9 Main problems


         -   Damage of flora and fauna by the anthropogenic factors.
         -   Lack of a specific legal and regulatory framework.
         -   Lack of management plans.
         -   Human and financial resources for the protection of protected areas are insufficient.
         -   The role of the community is vague.
         -   The qualification of the management personnel is low.


1.3.3   Bio-diversity

        Even though Albania is one of the smallest countries in Europe, the climatic features, geographic
        position, its relief and geological, hydrological and pedological factors favor a very high diversity
        of natural habitats and sub-ecosystems. They offer conditions for the existence of about 3,200
        kinds of higher plants (30% of the European Flora) and 756 kinds of vertebrates, in which many
        relicts, endemic and sub-endemic species can be distinguished.

        Among the bio-diversity damage we can mention: loss and fragmentation of habitats, damage,
        impoverishment and degradation of ecosystems and habitats, disturbance of wild animals,
        extinguishing of species or threat of genetic erosion. The rate of bio-diversity loss in Albania in
        the last 50 years it is thought to be among the highest in Europe.

        During the last 5 years, considerable damage has been inflicted by spontaneous flora. The forests
        of laurel, birch and oak have suffered considerable damage in particular. Critical is also the
        situation caused by the massive collection of medicinal and aromatic plants (Albania is the second
        country in Europe for their export). Different species of the families Orchis and Fucus virciodes
        (algae) are under the threat of extinguishing. The latter has disappeared from the southern border
        of its area. This situation in general is a consequence of the uncontrolled development of human

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activities in these areas and especially of illegal constructions, mainly for tourist purposes. The
lagoons and big lakes of the country are important habitats for the birds. There are 91 threatened
species identified.

The indiscriminate use of lake and river water has caused a severe ecological crisis in these
systems. Illustrative are interventions in the lakes of Micro Prespa, Dumre and the glacial lakes
(Lura and others). Also the indiscriminate use of rivers for irrigation without considering the
"biological minimum" of water flow in the riverbed has endangered biological life.

Even though the legislation provides for the establishment of the authority for the watershed, no
such units yet exist. In the framework of bio-diversity protection and sustainable development of
natural resources in the watersheds of the rivers and lakes, these units must start working and
respective management plans should be developed.

The fishing practices in recent years and especially the uncontrolled development of fishing
activities have adversely affected the biodiversity. Thus, in the last 5 years, the fish reserves have
been seriously depleted in the depths of 2-30 m.

The uncontrolled and indiscriminate hunting, especially during winter, is the main disturbing
factor for the animals that are hunting prey, especially the wintering birds, migratory in their
majority. As a result, these birds have abandoned these areas, which is more evident in areas with
small water surfaces such as: Kune-Vain, Patok, Pishë-Poro, Seman delta.

The use of illegal means for capturing and killing wild animals (mammals), including the use of
poison for fishing has caused a considerable reduction of the populations, especially carnivorous
mammals and birds of prey.

Out of 390 bird species that have been observed in Albania, 18 have an unfavorable preservation
status at global level. The natural and artificial habitats offer a shelter for about 120 species (35%
of the species) with an unfavorable preservation status. Thus it can concluded that Albania is an
important station for the European avifauna.
The destructive human intervention on the environment has contributed in the creation of the
unfavorable conditions through forest cutting, illegal hunting and illegal construction.

The number of rare and threatened vertebrate species is high and increasing. Thus, the number of
the vertebrates that are included in the list of threatened species has reached about 273, or 36% of
the vertebrates population in the country.
The lack of data on flora and fauna does not allow an accurate assessment of the bio-diversity
situation in Albania. However, at least 2 species of plants and 4 species of mammals are totally
extinguished, whereas 17 species of birds do not nest anymore in the country.
Table 10 Main problems

 -   Considerable damage of flora and fauna.
 -   Illegal fishing and hunting of wild species.
 -   Use of extermination means in hunting.
 -   Fragmentation and damage of habitats.
 -   Progressive increase of endangered species.
 -   Non adequate institutional organization.
 -   Non enforcement of legal framework.
 -   Incomplete legal framework.
 -   Lack of management plans.

The main types of most endangered ecosystems and habitats in Albania include the marine
ecosystems (the medium and infralitoral levels), coastal ecosystems (sand dunes, river deltas,


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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
     alluvial and very humid rivers, coastal lagoons and lakes), as well as alpine grasslands, continental
     and glacial lakes, oak and coniferous forests.


2.   ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

     The environmental management system in Albania consists of three elements:

     - Environmental policies which identify the priority objectives and goals, and foresees actions
             and measures to be undertaken to accomplish them.
     - Legal framework
     - Administrative structures

     Effective environmental management can be obtained if sectoral integrated policies are
     implemented and if it is in consistence with national development policies.

     The Albanian Government Policy on environmental protection was embodied for the first time in
     the National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), approved in 1994. It was prepared with
     assistance of the World Bank on the basis of the National Environmental Strategy, formulated in
     1993.

     This Plan aimed at the integration of the environmental protection in development programs of the
     country and outlining of a series of duties for various ministries and institutions in relation to
     environmental protection. It also foresaw organizational. administrative, legal and technical
     measures for environmental management.

     In addition to MoE other ministries responsible for the implementation of NEAP are: Ministry of
     Public Economy and Privatization, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Ministry of Health, Ministry
     of Tourism and Public Works, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Transport, Ministry of Justice,
     Ministry of Local Government and Decentralization.

     While implementing this plan, since 1993 several sectoral policy documents have been prepared,
     like the National Water Strategy, National Plan for Urban Waste Management, Strategy of Bio-
     diversity and Action Plan, Coastal Zone Management Plan, Green Strategy of Agriculture,
     National Environmental Health Action Plan, Strategy of forestry protection, Strategy of Tourism
     Development (actually in the updating process), Strategy of Energy. Public Investment Program
     and Strategy of Privatization.

     Environmental protection has been widely included into the strategy for development and poverty
     reduction by giving to this strategy the dimension of sustainable development

     Table 11 Main problems


        -   Lack of sectoral environmental policies
        -   Lack of capacities for formulating and implementing sectoral policies
        -   Delays in the approval of policy documents by competent authorities
        -   Lack of inter-ministerial structures to monitor the implementation of sectoral environmental
                  policies.


     The sectoral documents already prepared and approved, contain little or no environmental
     considerations. Furthermore, the monitoring process and sectoral co-ordination did not function
     appropriately. The main problems in this area are provided in Table 11.


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     Updated National Environmental Action Plan
2.1   Legal, regulatory and institutional framework
      The environmental legal framework is in a completion and improvement phase. It is a totally new
      legislation, with a clear tendency for approximation with the European legislation. It consists of all
      levels and types of legal and regulatory acts, starting with the constitution, specific laws,
      governmental decisions, decrees, regulations, norms, standards etc. It should be pointed out that
      the environmental legal framework supports and promotes the use of control and command
      measures more than economic instruments.

      The Law on Environmental Protection, 1993 is the basic law which directs in a summarized way
      the aims, principles and rules of environmental management. This law was amended with Law No.
      8364, dated 02.07.1998. The amendments brought about improvements of an institutional and
      organizational character, by increasing the competencies of the environmental protection
      institutions. All activities that affect the environment should be subject to an environmental impact
      assessment and licensing system. The latter should provide the permit for a specific activity.

      Special paragraphs in the Constitution state the objectives “for an ecologically healthy
      environment for the present and future generations” and “rational exploitation of forests, waters,
      pastures based on the principle of sustainable development”, as well as “the right of the public to
      have access to information on the state of the environment”.

      The Council of Ministers has approved several decisions in relation to the environmental
      monitoring and transportation of hazardous wastes.

      A series of sectoral laws became effective and they contain provisions in environmental
      protection, like the law on water reserves, law on mining, regulatory entity of waste waters,
      hunting, forestry, soil, urban planning etc. These laws are accompanied by a considerable number
      of normative acts.

      Several important draft laws are in an approval process like the management of protected areas,
      protection of marine environment, air protection, new amendments of the law on environmental
      protection, as well as a draft decision on environmental monitoring in the Republic of Albania.

      The drafting of other laws like EIA, water protection, soil protection from contamination and
      erosion, gaseous and liquid emissions, access to environmental information, bio-diversity
      conservation and urban waste management is being finalized.

      In the framework of active cooperation with the international environmental programs and
      institutions, the country has become a party in many multilateral environmental agreements.

      Meeting of the obligations derived from the membership in these conventions and agreements will
      lead not only to environmental protection, but also to economic growth of the country, because the
      essence is the principle of sustainable development.

      Despite the considerable achievements in relation to the drafting of a contemporary legal and
      regulatory framework, there is still much to be done in relation to its improvement and completion.
      The problems and requirements set forth by the environmental situation in the country should be
      taken into account when formulating new acts, the conformity with the social-economic
      developments and the sustainable development principle, the principle of the polluter pays, the
      promotion of ecologically clean technologies, increasing the possibility for public participation in
      decision-making, sanctioning of the obligations that result from being signatory part in
      conventions and other international acts, approximation of the legislation to EU legislaton.




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As far as the institutional aspect, MoE is the highest governmental body specialized in the
environmental protection, under the Council of Ministers. MoE was created in 1998, based on the
Committee for Environmental Protection in the Ministry of Health and Environment.

The organogram of the present MoE structure (approved in October 2001) is given in Figure 1.
The tasks and responsibilities of MoE are political and technical and deal with the development of
environmental policies, development of environmental legislation and enforcement control. MoE
coordinates the environmental monitoring, determines the main policies and investment priorities
for environmental protection, and represents the national focal point for many environmental
programs and international agreements.

The Regional Environmental Agencies (REA), established at prefecture level, control and ensure
the implementation of the environmental legal framework, supervise and apply the preliminary
environmental licensing, collect and process the data on the environmental situation at municipal
and prefecture level.

The land, forest and fishing management is done by the Ministry of Agriculture and Food (MAF)
through the General Directorate of Forests and Grasslands, the Department of Lands and
Department of Fishing. The Territorial Planning Council of the Republic and the Territorial
Planning Councils of municipalities and prefectures manage the territorial planning. The National
Council of Waters and the Council of Basins, as well as the respective executive structures manage
the water sources, while the used waters are managed by the regulatory Institution of used waters.

Many ministries have established environmental units, but their role and responsibility are unclear,
especially regarding the bilateral communication and collaboration with MoE. At national level, a
number of high level inter-ministerial structures with a permanent or temporary mandate, decision-
making or advising, exist such as: the Territorial Planning Council of the Republic, National Water
Council, Committee of Energetics Policies, which are chaired by the Prime Minister; Council of
Tourism Policies, Steering Committee of National Environmental Health Action Plan, Steering
Committee of National Environmental Action Plan, which are chaired by the Deputy Prime
Minister. MoE is represented at the highest level in all the above mentioned committees. An
important role is played by other inspectorates such as the Sanitation Inspectorate, Forest Police,
Construction Police, etc.

Despite the above, MoE, as an inter-ministerial body, must be strengthened to enhance its
coordinating role, to assist and control the ministries and other governmental institutions over the
fulfillment of their legal tasks regarding environmental protection.

Some of the main problems related to the legal-regulatory framework and the strengthening of the
environmental institutional framework are presented in Table 12.

Table 12 Main problems


 -   Lack of normative acts that are required by the laws in force.
 -   Lack of the sanctioning of economic instruments in the legal acts.
 -   Lack of environmental principles in the sectoral legal acts.
 -   The need for approximating the local legislation with the European one.
 -   Considerable lack of legal framework for urban wastes.
 -   Lack in legislation on bio-diversity.
 -   Lack in the legal institutional framework.
 -   Lack of inter-ministerial coordination.
 -   Lack of environmental structures in ministries and municipalities.
 -   Lack of human resources, quality and quantity.


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_____________________________________        28
Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 Figure 1. Structure of the Ministry of the Environment
                                                                  The Minister




DIRECTORATE OF                           DIRECTORATE OF NATURAL            DIRECTORATE OF               DIRECTORATE OF
ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION                  RESOURCES MANAGEMENT &            ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT         ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
CONTROL & PREVENTION                             BIODIVERSITY              ASSESSMENT & MONITORING      PROJECT IMPLEMENTATIOON



                                                                                                        DIRECTORATE OF
                                                                       Sector of Personnel & Services   PERSONNEL, SERVICES,
                                                                                                        ORGANIZATION


                                                                                                               Sector of Economics



                                                                                                             Sector of Legislation



                                                                                                             REGIONAL
                                                                                                             ENVIRONMENTAL
                                                                                                             AGENCIES



                                                                                                                 ECAT TIRANA


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 Updated National Environmental Action Plan
2.1.1   Application of Legal Acts and By-laws

        The implementation of the environmental legislation is mandatory for all the local and foreign physical
        or juridical persons acting in the Republic of Albania. The main obligations of the physical and juridical
        persons refer to environmental licensing, monitoring the environment and discharges, disseminating
        information on environmental discharges and environmental situation, measures to reduce the pollution
        and environmental damage, public information on environmental damage and pollution, public
        participation in the process of environmental impact assessment, etc. Despite the achievements, the
        implementation of the environmental legislation leaves much to be desired. The environmental
        inspectors and REAs should be given better logistical and professional means to enable them to carry
        out effective controls and enforce the implementation of the legislation.
        The number of illegal activities and operations without an environmental permit has noticeably
        decreased, whereas the number of applications that are subjected to the environmental licensing process
        is continuously increasing. However, the conditions stated in the permits are not respected, especially
        regarding the monitoring of reported environmental discharges. The environmental license should be
        renewed only when there are changes compared to the situation at the date of issue. Now, in the new
        amendments it is proposed that the renewal of the license should take place at a yearly basis. These
        include activities that make use of natural resources, and the other activities stated in the permit. This is
        required to control the level of use of natural resources and to enforce the compliance of all the
        conditions set forth in the environmental license.

        The non-compliance with the legislation is punishable by administrative fines, but the collection of
        fines is almost impossible. The collaboration with the other inspectorates and the forest police is not at
        the desired level required to enforce the environmental legislation. MoE is preparing mutual agreements
        with GDFG and Ministry of Public Works to promote and enforce the environmental legislation and the
        respective sectoral legislation.

        The completion of the legislation dealing with the environmental impact assessment and the
        environmental licensing will result in the preparation of very clear and specific conditions, which do
        not leave room for misunderstandings and can be easily monitored by the environmental inspectorate.
        In the process of its institutional reform, MoE is trying to improve the national system of environmental
        impact assessment and licensing, by preparing a number of sectoral guidelines.

        Table 13 Main problems


         - Shortcomings in the existing legislation regarding the control and penalization of activities
                 that impact the environment.
         - Lack of logistics and professional capacity in REAs.
         - Lack of coordination and cooperation between the organizations for the enforcement of
                 environmental legislation.
         - Ineffectiveness in fine collection for the penalized activities.



2.1.2   Scientific research and environmental education.

        The system of scientific education and research has been one of the most developed in the country. The
        professional and academic level in general is very high. But during the last 15 years, this sector
        experienced a downfall, due to weak management and considerable shortcomings. Meanwhile, efforts
        have been made to reform the education system, its restructuring including school curricula, new text
        books and professional training of the teachers. Simultaneously, several specific environmental
        education programs have been introduced, and a good part of the scientific research at the universities
        and research institutes is for the benefit of the environmental protection.


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        Updated National Environmental Action Plan
      The non-governmental organizations, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and Science, are
      implementing a number of projects to introduce environmental education programs. At present a pilot
      project of academic environmental education is being implemented in secondary schools. In 1995, the
      branch of environmental engineering started at the faculty of Civil Engineering.

      The coordination between sectors of environmental management and those of academic education and
      scientific research is not performed at the required level. For several years, environmental protection
      was an integral part of the national governmental program for research and development. This is
      however, not the case anymore.

      The inclusion of environmental education at different levels of the academic system, despite the recent
      developments, does not meet the present demand for environmental education. The Ministry of
      Education and Science should develop a strategy for the integration of environmental protection into
      the curricula at all levels.

      Furthermore, environmental study and research, including the activity of academic and ministerial
      institutions are limited due to the lack of funds. In recent years, MoE has had increased funds for
      environmental "research and development". These are however, insufficient to cover the broad
      spectrum, of environmental problems. The main problems in this field are given in Table 14.

      Table 14 Main problems


       - Lack of a strategy for the integration of environmental protection into school curricula.
       - Lack of environmental publications in Albanian.
       - Lack of a strategy for the integration of environmental protection into the curricula of all
               levels.
       - The scientific research in the environmental field does not meet the present demands.
       - Lack of post-graduate schools in the environmental protection field.



2.2   Environmental monitoring

      According to Decision of the Council of Ministers, No 541, Date 25/09/1995, environmental
      monitoring is executed by a considerable number of scientific research institutes.

      Environmental monitoring is financially supported by the state budget and is coordinated by MoE.
      Despite the huge difficulties, during the last ten years a periodic monitoring of the quality of urban air,
      surface waters, sea and bio-diversity has been conducted. The results of the environmental monitoring
      are presented in the Environmental Situational Reports that MoE publishes every second year.

      The institutes that are involved in the environmental quality monitoring are not connected to an
      organized information network. Even the data reported and published, are not effectively used by the
      respective law enforcement institutions.

      The funds allocated from the state budget have increased in the recent years but still remain insufficient
      to sustain the environmental monitoring network. The equipments of the institutions in charge of
      monitoring is not working well and often lack spare parts.

      Based on the environmental legislation and the decision of CM on monitoring, public and private
      enterprises have to perform the monitoring of the pollution discharged into the environment themselves,
      and send data to MoE periodically. In general, the enterprises do not fulfill their obligations.



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      There is still no center for collecting and processing the monitoring data, which should be disseminated
      to the respective institutions and the public. The center for environmental data management is being
      created at MoE. MoE is also working to develop a national environmental monitoring program that
      includes the environmental indicators, their measurement and calculation methods, monitoring stations,
      the control of the data quality, etc. Table 15 presents the main problems in this field.


      Table 15 Main problems


       - Lack of sufficient funds for monitoring the environmental and bio-diversity elements.
       - Shortcomings in professional and logistic capacity of the environmental monitoring
               institutions.
       - Lack of a central body for the management and publication of the environmental data.
       - Non-compliance with the legislation by private or state-owned enterprises for the monitoring
               of their polluting discharges.
       - The monitoring data, though poor, are not used by the central and local institutions to take
               mitigation measures in the respective sectors.



2.3   Environmental protection funding
      The main source of funding for environmental protection comes through different projects. During
      1993-2000, a number of projects have been implemented, funded by the state or foreign donors. The
      topics of these projects mainly refer to a) institutional capacity building and strengthening; b)
      completion of the legislation; c) preparation of strategies for specific environmental fields; d)
      preservation of nature and reductions of pollution and damages.

      Environmental projects funded by the state budget
      With Decision of CM No. 3, Date 27/06/1995, the Research and Development Program was approved.
      In this program the environmental projects were funded with 3 million Leks every year for a 4-year
      period. After this Decision was issued, the former Committee for Environmental Protection (today
      MoE), has financed projects of scientific research institutions, which ended in 1998.

      Based on this positive experience, even though the Research and Development Program has ceased in
      the environmental field, MoE decided to fund from its own budget the scientific institutions for
      conducting studies that should serve the environmental situational assessment in Albania, determining
      the ways for its preservation and protection, as well as taking concrete measures in specific areas. As a
      result, in 2000-2001 MoE has allocated funds to be used for environmental monitoring and scientific
      research projects. Although other ministries too have allocated funds for environmental protection their
      overall contribution remains small.

      Nevertheless, it could be concluded that the very limited resources that are allocated for the
      environment from the state budget, are not enough to properly manage the environmental problems and
      to deal with the present challenges, while the environmental investments are indispensable in different
      priority sectors of the country, such as water and air protection, rational use of energy, protection of
      land from erosion and pollution, etc.

      Projects funded by foreign donors

      A project of high importance was the one funded in the framework of PHARE Programme AL 93/06,
      with the amount of 3.3 million ECU. The program, which started in 1995 and ended in 1997-1998,
      included 10 specific projects. It served the Committee for Environmental Protection (today MoE) for its
      institutional strengthening, preparation of national strategies and action plans, purchase of equipment,


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      training of staff, etc. In the framework of this Program laws and strategies were drafted, and technical-
      economical studies and technical projects were implemented.

      Some other projects funded in the framework of GEF (a total of 4 million USD), which started to be
      implemented in 1998, are linked to the strategy on bio-diversity and the national action plan (the
      strategy is already approved by the government), the preservation of Lake Ohrid, the inventory of
      greenhouse gases and the protection of coastal wetlands and ecosystems.

      During 1993-2000 further environmental projects were implemented, funded by the programs UNEP,
      METAP II, MED-POL/UNEP, LIFE etc., with projects such as: the plan for the integrated management
      of the coastal area, Mediterranean Pollution Assessment, solid urban waste management in 6 main
      municipalities of Albania. Albania has also secured several projects in the framework of the Multi-
      Country PHARE Program.

      Another program implemented with foreign assistance is the Update of the National Environmental
      Action plan – Urgent measures, financed by the World Bank. The project has started in September 2000
      and is under development. Its goal is to determine the urgent measures in the framework of the National
      Environmental Action Plan and to present concrete projects for determined problems. The present
      project to update the National Environmental Action Plan (UNEAP) is supported by PHARE.

      It is worth mentioning that a large number of environmental projects, funded by different donors, are
      implemented or under implementation by other Ministries and Agencies, scientific institutions, different
      NGOs, etc. These projects cover the field of water supply, treatment of waste waters, urban waste,
      rehabilitation of the irrigation system, pesticides, fishing, forests, environmental impact assessment for
      road and highway construction, environmental education, etc.

2.4   Economic tools for the environment

      Economic tools are important in changing the attitude of polluters towards the environment. These
      instruments are applied to control or reduce pollution and use of renewable environmental resources of
      the environment (air, water, forest, etc.), and of those that are non renewable (minerals, oil, etc.). The
      goal of their application is also to provide compensation for the shortcomings of the present market,
      which does not reflect the real price of the products and goods. Their application aims at intern cost of
      the goods as close to their social cost as possible, in such a way that the price of the goods will reflect
      the reduction of the natural resources. They are very effective instruments towards Sustainable
      Development, which is now taken into consideration in the Constitution of Albania (1998).

      Use of economic tools in Albania

      The Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), together with a number of economic tools, such as: fines for
      polluting air and water and taxes for waste treatment, were foreseen to be applied in the NEAP of 1993.
      But they still do not appear in the environmental legislation package, and are therefore not enforceable.

      The taxes that are based on the User Pays Principle (UPP) regarding the use of limited natural
      resources, such as raw materials, minerals, etc., foreseen to be applied by NEAP in 1993 are
      implemented through the Mineral Law of RA of 1994. Similarly, a number of measures were foreseen
      regarding the liberalization of firewood and gasoline prices. Their price has been liberalized since 1994
      and the government no longer subsidizes them.

      As regards to the electricity, even though the average price covers the average operational cost, the
      price has not been liberalized yet. Despite the efforts made for the liberalization of the water price
      (DCM no. 479, DT. 29.7.1998 “On the liberalization of the price of potable water”) drinking water is
      still partially subsidized by the government. On the other hand not all (non-family) consumers have
      been provided yet with water meters.


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      Updated National Environmental Action Plan
      In this respect the environmental policy in Albania is still dominated by regulatory control instruments,
      whereas the number of economic tools aiming directly at sustainable management of the environment
      and natural resources is very limited and has started only to be used in this decade. They are conceived
      as user fees (ex. Local cleaning tax) but not as incentives. Meanwhile, part of the actual taxes (although
      they serve simply as source of budget funds) they do have potential impact on the environment.
      Another serious problem is the non-application in practice of the already approved instruments, such as
      is the case with the tools foreseen by the law “On the water resources”. The legislation in process,
      however, foresees the use of economic instruments.

      Table 16 Main problems


       - Lack of financial means from internal sources for environmental investments in priority fields
               (water and air protection, land protection from erosion and pollution, rational use of
               energy).
       - Low number of economic tools that aim at the sustainable development of the environment
               and natural resources, and which do not include many important components of the
               environment.
       - Ineffective practical application of approved instruments.
       - Legislation shortcomings regarding the forecast of the use of financial tools.



2.5   Privatization and environmental responsibilities

      The basic law for the privatization was approved by the Parliament of Albania in 1991. The
      privatization of the economy in Albania has followed the same stages as in the other CEE countries:

      - Privatization of small enterprises
      - Privatization of small and middle-sized plants
      - Privatization of the strategic sectors/sites

      The privatization of small units took place very quickly and already since 1992 the new owners had
      75% of the commercial and service units in their possession. The privatization of arable land has
      finished even earlier. At present, 71% of the employed at national level are in the private agricultural
      sector, 10% in the non-agricultural private sector and only 19% are employed in the governmental
      sector.

      The policy of the Government for the development of the private sector is focused on the creation of a
      stimulating environment for businesses, facilitation of commerce and development of the agricultural
      sector.

      The Albanian Parliament approved in 1998 the Law “on the privatization of the sectors of special
      interest for the economy” and “The Privatization Strategy”. The goals of the law and the objectives of
      the strategy are:
      1. To increase the effectiveness of strategic sectors.
      2. To reduce their impact on the state budget.
      3. To abolish the monopoly by the liberalization of prices.
      4. To create a favorable environment for fair competition.

      The privatization of strategic sectors is proceeding well. The National Commercial Bank was privatized
      in mid-2000, and the privatization of the Savings Bank is under way. The mining industry is one of the
      strategic sectors where the privatization is presently taking place, mainly through providing concessions
      to foreign companies. In the process of privatization of industrial enterprises it is necessary to include a
      clear definition of legal responsibilities regarding the clean-up of the existing contaminated sites.

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      According to the basic law “On environmental protection”, it is required that giving permission to any
      project or activity, the applicant must first have an environmental permit. So, any request for privatizing
      a state enterprise must be accompanied by an environmental permit, issued by MoE. The agency will
      issue this permit only after the applicant has conducted an environmental assessment. A new law and
      two amendments to the basic environmental law have been prepared in this respect.

      Table 17 Main problems


       - Shortages in the clear definition of legal responsibilities regarding the environmental
               rehabilitation of the industrial sites.
       - The concession process is not accompanied by an environmental license procedure.



2.6   International co-operation

      The international co-operation in the field of environmental management and protection is guided by
      the orientations of the Government’s environmental policies. It aims at fulfilling the obligations that
      result from being party to international environmental conventions and agreements.

      Cooperation with international organizations is an important component of the policy of the Albanian
      Government and MoE. The cooperation of Albania in the international efforts for environmental
      protection includes fields such as: coastal protection, protection of transborder waters, preservation of
      bio-diversity, protection of nature, waste management, climatic changes and public information and
      participation.

      The cooperation of MoE with UNECE is developed within the framework of activities implemented by
      the Environmental Policies Committee, in which Albania is represented. Representatives of MoE and
      other Albanian institutions have participated in the discussion and preparation of environmental policies
      and new conventions and protocols. They took place in the examination of their implementation and
      conformity with signed conventions. Albania has actively taken part in the “Environment for Europe”
      process.

      The cooperation of the Albanian Government with Global Environmental Fund (GEF), World Bank and
      UNDP has made it possible to realise several very important environmental projects, such as “Ohrid
      Lake Preservation” (in cooperation with FYROM), “First national communication regarding the
      obligations to the Convention on climate changes”, “Preservation of wetlands and coastal ecosystems in
      the Mediterranean region”, etc.

      The cooperation with UNEP consists of the membership and fulfillment of respective tasks in several
      important international environmental conventions. The Action Plan for the Mediterranean, Medwet,
      and participation in different related activities are some of the most important activities in this direction.

      The cooperation with the Council of Europe is extended particularly in the field of bio-diversity and
      landscape preservation. Albanian experts have participated in different regional activities for the
      preservation of the bio-diversity, sustainable development of coastal areas and tourism. MoE is a
      member of Naturopa, which acts in the framework of the Council of Europe. This Center promotes the
      concept of a sustainable use of natural resources, as well as the conservation of endangered or
      threatened species, through regional and local projects, different activities, training, etc.

      In the framework of the bilateral and multilateral environmental cooperation, specific attention is given
      to environmental cooperation with the neighboring countries, such as the Former Yugoslav Republic of
      Macedonia, Greece and Montenegro. In cooperation with these countries and with the support of the

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      international organizations, several agreements have been signed and a number of environmental
      initiatives, activities and projects have been undertaken. Amongst them can be mentioned the
      memorandum for the environmental protection and sustainable development between Albania and
      FYROM (September 2000), the agreement with Montenegro regarding issues of the environment and
      bio-diversity of Lake Shkodra (February 2001), the establishment of a trilateral coordination committee
      between Albania, FYROM and Greece for the protection and sustainable management of the Prespa
      national park, etc. Collaboration in the field of environment with our neighbors might be an important
      factor in strengthening political ties in the region. Albania has also signed a memorandum of
      cooperation in the environmental field with Germany since 1993, the only inter-ministerial
      environmental agreement with western countries. In this framework, in 1994, it was possible to remove
      450 ton of expired pesticides that presented a serious threat for many regions of Albania.

      In this framework, Albania is actively participating within the Stability Pact and the program for
      regional environmental reconstruction, being the leading country for several regional projects.

      During 2001 it has been intensively negotiated with WB, DFID, SIDA, CIDA, Italian government and
      especially with CARDS program of EU for outlining of the assistance in the field of environmental
      protection and financing of some concrete projects.

      Table 18 Main problems

        Slow pace in the extension of the bilateral cooperation with the neighboring countries and
        beyond.
        Shortcomings in the fulfillment of obligations resulting from the membership in international
        conventions.
        Delays in funding and implementing the projects in the framework of Stability Pact
        Lack of institutional coordination

2.7   Public awareness and participation

      The public awareness and participation has been among the main activities foreseen in NEAP.

      In the last 5 years, the public information has increased as a result of the numerous activities of the civil
      society in general and the environmental NGOs in particular. Mass media, especially the printed and the
      electronic media, have been and remain the most committed in this area.

      The number of NGOs acting in the environmental field has increased. In 1994 there were only 7, while
      at the end of 2000 the number had reached 70 NGOs. The projects implemented by these organizations
      have increased year by year and their main topic has been the public information and awareness about
      environmental protection.

      The contribution of MoE in support of the NGO activity, even though modest, has increased, especially
      in the funding of awareness programs on the public TV and some NGOs in different cities of Albania.

      In order to formalize the cooperation with the environmental NGOs, MoE has signed a Memorandum
      of Understanding with the NGOs. MoE and the local government in many cities of Albania implement
      activities in coordination with NGOs, especially on the national and international environmental days.

      The right of the public to access information is taken up in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania,
      approved in 1998. In this context, the amendment made in 1998 to the law “On the Environmental
      Protection” guarantees the right of each individual to be informed. The Albanian Parliament ratified the
      Aarhus Convention in 1999 dealing with the latter issue.

      Nevertheless, the developments and achievements in the field of public information, awareness and
      participation can be considered to be modest. Since there is no strategy of NGOs on public awareness

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and participation in the environmental protection, there can be no coordination and effective results in
the activity of NGOs for the achievement of the objective of public participation in the decision-making
process. In the framework of the NGOs–Government partnership, it is necessary to have financial
support for this purpose allocated by the State.

The Environmental Information Center is in the process of being established, but is not organized yet to
publish and offer the necessary environmental information upon request.

In order to give the public the possibility to participate in the solution of national and local environmental
problems, it is necessary that the results of EIA of the economic and social projects should be available
for the public in understandable ways and forms.

Another way for increasing active public participation in the development and implementation of
environmental protection programs is the preparation of Local Environmental Action Plans. The
preparation of these plans is closely related to the local government decentralization, strengthening the
environmental protection institutions and increasing the role of public participation in the development
and implementation of environmental programs. Meanwhile, the preparation of LEAPs will strengthen
the local government authority. This will mark a step forward towards the fulfillment of the conditions
for membership of Albania to the EU. The sanctioning of LEAP preparation requires an approval by the
Government of the respective legal act, which puts a legal foundation to the obligation of each
municipality to prepare the LEAP. Now experience with LEPAs is restricted to two cities (Peshkopi
and Fier). These cities have prepared these plans and the preparation of a LEAP is under way for the
city of Pogradec. REC has prepared and distributed guidelines for this purpose.

MoE, other central institutions and the local government must program and coordinate their activities
with the media and NGOs, in a way that their activities on public information, awareness and
participation in decision-making are not only spontaneous, but a continuing process that extends to all
ages and social categories.

The level of environmental knowledge of the employees and specialists in the local government
concerning the identification and solution of the environmental problems is relatively low. Therefore,
MoE and NGOs need a plan and implement activities for the training of the local government
employees, taking into consideration the specific problems of their administrative units.

Although the media are paying increasingly more attention to subjects of environmental concern, a
professional approach is lacking in some cases. Training of journalists to treat environmental problems
in an objective, professional and timely manner, is another field which should be supported and
encouraged by the MoE.

The main problems regarding the public awareness and participation are shown in Table 19.

Table 19 Main problems


 - Low level of public information, awareness and participation, as well as of the employees of
           local government in environmental protection.
 - Lack of a National Strategy for Public Information and Participation, keeping in mind the
           fulfillment of the obligations of Aarhus Convention.
 - The NGOs are still unconsolidated, whereas the professional level of the mass media in
           dealing with environmental problems is relatively weak.
 - Little financial support for NGOs by the Government and local authorities.




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3.    NEAP UPDATE – OVERVIEW

31    The Need for an updated NEAP

      The first NEAP was prepared in 1993 and approved by the Albanian government in 1994. The process
      was led by the Committee of Environmental Protection involving central Albanian institutions and was
      supported by technical assistance of the World Bank. The first NEAP was its implemented for 3 years.
      This plan was the first experience of the Albanian institutions in preparing a policy program to be
      implemented by the government in the area of environmental protection.

      The review of the existing plan is required for the following reasons:
      a) The economic and social changes in the years 1994 – 2001 are significant, and have considerably
         influenced the environmental situation.
      b) Some of the tasks foreseen in the Plan have not been fulfilled due to lack of commitment, lack of
         funds and non-enforcement of the legal framework.
      c) Presently, there are more institutions working in the environmental field, on both central and local
         government level. The quantity and quality of environmental information have increased, and the
         level of awareness of the environmental situation in the country has improved. Strategies and
         management plans in different fields of environmental protection and economic sectors have been
         prepared.
      d) Public opinion is better formed and more sensitive as a result of the increasing activity of the central
         and local government, NGOs and the greater involvement of the media with regard to the
         environmental problems.
      e) The increasing participation of the country in international agreements and activities, adherence to
         conventions or other instruments of environmental protection at global, European or regional level,
         require new commitments

      The Plan should present the environmental demands of the country, identified by a broad and thorough
      process of identifying the state of the environment, based on the realistic evaluation of costs, financial
      and human resources, as well as responsibilities for its implementation. An Updated NEAP (UNEAP)
      should not be seen as a final document. It must undergo a cyclic process of implementation, monitoring,
      examination and modification.

      The main goal of the UNEAP is to present the wide spectrum of priority environmental actions, costs
      and funding sources. It also aims at shaping the future allocations from the state budget, the Public
      Investments Program, local budgets, enterprises and donors. The Plan will enable the orientation of
      funds towards the interventions of the highest priority, for which the necessary financial resources have
      not been secured yet.

      It will give donors clear information regarding the most effective allocation of funds, in line with the
      assessed needs of the country. The transformation of plans into projects will increase the possibility to
      ensure more funding from local and foreign sources.

3.2   Methodology for NEAP update
      The methodology of preparing the updated NEAP is based on the experience gathered during the
      implementation of the first Plan, the experience with the Environmental Action Plan for Central and
      Eastern European Countries, as well as through consultation of the UNEAPs of several other countries.

      The preparation of the UNEAP is the first result of the work by the experts from different ministries,
      research institutions and NGOs. The basic material has been provided by the eight Thematic Reports
      prepared by the experts according to the following groups:

      - Working Group on institutional strengthening and legal framework
      - Working Group on air, water and wastes
      - Working Group on bio-diversity

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      -   Working Group on health and environment
      -   Working Group on financial instruments
      -   Working Group on public awareness and sustainable development
      -   Working Group on population and urban development
      -   Working Group on environmental projects

      The Thematic Groups have made use of information and data on the environment in Albania, prepared
      by MoE, strategies for sectoral development and administration plans prepared by the respective
      ministries and results of environmental projects. Many of these documents have been prepared with
      foreign technical assistance.
      The Working Groups have assessed the situation, identified the problems and have determined the
      measures for eliminating, mitigating or preventing the environmental problems. These Reports were
      presented in a workshop organized in Tirana in January 2001. Besides the Thematic Groups,
      representatives of central institutions and NGOs participated in this workshop.

      The draft of UNEAP was prepared by the Core Group based on the Thematic Reports, as well as
      through consultation of other sources.
      This draft was presented at the workshop “Environment Growth and Poverty”, organized in Tirana, on
      18-19 April 2001 by WB and DFID, with the participation of directors and experts from central and
      local institutions, research and scientific institutes, NGOs and other invitees.

      The Inter-ministerial Group, led by the Deputy Chair of the Council of Ministers, has monitored the
      process of preparing the UNEAP in all stages.

      The draft of the updated NEAP has been sent to ministries and other central institutions for comments.
      After the presentation of comments by the Core Group, the final draft should be approved by the Inter-
      ministerial Group and finally by the Council of Ministers.

3.3   Objectives of UNEAP
      The main objective of the new Plan is to create the basis in ensuring an integrated environmental
      administration. It aims at making the environmental administration more effective, improving the
      capacities of the institutions, communities and individuals, mitigating and preventing environmental
      problems, strengthening the basis for the utilization of the natural resources in line with the principle of
      sustainable development and with promoting economic growth and reduction of poverty.

      The expected outputs from the implementation of the Plan will be:
       Strengthening of the institutional capacities
       Improvement of the legal framework and its implementation
       Prevention and mitigation of the environmental problems
       Improvement of the quality of the state of the environment
       Involvement of the community and private entrepreneurs in poverty alleviation and sustainable
       environmental management
       Reduction of the present level of poverty
       Increase of public participation in environmental protection
       Creation of the required conditions for membership of the country to the EU

3.4   Identification of Priority Actions

      The problems and actions identified by the Thematic Groups have been evaluated.

      The criteria to select the most effective activities for achievement of the objectives of the Plan relate to:
       The urgent character of the problem
       The financial needs for solving the problems
       Sustainability (long-term economic and environmental solutions)
       The level of institutional capacities (the ability of the institutions to solve the determined problem)
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          The possibility of inter-sectoral integration of the activity in a synergic way
          The effect on poverty reduction
          The level of public support.

         The plans and actions linked to the implementation of environmental projects, policies, legal, regulatory
         and institutional framework, capacity building as well as investments, are to be undertaken in three
         stages. Their implementation will be accompanied by activities promoting public information and
         participation. The Plan is expected to be implemented in a 5-year period:

         1. Short-term projects represent at low cost and at the same time are considered as a prerequisite for
            the implementation of the UNEAP - 2001.
         2. Mid-term projects at low or middle cost that can be integrated into the on-going economic programs.
         3. Long-term projects with middle or high costs are related to considerable investments, for which
            there are no sufficient technical and economic data.

         The criteria, problems, objectives and the respective categories are provided in Table 20

         Table 20 Development of Action Plan: Criteria, Objectives and Actions

  Criteria for          The groups of          Objectives of the            Criteria for          Groups of priority
  problem               priority problems      Action Plan                  classifying the       actions
  assessment                                                                actions
   The impact on           Overexploitatio         Implementation of      Financial              Political
      the economical         n of natural             the principle of           capacities           measures
      productivity           resources and            sustainable            Institutional          Legal and
      and                    endangered               development                implementation       regulatory
      effectiveness          ecosystems              Regeneration of            capacities           measures
   Impact on               Problems of              natural resources      Level of               Institutional
      human health           Environmental           Prevention and             political and        capacity
   Impact on                Health and               mitigation of              public support       building
      poverty                hazardous                environmental          Sustainability         Investments
      reduction              materials                problems               Inter-sectoral         Public
   Impact on the           Specific                Promotion of               integration          information
      ecosystems             problems of the          optimal use of         Emergency               and awareness
   Spatial                  environmental            natural resources      Impact on              Increase of
      distribution of        elements                 for economic               poverty              public and civil
      the problem                                     sustainability and         reduction            society role in
   Level of                                          effectiveness                                   decision-
      emergency of                                   Increasing of the                               making
      the problem                                     capacities of the
                                                      institutions and
                                                      communities in the
                                                      area of
                                                      environmental
                                                      management
                                                     Improvement of
                                                      the quality of life




3.5      Discussion on the costs and benefits

         The actions and projects included in the UNEAP are related to items that influence economic growth
         and poverty reduction:

          Improvement of the environmental, urban and rural infrastructure as determining factors in the
            reduction of the water borne diseases (contaminated drinking water, sewerage and urban waste).

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 Improvement of the living standards through implementation of programs for management of
   natural resources and bio-diversity.
 Encouragement and support of professional associations and other organizations, for resource
   management (organizations of foresters, fishermen, beekeepers, farmers, fruit-growers, etc.)
 Clean up of contaminated sites will bring about the rehabilitation of damaged natural resources and
   reduction of environmental and health risks.
 Preservation of biodiversity, forests and other natural resources.
 Strengthening of environmental education in relation with reduction of poverty.
 NGOs will be encouraged to extend their activities in the rural and urban areas with a high level of
   poverty. Furthermore, projects that aim at the sustainable utilization of biodiversity, are important
   for environmental education and awareness.

The preservation of natural resources ensures indirect benefits. For example forests have a considerable
effect on cleaning the air from pollution, in reducing the erosion effects and in regulating the climate.
The economical assessment of these benefits is relatively difficult.
On the other hand, natural resources provide people with a series of enjoying experiences such as nature
walks, tourism, etc.

A number of activities proposed in the Action Plan will have indirect benefits for capacity building and
may improve and complete the legal framework.
The benefits from the preservation of the natural resources may not only have a local character; they
might be of regional and global importance for example the preservation of coastal lagoons that are the
habitats for many migratory birds.

                                   Table 21 Benefits of the Action plan

 Projects                 Benefits
 Institutional Projects   Development of human resources; improvement of administrative effectiveness;
                          increase of income from the sustainable use of natural resources; increase of
                          quality of life through the environmental improvement
 Reduction of air         Improvement of health through the reduction of dusts and polluting components by
 pollution                traffic, increase of aesthetic values of bio-diversity
 Protection of waters     Improvement of health, reduction of poverty
 Water supply             Improvement of health, reduction of poverty
 Projects related to      Improvement of health, quality of life, preservation of water resources,
 drinking water and       development of tourism, increase of economic effectiveness, poverty reduction
 sewage treatment
 Increase of awareness    Increase of effectiveness in the use of water, reduction of pollution, reduction of
 water use                rehabilitating costs
 Management of land       Increase of productivity and sustainable use of land, poverty reduction, incentives
 resources                on development of sustainable agriculture
 Management of            Improvement of health, increase of aesthetic values, prevention of environmental
 wastes                   pollution
 Forestry                 Reduction of land erosion, reduction of floods, improvement of bio-diversity,
                          stabilization of watersheds, increase of income from firewood and timber, poverty
                          reduction and economic growth, tourism development, reduction of climate
                          changes, cleaner air, improvement in the quality of life
 Preservation of bio-     Improvement of the protection of watersheds, improvement of the protection of
 diversity                habitats of endangered species, improvement of the protection of habitats of
                          migratory birds, improvement of the recreational environment and increase of
                          income from eco-tourism.
 Rehabilitation of hot    Improvement of health, regeneration of natural resources, poverty reduction,
 spots and sensitive      increase of the economic value and reestablishment of the natural function of the
 areas                    polluted areas




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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
      Many activities in the Action Plan have been dedicated to capacity building. The advantages resulting
      from the implementation of these activities will include an increase of technical skills in environmental
      management in public institutions, NGOs and the private sector in the direction of preservation of
      biodiversity in the protected areas, protection of plant genetic diversity, monitoring techniques,
      administration of the ecological data and land use planning. As a result, central institution will improve
      their capacities for dealing with environmental problems.

      Through adequate implementation of actions for the improvement of the environmental situation, the
      Government will achieve the objectives established in this Plan and will fulfill the obligations towards
      the international community. The latter are a result from being a party to environmental conventions or
      other agreements on a bi- or multilateral scale.

      Table 21 represents a summary of some benefits resulting from the activities described in the Action
      Plan. These gains and benefits represent part of the overall impact that will be generated by this Plan.

4.    ACTION PLAN COMPONENTS

4.1   Integrated environmental management and main elements of the Action Plan.
      In order to have an effective environmental administration it is necessary to have an integrated
      environmental policy. This Action Plan gives a general framework for the different management
      activities, which determines a number of specific areas that together form the basis for an effective
      environmental policy. The common factor that makes environmental management successful is the
      inter-sectoral integration with the participation of all interested parties.
      The Plan also presents a number of legal and regulatory reforms next to the actions that increase the
      management and operational capacities of the institutions involved in environmental issues.
      These actions are completed by a number of priority investments that aim at preventing and mitigating
      pollution and promote the effective utilization of resources.
      A broad awareness raising and dissemination of environmental information are embodied in all the
      activities.

      In brief, the Action Plan supports the activities in the following key areas:
       Development of environmental policies and programs
       Legal and regulatory reforms
       Institutional strengthening and capacity building
       Priority investments regarding prevention and mitigation of pollution, as well as preservation and
          effective use of resources
       Environmental awareness and education

      Phases in the implementation of the Action Plan
      The National Environmental Action Plan will be implemented in phases: short-term (0-1 year), mid-term
      (1-3 years) and long-term (3-5 years). Technical assistance and capital investments are divided into three
      groups. Activities of the short-term phase will need according to calculations a total of US$20 million.
      The mid-term phase will need approximately US$32 million, whereas the long-term phase the figure is
      about US$108 million. The total cost for the implementation of the Action Plan not including sectoral
      programs included in the PIP 2001-2003 is calculated at about US$160 million. Financing from the state
      budget is might vary between 10 to 20% of the total equaling at about US$32 million. Different phases of
      the plan are represented in the Tables 22-25. Specific activities are described in detail here under.

      Many of the activities included in the Plan are being implemented within complementary sectoral
      programs which financing has been obtained totally or partially (drinking water supply, sewage
      treatment consisting in building of sewage treatment plants in Pogradec and Vlora and municipal
      landfill site in Lezha, improvement in the drinking water supply and sewerage networks in several
      cities, irrigation, national parks etc) that amount up to a total of US$250 million.



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      Updated National Environmental Action Plan
      Plans are being undertaken within the ongoing sectoral programs, which have secured or partially secured
      funding for example the construction of sewage treatment plants in Pogradec and Vlora and the waste
      landfill in Lezha, and the measures for improving the water supply and sewerage systems in several
      cities. These activities reach a total of 250 million USD. The proposed structure of the Action Plan is
      given in the Tables 5.1 - 5.4. The specific activities given in these tables are described in more detail
      later.

4.2   Policies and Program Development

      The development and implementation of sustainable environmental policies, action plans and their
      integration into sectoral policies during the process of economical reform, is the main component of the
      environmental management system.

      The development of sectoral environmental policies requires the implementation of a number of
      supporting studies based on a detailed analysis of the environmental situation, sources of environmental
      impact and mitigation measures at national level.
      The environmental integration and sustainable development will be achieved through a number of
      activities in the area of policies, institutional strengthening, development of national capacities in
      environmental management to establish an effective system for identifying the priorities, their
      transformation into action plans accompanied by economic, legal administrative and technical
      measures. Political documents that need to be prepared are:

      1- Action Plan for the implementation of the Water Strategy
      In order to meet the challenges in the area of sustainable management of water reserves, the
      implementation of the existing water area through a realistic action plan is urgently required. The
      activities to be carried out include:
       Development and completion of the legal framework that strongly supports sustainable utilization,
          and avoids overlapping of legal competencies
       Establishment and strengthening of water management structures
       Development of capacities in the area of sustainable water management
       Situational assessment in the water sector
       Inventory of water sources and their use

      2- Strategy and Action Plan for managing and cleaning urban sewage
      There is still no operational sewage treatment plant in Albania. Sewage is directly discharged into
      surface waters. The design of the strategy and Action Plan for sewage management will provide the
      optimal solutions for controlling and mitigating environmental pollution from these pollution sources,
      especially in the coastal area. The specific activities of this plan include:
       Situational assessment for this sector and its performance
       Identification of main problems and their solution
       Design of the strategy and Action Plan for sewage management

      3- Strategy for sustainable management of urban waste and sewage in rural areas
      The sustainable management of domestic wastes and sewage is one of the aspects in poverty reduction.
      It is directly connected to improvement of human health and often has economic benefits.

      Actions and projects

      Table 22 Environmental policies (short-term and mid-term stage)

                                                                                      Fund,
                                                   Responsible                                Funding
       No     Action                                             Funding Source        Mil.
                                                   Institution                                Situation
                                                                                      USD
       1      Sustainable Development
                                                   MoE, MBET     Donors, Government   0,20    Requested
              Strategy

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      Updated National Environmental Action Plan
                                                                                Fund,
                                             Responsible                                Funding
 No     Action                                             Funding Source        Mil.
                                             Institution                                Situation
                                                                                USD
 2      Sustainable Agriculture
                                             MBU, MoE      Donors, Government   0,60    Requested
        Development Strategy
 3      Environmental Monitoring             MoE, ASH,
                                                           Donors, Government   0.05    Requested
        Strategy                             MBET
 4      Strategy for the Management of       MEPP, MM,
                                                           Donors, Government    0,2    Requested
        Abandoned Industries                 MBET
 5      Sustainable Transport                MT,   MM,
                                                           Donors, Government    0,4    Requested
        Development Strategy                 MBET
 6      Sustainable Tourism                  MPPT, MM,
                                                           Donors, Government    0,4    Requested
        Development Strategy                 MBET
 7      Public Information and               MoE, NGO,
                                                           Donors, Government    0,1    Requested
        Participation Strategy               MBET
 8      Strategy and Action Plan for         MBU, MM,
                                                           Donors, Government    0,4    Requested
        Protection of Land from Erosion      MBET
 9      Natural Disaster Protection          MPVD,
                                                           Donors, Government    0,3    Requested
        Strategy                             MBET
 10     Strategy for Cooperating with
        Business Associations and the
                                             MoE, OJQ,
        Introduction of Environmental                      Donors, Government   0,25    Requested
                                             MBET
        Management System in
        Economic Activities
 11     Strategy and Action Plan for
                                             MPPT, MM,
        Sewerage treatment in Urban                        Donors, Government   0,15    Requested
                                             MBET
        Areas
 12     Strategy and Action Plan for
                                             MPPT,
        Water Supply, Sewerage and
                                             MPVD,         Donors, Government   0,15    Requested
        Waste Management in Rural
                                             MBET
        Areas
 13     Development of Programs for          MPPT,
        Water Strategy Implementation        MBU,          Donors, Government    0,1    Requested
                                             MBET
 14     Strategy and Action Plan for         KRrTSH,
        Physical Territorial Planning        MoE, KRrT,    Donors, Government    0,5    Requested
                                             MBET
 15     Strategy and Action Plan for the     MM, MEPP,
        Management of Hazardous,             MSH,          Donors, Government   0,45    Requested
        Industrial and Medical Wastes        MBET
 16     Strategy and Action Plan for         MoE,
        Phasing out Ozone Depleting          MPEP, OJQ,    Donors, Government    0,1    Requested
        Substances                           MBET
 17     Strategy and Action Plan for the     MoE,
        Sustainable Management of            MAF/GDFG
                                                           Donors, Government   0,05    Requested
        Lagoons                              K,DP,
                                             MBET
 18     Program for safe closure of
                                             MEPP,
        urban and industrial waste
                                             MPW, MoE
        dumps that pollute the                             Donors, Government    0,5    Requested
                                             MBET,
        environment and endanger the
                                             MPVD
        human health
 19     Renewal of Sectoral
                                             Respective
        Development Strategies towards
                                             Ministries,   Donors, Government   0,25    Requested
        Sustainable Development and
                                             MBET
        Environmental Protection




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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
                                                                                Fund,
                                             Responsible                                Funding
 No     Action                                             Funding Source        Mil.
                                             Institution                                Situation
                                                                                USD
 20     Preparation of Local                 MoE, MLG,
        Environmental Action Plans           NGO,
                                             Munici-       Government           0,15    Requested
                                             palities,
                                             MBET
 21     Preparation of Local                 MoH, MoE,
        Environmental Health Action          MLG, NGO,
        Plans                                Munici-       Government           0,15    Requested
                                             palities
                                             MBET
 22     Design of Public
                                             MoE, MPW,
        Communication Plans for
                                             MAF, NGO,     Donors, Government    0,1    Requested
        Water, Waste, Bio-diversity and
                                             MBET
        Forestry Management
 23     Action plan for climate change                     GEF/UNDP,
                                             MM            Albanian             0.01    Secured
                                                           Government




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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
Table 23 Legal and regulatory framework (short-term and mid-term stage)

 No     Action                               Responsible       Funding       Fund,      Funding
                                             Institution       Source        Mil. USD   Situation
 1      Law on Environmental Impact          MoE               Government,   0.02       Planned
        Assessment                                             Donors
 2      Law on Protection of clean Air       MoE               Government,   0.02       Secured
                                                               Donors
 3      Law on Air Emission Levels           MoE, Respective   Government,   0.02       Secured
                                             Ministries        Donors
 4      Law on Protected Areas               MoE, MAF/GDFG     Government,   0.03       Secured
                                                               Donors
 5      Law on Nature and Biodiversity       MoE, MAF/         Government,   0.05       Secured
        Protection                           GDFG, MEPP        Donors
 6      Law on the Protection of Marine      MoE               Government,   -          Secured
        Environment from Pollution and
        Damages
 7      Environmental framework for          MoE, MF, MBET     Donors        0.1        Requested
        environmental          economic
        instruments (tax on carbon,
        packaging, construction rubble,
        air emission, hazardous waste,
        urban waste, selective taxing on
        vehicles, charges on the use of
        hazardous chemicals
 8      Law on Environmental                 MoE, MBET         Government,   0.03       Requested
        Protection Inspectorate                                Donors
 9      New law on Environmental             MoE, MBET         Government,   0.03       Requested
        Protection                                             Donors
 10     Law on Standards of Water            MoE, Respective   Government,   0.02       Planned
        Discharges                           Ministries        Donors
 11     Law on Protection of Waters          MoE, Respective   Government,   0.03       Planned
                                             Ministries        Donors
 12     Law on Protection of Soil            MoE, MAF          Government,   0.03       Planned
                                                               Donors
 13     Law on Levels of Discharges in       MoE, Respective   Government,   0.02       Planned
        the Soil                             Ministries        Donors
 14     Law on the Protection of             MoE               Government,   0.02       Secured
        Transboundary Lakes                                    Donors
 15     Law on the Protection of             MoE               Government,   0.05       Requested
        Coastal Area                                           Donors
 16     Law on Industrial Accidents          MoE, MEPP         Government,   0.02       Requested
                                                               Donors
 17     Law on Waste Management              MoE, MEPP         Government,   0.04       Requested
                                                               Donors
 18     Law on Hazardous Waste and           MoE               Government,   0.04       Requested
        Chemicals                                              Donors
 19     Law on Public Information and        MoE, NGO          Government,   0.02       Requested
        Participation                                          Donors
 20     Amendment of the Constitution        MoE, MJ           Government,   0.01       Requested
        of RA                                                  Donors
 21     Amendment of Penal Code              MoE, MJ           Government,   0.01       Requested
                                                               Donors
 22     Amendment of Civil Procedure         MoE, MJ           Government,   0.01       Requested
        Code                                                   Donors
 23     Legal framework on the               MoE, MPVD         Government,   0.05       Requested
        responsibilities of local                              Donors
        government in the are of
        environmental protection
 24     Amendment of Urban Planning          MoE, MPW,         Government,   0.02       Requested

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
        Law                                  KRrTSH             Donors
 25     Amendment of Laws that               MoE, MF            Government,   0.02       Requested
        Include Economic Instruments                            Donors
 26     Application of Economic              MoE, MJ,MF,        Government,   0.05       Requested
        Instruments foreseen in the Law      MPW, MAF,          Donors
        on Water Resources                   MBET
 27     Law on the administration of         MEPP, MM, MSH      Government,   0.05       Requested
        chemicals                                               Donors

Table 24 Institutional framework (short-term and mid-term stage)

 No     Action                                  Responsible    Funding        Fund,      Funding
                                                Institution    Source         Mil. USD   Situation
 1      Creation of the State Commission for    Council of     Government,    0,2        Requested
        Sustainable Development                 Ministers      Donors

 2      Creation of the Ministry of             Council of     Government,    0,25       Requested
        Environment                             Ministers,     Donors
                                                Parliament
 3      Organization as a separate structure    Council of     Government     1.2        Requested
        of Environmental Protection             Ministers
        Inspectorate
 4      Strengthening of MoE and Regional       MoE            Government,    1.2        Requested
        Environmental Agencies                                 Donors
 5      Creation and Strengthening of           Council of     Government,    0,5        Requested
        Existing Environmental Protection       Ministers,     Donors
        Structures in Respective Ministries     Respective
                                                ministries,
                                                MM
 6      Creation and Strengthening of           MLG,           Government,    0,5        Requested
        Existing Environmental Protection       Munici-        Donors
        Structures in the Local Government      palities
 7      Creation of the Center for Clean        MoE, MBET      Donors,        0,25       Requested
        Technologies                                           Government
 8      Strengthening of the Environmental      MoE, MBET      Donors,        0,5        Requested
        Information Center                                     Government
 9      Strengthening of Environmental          MoE            Donors,        0,5        Requested
        Monitoring Institutions                                Government
 10     Institutional Strengthening and         MoE            GEF/WB         0,5        Planned
        Regulatory Framework for Bio-
        diversity Protection
 11     Establishment of the National           MH, MoE,       WHO,           0,25       Requested
        Information System for                  MBET           Albanian
        Environmental Health                                   Government
 12     Capacity Building for Public            MoE, NGO       Donors,        0,15       Requested
        Participation in Decision-making                       Albanian
                                                               Government
 13     Establishment of the center for         MM, MBET       Donors,        1.5        Requested
        sustainable development and its                        Albanian
        laboratories                                           Government


Table 25.1 Projects (short-term stage)

 No     Project Title                           Responsible     Funding       Fund,      Funding
                                                Institution     Source        Mil. USD   Situation
 1      Feasibility study and project for       MPW,            EU/PHARE      0,551      Secured
        cleaning polluted waters in             Gjirokastra
        Gjirokastra                             Municipality

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 No     Project Title                            Responsible      Funding        Fund,      Funding
                                                 Institution      Source         Mil. USD   Situation
 2      Elimination of 50 tonnes of toxic        MM               Switzerland    0,69       Secured
        waste, stock of the Albanian army
 3      Improvement of public services and       MPW/ Tirana      Italy          4,67       Partially
        environment in Tirana                    Municipality                               Secured
 4      Project for the conservation of Ohrid    MoE              GEF/WB/        2          Secured
        Lake                                                      Albanian
                                                                  Government
 5      Inventory of greenhouse gases            MoE              GEF/UNDP,      0,364      Secured
                                                                  Albanian
                                                                  Government
 6      Study and design of sewage cleaning      MPW, Tirana      Italy          2,5        Planned
        plant in Tirana                          Municipality
 7      Construction of urban waste site in      MPW, Lezha       Italy          1,3        Secured
        Lezha                                    Municipality
 8      Elimination of arsenic solution in the   MEPP, MoE,       BU/Italy       2          Planned
        nitrogenous fertilizers plant in Fier    Fier
                                                 Municipality
 9      Design of action plan for the            MoE,             GEF/WB,        0,2        Secured
        watershed management of Ohrid lake       Pogradec         Albanian
                                                 Municipality     Government
 10     Feasibility study and management         MB, MoE,         Donor,         0,4        Requested
        plan for the watershed of Drin river     Shkodër          Albanian
                                                 Municipality,    Government
                                                 MBET
 11     Rehabilitation of the small scale        MAF              IFAD/UNDP      10,9       Secured
        irrigation system                                         ,   Albanian
                                                                  Government
 12     Irrigation system in Korça               MAF              BI, Albanian   6,3        Secured
                                                                  Government
 13     Removal of pesticides                    MAF/MoE          BE/PHARE       2,2        Secured
 14     Feasibility study for the development    TDC              EU/Bangkok     1,1        Secured
        of tourism in the southern coast of                       Facility
        Albania
 15     Preparation of the Masterplan for        MT               EU/PHARE       0,55       Secured
        transport sector
 16     Rehabilitation of water supply           MPW, Durrës      WB/IDA         12,5       Secured
        system; construction of sewerage         Municipality
        system in Durrës
 17     Reconstruction of the potable water      MPW              Italy          34,15      Partially
        distribution system and sewerage of                                                 Secured
        Tirana
 18     Reconstruction of main supply lines      MPW,             Austria        4,1        Secured
        of potable water in Shkodër              Shkodër
                                                 Municipality
 19     Rehabilitation of sewerage in Vlora      MPW, Vlora       EU/PHARE       10,3       Secured
                                                 Municipality
 20     Renewal of management plan for the       MoE, KZHT,       Donor          0,5        Requested
        coastal area                             MPW
 21     Renewal of the plans for the urban       KRrTSH,          Albanian       1          Requested
        development of the cities                KrRT of          Government
                                                 Municipalities
 22     Management of Coastal Lagoons            MoE,DPPK         EU/PHARE       1,5        Planned
 23     Design of Environmental                  MoE, MBET        Donors,        0,5        Requested
        Rehabilitation Plans for Ishëm and                        Albanian
        Erzen rivers                                              Government
 24     Integration of Environmental             MH, MoE,         Albanian       0,15       Requested
        Education Programs in the Curricula      MBET             Government
        of the schools of all levels

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 No     Project Title                           Responsible     Funding          Fund,       Funding
                                                Institution     Source           Mil. USD    Situation
  25    Strengthening of MoE and its                MM              DFID               0.7     Secured
        Environmental Inspectorate                                Albanian
                                                                     Gov.
  26    Strengthening of MoE                        MM           Italian Gov           0.6     Secured
                                                                  Albanian
                                                                     Gov
  27    Emergency rehabilitation of the           Bashkia           SIDA               0.4     Secured
        urban waste site in Tirana                Tirane          Albanian
                                                   MM                Gov
  28    Inventory of hazardous materials          MEPP,            Donors               2    Requested
        and their disposal                         MM             Albanian
                                                  MBET               Gov
  29    Implementation of end of pipe             MEPP             Donors               4    Requested
        technologies in the industry of oil        MM             Albanian
        extraction and refinning                  MBET               Gov

Table 25.2 Projects (mid-term stage)

 No     Project Title                           Responsible    Funding           Fund,       Funding
                                                Institution    Source            Mil. USD    Situation
 1      Forest management project               MAF/GDFG       Italy, Switzer-   19,9        Partially
                                                               land, Japan/                  Secured
                                                               WB, Albanian
                                                               Gov.
 2      Irrigation system II                    MAF,           Japan/WB,         25,3        Partially
                                                Municipaliti   Albanian Gov.                 Secured
                                                es
 3      Rehabilitation of water supply system   MPW,           Germany           22,27       Partially
        in Korça                                Korça                                        Secured
                                                Municipality
 4      Reconstruction of water supply and      MPW, Kruja     Germany           7,1         Partially
        sewerage in Kruja                       Municipality                                 Secured
 5      Reconstruction of sewerage system in    MPW,           EU/Cross          5,34        Secured
        Saranda                                 Saranda        Border
                                                Municipality
 6      Rehabilitation of sewerage system in    MPW,           EU/PHARE          2,04        Secured
        Lezha                                   Lezha
                                                Municipality
 7      Rehabilitation of water supply in       MPW,           EU/Cross          3,35        Secured
        Gjirokastra                             Gjirokastra    Border
                                                Municipality
 8      Construction of sewage treatment        MPW,           Germany           7,89        Secured
        plant in Kavaja                         Kavaja
                                                Municipality
 9      Machinery and equipment for             MPW            Italy             1,43        Secured
        collecting and transporting urban
        waste
 10     Management of coastal area              MoE,           Japan /WB         8,35        Planned
                                                KZHT,
                                                Municipaliti
                                                es
 11     Construction of sewage cleaning         MPW,           Germany           9           Secured
        plant in Pogradec                       Pogradec
                                                Municipality




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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 No     Project Title                           Responsible    Funding         Fund,      Funding
                                                Institution    Source          Mil. USD   Situation
 12     Reconstruction of sewerage system in    MPW,           Donor           10         Requested
        Shkodër                                 Shkodër
                                                Municipality
 13     Construction of urban waste landfill    MPW,           Donor           0,56       Requested
        in Shkodër                              Shkodër
                                                Municipality
 14     Construction of urban waste landfill    MPW,           Donor           1          Requested
        in Pogradec                             Pogradec
                                                Municipality
 15     Design of management plans for          MAF/           GEF             1,5        Planned
        National Parks                          GDFG /
                                                MoE
 16     Feasibility study for the protection    MoE,           Donor           0,4        Requested
        and sustainable management of the       Shkodër
        watershed of Shkodra lake               Municipality
 17     Feasibility study for the protection    MoE, Devoll    Donor           0,4        Requested
        and sustainable management of the       & Korça
        watershed of Prespa lake                Municipa-
                                                lities
 18     Feasibility study for centralized       MPBT, MM       Donor           0,65       Requested
        treatment of hazardous wastes
 19     Design of management plan for the       MoE,           Donor           0,5        Requested
        watershed of Shkumbin river             Municipality
                                                Elbasan &
                                                Librazhd
 20     Conservation of the coastal eco-        MoE, Vlora     GEF/UNDP,       1,85       Secured
        system in the Vlora Bay                 Municipality   Albanian Gov.
 21     Creation of private forests             MAF/           Albanian        0,5        Requested
                                                GDFG,          Government
                                                Local Gov.
 22     Implementation of the management        MAF/GDFG       Donor +         1          Requested
        plan of National Park of Dajti          , MoE,         Albanian Gov.
        Mountain                                Tirana
                                                Municipality
 23     Action Plan for the rehabilitation of   MoE,           Donor + Local   5          Requested
        industrial and urban “hot spots”, and   Respective     Gov.
        feasibility studies                     Ministries
                                                and Munici-
                                                palities
 24     Support for NGOs in the                 MoE,           Albanian Gov.   0,2        Requested
        Organization of Activities for the      Respective
        Public Awareness                        Ministries &
                                                Munici-
                                                palities


Table 25.3 Projects (long-term phase)

 No     Project Title                           Responsible    Funding         Fund,      Funding
                                                Institution    Source          Mil. USD   Situation
 1      Construction of sewage treatment        MPW, Kruja     Germany         10         Planned
        plant in Kruja                          Municipality
 2      Construction of sewage treatment        MPW,           Germany         12         Planned
        plant in Korça                          Korça
                                                Municipality




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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 No     Project Title                             Responsible    Funding         Fund,       Funding
                                                  Institution    Source          Mil. USD    Situation
 3      Construction of sewage treatment          MPW,           Donor (Italy)   9           Requested
        plant in Lezha                            Lezha
                                                  Municipality
                                                  , MBET
 4      Construction of sewage treatment          MPW,           Donor           25          Requested
        plant in Shkodër                          Shkodër        (Austria)
                                                  Municipality
                                                  , MBET
 5      Construction of sewage treatment          MPW,           Donor (The      10          Requested
        plant in Saranda                          Saranda        Netherlands)
                                                  Municipality
                                                  , MBET
 6      Construction of urban waste landfill      MMP, Korça     Donor           20          Requested
        in Korça                                  Municipality
                                                  , MBET
 7      Project for urban waste landfill in       MPW,           Italy           0,5         Planned
        Tirana and Durrës                         Tirana &
                                                  Durrës
                                                  Munici-
                                                  palities
 8      Construction of urban waste landfill      MPW,           Italy           10          Planned
        for Tirana and Durrës                     Tirana &
                                                  Durrës
                                                  Munici-
                                                  palities
 9      Development of responsible fishing        MAF/DP         Japan/WB        9           Secured
        operations
 10     Rehabilitation of irrigation/drainage     MAF            WB/France       40,8        Secured
        network

 11     Rehabilitation of the protected area in   MAF/           Donor           0,65        Requested
        Rushkull                                  GDFG,
                                                  MoE, MBET
 12     Feasibility study and sustainable         MAF/           Donor           0,5         Requested
        management plan of the watershed of       GDFG,
        Vjosa river                               MoE,
                                                  Respective
                                                  Munici-
                                                  palities,
                                                  MBET
 13     Increase of state and private tree        MAF/GDFG       Donor,          5           Requested
        nurseries                                 Local Gov.,    Albanian Gov.
                                                  MBET
 14     Design and implementation of pilot        MPW, Local     Donor,          0,5         Requested
        projects for sewage treatment in rural    Gov., MBET     Albanian Gov.
        areas
 15     Design and implementation of pilot        MPW, Local     Donor,          1           Requested
        projects promoting economic               Gov., MBET     Albanian Gov.
        activities in areas with high levels of
        poverty
  16    Rehabilitation of the industrial            MM,            Donors,             35      Requested
        and urban hot spots in Durres,            Ministries       Albanian
        Vlora,     Sharre,    etc      and,       Local Gov.         Gov.
        construction of an facility for the        MBET
        treatment of hazardous wastes.
  17    Preparation of urban master plans           MPPT           Donors,             1,5     Requested
        for the cities of Tirane, Durres,           MM             Albanian

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 No     Project Title                         Responsible    Funding          Fund,        Funding
                                              Institution    Source           Mil. USD     Situation
        Vlore,     Sarande,      Pogradec,Local Gov              Gov.
        Shkoder, Lezhe, etj                MBET
  18    Preparation    of     development  MPPT                Donors,           1,2         Requested
        master plans for the coastal area.   MM                Albanian
                                           MBET                  Gov.
  19    Reforestation in the coastal area MBU, MM,             Donors,           0.5         Requested
                                            OJQ                Albanian
                                           MBET                  Gov.
  20    Implementation of the action plan MBU, MM,             Donors,            1          Requested
        for protection of land from the    MBET                Albanian
        erossion                                                 Gov.


The strategy will provide:
 Situational analysis and assessment
 Determining directions for sustainable management of waste and sewage, in conformity with
   economic-social conditions
 Preparation of the legal and regulatory framework
 Preparation and implementation of demonstration projects

4 - Local Environmental Action Plans

The preparation of local action plans by municipalities has recently started. The development of local
action plans is in conformity with the strategy of decentralization of power to local government. The
increase of the role of NGOs and communities in the decision-making process is very important.
Specific activities in these plans include:
 The organization of training programs with the participation of interested parties
 Environmental situation assessment at local level
 Identification of priorities and solutions
 Establishment of local inter-sectoral coordination structures
 Development of partnership through NGOs and local government

5 - Strategy for approximation of the environmental legislation with EU legislation

In line with the efforts of the country to start the negotiations and sign the Association and Stabilization
Agreement with EU, approximation of the environmental legislation with the respective EU legislation
will be conducted within the framework of the national strategy for the approximation of Albanian
legislation with EU.

6 - National strategy for integrated territorial planning

The uncontrolled urban and rural developments, especially the developments in main cities and along
the coast, have caused considerable damage, which in some areas are irreversible. With this in mind,
the need for strategic territorial planning that would cover urban, rural and coastal areas is a priority.
Meanwhile, some plans for specific areas are approved, but these plans have not taken environmental
protection into consideration as much as they should have. The preparation of the strategic plan will
determine the directions for an integrated policy for the territorial planning and development, as well as
environmental protection, with the stress on protection and wise use of land as a important natural asset.
The plan will create the necessary framework for sectoral policies, also taking into account different
forms of property. The specific activities will include:
 Approval of the management plan for coastal areas
 Assessment of the existing situation and design of maps on this subject

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 Inventory and preparation of plans for the mitigation of pollution for contaminated and damaged
   lands
 Identification of priorities
 Renewal of existing plans taking environmental protection into account
 Design of territorial planning strategy
 Design of action plans according to priority problems (for urban, rural, and coastal areas,
   infrastructure, etc.)

7 - Plan for hazardous, industrial and hospital waste management

In 1998, the Government prepared the national Plan for urban waste management, which did not
include the industrial and hazardous solid wastes. The situation is causing concern and requires an
action plan that should include the following activities:
 Assessment of the situation and identification of priorities
 Preparation of the record of hazardous wastes
 Assessment of environmental health risk emanating from the hazardous, industrial and hospital
    waste
 Preparation of legal and regulatory framework
 Establishment of institutional structures for management of these wastes
 Establishment of a monitoring system
 Preparation of training programs

8 - Management Plan for Chemicals

The system for controlling the use of chemicals is the responsibility of several central institutions that
do not coordinate, as they should. The legal framework for the management of chemicals is also very
poor. There are considerable quantities of expired or unusable chemicals that are stored after industrial
plants were shut downs (obsolete stocks). A system for the management of chemicals is urgently
needed. The international community has elaborated a number of instruments and programs regarding
the management of chemicals. These include obligations but also offer possibilities for national
capacity building in this area. The activities in the framework of this plan are:
 Inventory of the stored chemicals, expired or unusable
 Analysis of the existing legal framework
 Design of a modern legal framework
 Analysis of institutional needs in this area
 Training program for the management of chemicals
 Pilot projects for safe removal of chemicals

9 - Action plan for managing the pollution in abandoned and destroyed industrial sites

In the transition period, the majority of the chemical and heavy industry was shut down. In addition to
soil pollution these sites constitutes an environmental health risk due to contaminated equipments and
buildings. The rehabilitation of these sites must include the removal of contaminated materials, which
should be properly treated. The PVC plant in Vlora, the industrial columns of arsenic solution in Fier
and the remains of the pesticide plant in Durres, are examples of some serious environmental problems
that must be carefully managed. The activities in this plan are:
 The assessment of environmental health risk
 Environmental auditing
 Identification of measures and their prioritization
 Design of action plans for pollution mitigation and prevention
 Estimation of rehabilitation costs
 Raising of the necessary funds

10 - Strategy and Action Plan for land protection from erosion

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
Erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems in our country. Erosion must be prevented
and damaged areas should be rehabilitated. The strategy and the respective action plan constitute one of
the main priorities. The included activities are:
 Analysis of present situation
 Identification of priority actions
 Completion of legal framework
 Strengthening of monitoring system
 Design of action plans for priority areas

11- Action Plan for climatic changes

In order to respond to the expected climate changes, as a global phenomena, and to reduce greenhouse
gas emissions into the atmosphere an action plan is required. The activities in the plan are:
 Preparation of the inventory of greenhouse gases
 Analysis of vulnerability
 Analysis of adaptability measures
 Design of an action plan

12 - National program for removing the ozone depleting substances

In the framework of the membership of Albania to the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol
regarding the removal of ozone depleting substances, there is a need for a national program and
respective action plan. Activities that should be included are:
 Knowledge of the sectors that use ozone depleting substances
 Inventory of responsible substances
 Identification of measures to put these substances out of use and their substitution by substances that do not
    harm the environment and human health
 Design of a national program
 Establishment of inter-sectoral structures

13 - Strategy and Action Plan for environmental monitoring

Environmental information is very important for decision making and for developing adequate and
long-term policy. Environmental monitoring is performed by many institutions with overlapping
competencies. The need for a clear environmental monitoring strategy is a priority. This will serve as a
basis for the establishment of an effective system for monitoring the quality of water, land, air and bio-
diversity. The activities to be included are:
 Analysis of the existing situation regarding the legal and institutional framework
 Assessment of professional and logistical capacities of the monitoring institutions
 Identification of environmental indicators, moving trends, pressures, situation action and
   counteraction
 Design of the national environmental monitoring program
 Analysis of potential financial resources
 Building of the institutional environmental monitoring scheme
 Design of an action plan and assessment of the costs for its implementation
 Improvement and completion of the legal and regulatory framework for environmental monitoring
 Creation of a National Information System for monitoring, collecting, processing and publishing
   environmental data
 Strengthening institutional capacities for monitoring, control and periodical reporting by public or
    private entities (environmental and sanitation inspectorates)
 Establishment of a pilot network for the monitoring of air pollution in the city of Tirana
 Improvement of the system for monitoring bio-diversity and surface and coastal water quality
 Preparation of the National Register of Hazardous Wastes
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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
14 - Strategy and Action Plan for sustainable transport

The main objective of this plan is to develop a sustainable transport practices and systems that will
integrate the developments in different transport sectors with environmental and human health
protection. This will include:
 Establishment of a program for vehicle inspection
 Development of the legal framework to control the technical condition of vehicles and their
    pollutant emissions
 Examination of the urban infrastructure, including traffic management
 Application of practices that encourage the development of public transport, use of unleaded petrol,
    vehicles with catalytic converters, etc.

15 - Strategy for sustainable tourism

The country has a large potential for tourism. The development of the tourism sector must not lead to
pressure on the environment. This would reduce the tourism potentials and create short-term
developments. The need for renovation of the strategy for on sustainable tourism represents a priority.
The activities that might be included are:
 Inventory of tourist areas
 Their classification according to the capacity and characteristics
 Determining areas where the environmental protection is a priority
 Design of action plans for priority tourist areas
 Design of infrastructure projects

16 - Strategy for sustainable agriculture

Albania is a country where agriculture continues to be considered as a priority sector. The introduction
of sustainable agriculture practices is indispensable. The activities that can be undertaken are:
 Assessment of the sustainable agriculture practices
 Application of practices that promote eco-friendly agricultural systems
 Analysis of the existing situation
 Preparation of an action plan
 Implementation of pilot projects for eco-friendly agricultural systems in selected areas of the
    country

17 - Design of the strategy and Action Plan for the management of wetlands
Albania has a considerable number of wetlands and coastal lagoons. The wetlands are of great
importance to the development of tourism and of economic importance to the neighboring
communities. They should be managed in a sustainable way. In this context, there is a need for a
strategy for wetland management, which can include the following activities:
 Inventory of wetlands at national level
 Analysis of their biological and social-economical importance
 The assessment of their situation and the preparation of the strategic paper
 The preparation of the action plan

18 - Action Plan for the safe closure of urban and industrial waste dumps, which pollute the environ-
ment and risk the health of people, as well as their monitoring

The dumping of urban waste, construction sector waste and industrial waste is taking place in natural
areas and not in controlled landfills, allocated for this purpose. The negative environmental impact of
these dumps might be worse considering pollution through soil and waters. Furthermore, there are an
unknown number of illegal dumps that should be evaluat6ed regarding their environmental threat, and
that subsequently should be controlled. For this purpose, a management plan for the urban and

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
industrial solid waste dumps and their control till their closure must be prepared. The necessary
activities in the framework of this plan are:
 Inventory of urban and industrial dumps
 Identification of their environmental health hazard
 Classification according to the level of environmental health risk and selection of priority
    interventions
 Creation of a data base
 Preparation of management plan
 Implementation of pilot projects for priority dumps

19 - Strategy for the protection from floods and other natural disasters

One of the most frequent events of the last ten years is flooding, especially in the coastal area. The
erosion, deforestation, damage caused by land improvements and drainage network, etc., are some of
the factors that have resulted in a more frequent occurrence of this phenomenon. Its consequences are
especially severe for the poorest groups, who suffer from damages in agriculture, live stock, shelter, etc.
Besides the technical measures, the system for responding to these kind of natural disasters with all its
components should be established. The activities of this strategy are:
 Situational analysis and identification of sensitive areas
 Analysis of causes
 Preparation of an action plan
 Implementation of pilot projects
 Establishment of management structures
 Preparation of the legal framework

20 - Strategy and Action Plan for collaboration with business associations and introduction of
environmental management systems in the economic activities

At present, in Albania the regulatory control system is dominating. In the meantime, the liberalization
of economic activity is increasingly taking place. The business community is organized via different
professional organizations. Under these conditions, it is required to start using, besides the regulatory
control system, the incentives to encourage the businesses to use clean technologies, good management
practices and modern systems of environmental management. The preparation of a strategy for
collaboration with the business sector and its associations is indispensable. Activities to be included are:
 Promotion of the professional business organizations
 Capacity building in the field of environmental business management
 Capacity building in the area of clean technologies
 Establishment of the centre for clean technologies
 Promotion of cooperation and common agreements with business organizations
 Environmental auditing
 Preparation of the cooperation platform

21 - National strategy for Urban Planning
This strategy aims at creating a foundation for a balanced territorial, social, economic and
environmental development in the urban areas of the country, harmonizing the individual and collective
interests.

22 - Action Plan for eliminating the pollution of coastal and marine area by land activities
Albania is party to the Barcelona Convention and its protocols. All the amended documents and the
accompanying protocols of this convention were ratified in the year 2000. The memberships of this
Convention and the participation in the Action Plan for the Mediterranean are accompanied by some
clear objectives that should be achieved with regard to the reduction of pollution from land-based
sources. In this framework the environmental strategic plan must be prepared for the control of the
land-based pollution sources. Its activities are:

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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
         Preparation of sectoral reports on the situation and followed by policies
         Identification of priorities
         Identification of hot coastal areas
         Preparation of action plan

4.3   Improvement and completion of the legal framework

      The activities proposed aim at improving and completing the environmental legal and normative
      framework, which treats sectoral problems and creates the legal basis for orienting the economic and
      social development towards stability. The main priority remains the approximation of Albanian
      legislation with EU legislation
       The specific activities include:
       Environmental strategic assessment of the existing national legal framework, policies, plans and
          sectoral programs, based on the EU directives
       Amendment of some fundamental laws to incorporate sustainable development and environmental
          protection principles (Penal Code, Civil Code, Law on Local Government, etc.)
       Preparation of the new law on Environmental Protection
       Completion of the legal and regulatory framework for the protection of the physical and biological
          environment
       Amendment of the law on taxes and other laws that will put economical instruments in effect

      The following laws are included in the list of laws to be drafted on the short-term:
       Protection of air and gas discharge standards
       Protection of land from pollution and erosion
       Protection of waters and the norms of liquid discharges
       Environmental Impact Assessment
       Environmental information
       Protected areas
       Bio-diversity
       Waste management
       Protection of marine environment

      The following laws will be prepared for further completion of the legal framework and its
      approximation with EU legislation in the mid-term period of the Action Plan:
       Industrial accidents
       Sanitary coverage of waste
       Waste incineration
       Coastal areas

      Meanwhile, in order to increase the effectiveness of the law, the respective by-laws will be prepared,
      covering in general the entire range of problems.

      Development of Economic Instruments

      In order to effectively solve problems related to the implementation and improvement of economic
      instruments, the following measures must be taken:
       Development of policies on reasonable prices for water, which aim at covering the whole costs ;
           improvement of the respective legal framework
       The promotion of the sustainable and effective use of the energy through respective price policies
           and the promotion of alternative energy sources
       Monitoring of the environmental effectiveness of the economic instruments in use, especially the
           clean up tax, as well as the improvement of the legal framework for tax raising
       Improvement of the legal and regulatory framework for the introduction of fees for discharging
           polluted waters, the industrial solid waste and the gaseous discharges into the atmosphere
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      Updated National Environmental Action Plan
       The introduction and application of the carbon tax for vehicle fuel, and measures for the promotion
         of public transport
       Introduction of fees for the environmental rehabilitation of areas affected by mining activities and
         quarries
       Continuous monitoring of environmental projects financed by foreign donors (water supply,
         treatment of polluted waters and urban waste, rehabilitation of irrigation system, environmental
         education)

4.4   Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building

      The common goal of the proposed activities is to increase the capacities of environmental protection
      institutions and structures, and the sustainable management of natural resources, in order to respond
      more effectively to the implementation of a policy for the protection and sustainable management of
      natural resources and bio-diversity.

      In this framework, the main objective is to strengthen the political position of MoE, transforming it into
      a ministry with a more functional and effective structure, at a central and local level, aiming at:
       Increasing the capacities for designing policies and the legal framework
       Improving the vertical and horizontal coordination within the structure of the Ministry
       Developing a decentralized environmental system to better support the environmental management
           of the local government
       Increasing the capacities and developing procedures for inter-sectoral dialogue
       Building a transparent and democratic consensus to form the necessary alliances with all the
           interested parties
       Increasing the capacities for the management of environmental projects
       Strengthening the international relation units
       Functioning of Environmental Protection Inspectorate
       Organizing and making operational the Environmental Protection Inspectorate as a separate
           structure in the Ministry of Environment
       Strengthening inspection and legislation enforcement capacities at REAs, central institutions and
           local government

      Establishment and strengthening of the Environmental Protection Units in main ministries

       Establishment and strengthening of environmental protection ctures and determining their tasks
       Training of the structures for developing environmental sectoral policies and drafting legislation
       Meeting logistical needs

      Establishment and strengthening of the Environmental Protection Units in the local government bodies

       Establishment of environmental protection units and determining their tasks
       Training of units in the development of local environmental policies and legislative knowledge
       Determining logistical needs

      Strengthening of Environmental Monitoring Institutions

       Strengthening the environmental monitoring units at the responsible institutions
       Implementing the environmental monitoring strategy
       Developing a coordinated system for pollution control from stationary and non stationary sources of
         pollution
       Establishing air, water and land monitoring networks and the their quality control for the data
       Development of a monitoring system for industrial pollution
       Establishment and implementation of a system for monitoring soil, erosion, etc.


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      Updated National Environmental Action Plan
      Establishment of the National Council for Sustainable Development

       Establishment of a permanent inter-ministerial structure under the Council of Ministers for the
         design, coordination and control of the implementation of sustainable development policies.
       Establishment of a center for environmental studies and sustainable development close to MoE.
       Establishment and making the organisation operational.
       Drafting of the respective legal framework

      Establishment of the Center for Clean Technologies

       Drafting the respective legal framework
       Establishment of the Center for Clean Technologies
       Strengthening of inter-ministerial structures as instruments and mechanisms for the implementation
         of sectoral policies
       Promotion of the creation and strengthening of inter-ministerial structures for environmental
         management at local level
       Strengthening the national and local system for crisis management

4.5   Directions of priority investments

      In order to implement the environmental protection policies and in conformity with the legal and regulatory
      framework presented above, priority programs and investment activities are recommended.

      Programs for Integrated management for the utilization of Watersheds and Land

      Based on the criteria determined in section 3.4 the priority investments to be made during the
      implementation of UNEAP have been identified.

      The activities supporting the use of integrated management of the watersheds will be undertaken in
      several stages, starting with the respective legal and institutional improvement/completion, pilot
      activities and the implementation of full-scale management projects. The activities will include:
       A number of demonstrations regarding the community integrated management of waters, agriculture
          production, animal farming, fruit-growing and forestry
       Implementation of tree planting projects to reduce erosion, regenerate degraded forests, preserve the
          hydrological balance and increase agriculture, animal and fruit production
       Development and introduction of integrated practices to combat pests and diseases of crops in
          selected areas
       Encouragement of activities that mitigate poverty and protect the environment
       Feasibility studies and management plans for the Prespa and Shkodra lakes, as well as for the rivers
          Drin, Shkumbin and Vjosa

      Programs for the Forestry and Bio-diversity Management

      This includes a number of additional activities to improve the forest management and demonstrate different
      regenerating processes, which include:
       Introduction of sustainable environmental practices for forestry management
       Establishment of forestry nurseries, state or private owned
       Reforestation of the areas endangered by ecological damage
       Regeneration of illegally cut forests
       Regeneration of the state owned degraded forests
       Inventory and monitoring of forests and bio-diversity
       Development and introduction of integrated practices for combating pests and diseases in the most
          problematic areas


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      Updated National Environmental Action Plan
 Urban forestry activities, including the restoration of forests in urban areas, cut down during the
   transition period
 Introduction of private forestry and grasslands – creation of private forestry and grasslands
 Strengthening of forestry service to increase the effectiveness of the illegal cutting control
 Increase of the inventory of communal forests and grasslands
 Implementation of management plans for protected areas

Mitigation of flood effects in some areas of the country

In order to prevent floods in some problematic areas of the country, it is necessary to improve and
rehabilitate the existing irrigation and drainage system. The activities under way regarding the
rehabilitation of land irrigation and drainage system will continue, with the respective changes in the
utilization of water and the variety of field crops. The interventions should focus on the functioning and
maintenance of land drainage infrastructure and on the elaboration of strategies to recover costs. A land
improvement plan should be prepared, to assess the technical-economic capacities and the costs for an
improvement program divided into phases.

Improvement of Solid Waste Management

The objective of this activity is to reduce the health risks resulting from pollution of surface waters,
groundwater and air, by securing adequate service of urban waste management in the main cities -
Tirana, Durrës, Korça, Pogradec, Fier, Elbasan, Lezha, Shkodër, etc. Also pilot activities will be
included to evaluate the cost-effective measures for the rehabilitation of polluted lands. The specific
activities include:
 Improvement of collection and transport of urban waste by training personnel and by supply of
    equipment
 Closure of waste dumps that are unsafe regarding air, water and land pollution, and the negative
    impact on human health
 Construction of sanitary waste landfills, firstly for those cities that have carried out the required
    studies and projects (Shkodër, Lezha, Elbasan, Fier, Pogradec, Korça), as well as for Tirana-Durrës
 Risk assessment of polluted lands and identification of priority areas for improvement c.q.
    rehabilitation activities through pilot projects
 Support for pilot activities in selected areas to test the improvement methods in conformity with the
    local conditions and to determine the costs of these methods
 Safe closure of urban waste dumps in the cities where sanitary landfills will be built
      Sustainable management of industrial, urban and inert waste sites.
      Construction of treatment facilities for hazardous wastes

Improvements in Water Supply Services

The main objective of these activities is the rehabilitation and improvement of the water supply service
in Albania. The activities will be implemented in three phases: pilot activities, which will be followed
by investments in first priority cities (Tirana, Durrës, Elbasan, Vlora, Shkodër, Fier, Korça, Berat),
followed by cities of second priority (Kukës, Lezha, Kruja, Kavaja, Lushnja, Pogradec, Gjirokastër,
Saranda, Has) etc. The proposed activities include:
 Reduction of spillage within the network
 Improvements in the disinfecting process
 Measures for eliminating the infiltration of polluted waters into the potable water network
 Increase of potable water quantity
 Improvement of operational capacities of water and sewerage enterprises

Improvements in the sewerage network and the treatment of contaminated waters



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Updated National Environmental Action Plan
      The activities proposed in this category aim at improving the network of sewerage and the construction
      of sewage treatment plants in cities. These activities will include:
       Completion of the rehabilitation of sewerage in the cities of Tirana, Durrës, Korça, Kruja, Vlora,
          Saranda, Lezha, Kavaja, Shkodër, Gjirokastra, etc.
       Construction of the sewage treatment plants in the cities of environmental impact priority. The
          sewage treatment plants will be constructed in Tirana, Vlora, Pogradec, Saranda, Shkodër, Lezha,
          Kavaja, Kruja, Korça
       Design and construction of the sewerage network and collector for the whole area of Durrës-Golem
          beach

      Programs for Improving the Urban Area Management

      This includes a number of activities that will aim at creating the fundamental infrastructure in the areas
      where these systems do not exist or are damaged. Besides the measures for investments in the roads, water
      supply, sewerage, etc., the specific measures will include:
       Renewal of urban plans in conformity with the present and future economic and social developments
       Design of action plans for intervening in the most problematic areas of the cities
       Design of programs for the rehabilitation of industrial areas, polluted by past activities and situated
          close to important urban areas or ecologically specific areas, such as the former Sodium and PVC
          Plant in Vlora, Copper Plants in Rubik and Laç, former Chemical Enterprise in Durres, etc.
       Development of institutional capacities for urban planning and management within the municipality
          of Tirana
       Funding of basic infrastructure in the municipality of Tirana, focusing on the suburb areas that have
          developed in recent years: Bathore, Laprakë, Kamzë

4.6   Public Information and Awareness

      The fulfillment of the tasks in the Action Plan will depend on the involvement of directors of different
      levels of administration and NGOs.

      In order to raise the awareness on the environmental problems and on the environmental impact of
      different activities, there should be a continuous commitment of the directors of the state administration
      throughout the implementation of UNEAP - 2001.

      The representatives of central institutions and NGOs have participated in the process of preparing the
      Action Plan and will continue to be important partners for effectively and sustainable implementing
      UNEAP - 2001.

      A special emphasis should be put on the preparation of education programs for the interested parties,
      including central and local institutions.
      The activities will focus on the preparation of training materials, seminars and courses for teachers,
      journalists, etc. Different institutions, including NGOs, will be involved in the organization of media
      awareness raising activities.

      The critical components for increasing the environmental awareness of the public will be the collection,
      processing and analysis of environmental data and the dissemination of the information, to all the
      interested parties involved in the Action plan implementation, managers and users of the natural
      resources, researchers, NGOs and the public.

      The improvement of the public environmental awareness is considered one of the priority activities of
      the Plan and, beside the participation of central and local administration directors, NGOs will play a
      priority role. The partnership of state institutions with NGOs is decisive for the achievement of the
      objectives of Action Plan regarding the public awareness and participation.

      The main activities foreseen in the framework of this Plan are:

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          1. Design of the National Public Information and Participation Strategy.
         The preparation and approval of this strategy is linked to the obligations resulting from being party
         to the Aarhus Convention. The Convention refers to the active and passive information, the right of
         the public to access to the decision-making process and environmental programs.

          2. Making the National Environmental Information Center fully operational.
         At present, the Center is being created at the MoE. It needs strengthening of professional capacities
         and the necessary equipment for collecting, processing and disseminating environmental
         information throughout the country.

          3. Capacity building for public participation in the environmental assessment and decision-
              making process.
          The organization of training programs with representatives of central and local government,
          stakeholders and civil society, regarding public participation in the design of policies, development
          plans, standards, monitoring and VNM.

          4. Promotion of successful case studies of public participation in decision-making.
      Organization of informative campaigns through media, posters, leaflets, to promote the achievements of
      successful environmental projects, where public participation has played a priority role.

          5. MoE will collaborate with the Ministry of Education and Science to integrate the
              environmental education programs into the curricula at all levels.
          Training, education and environmental awareness programs will be designed and implemented.

          6. Allocation of funds by MoE in order to increase the activity and work of NGOs for the public
              awareness raising.
         In this direction, the activities of the NGOs that address priority environmental problems will be
         encouraged.

          7. Preparation of National Communication Programs for:
         . Water management
         . Waste management
         . Bio-diversity management
         . Development of sustainable forestry
         . Training of journalists on coverage of environmental problems

         The programs will assist the application of the policies of the Government at central and local level.
         The implementation of these programs requires the preparation of a communication strategy,
         including national and local media, experts and scientists of respective fields, leaders of different
         sectors and NGOs.

4.7   Environment and poverty reduction
      Based on the analysis of the environment-poverty relation and the assessment of capacities, the projects
      that will be included in UNEAP are identified and evaluated:

      - Improvement of environmental, urban and rural infrastructure as a determining factor for reducing
              diseases caused by contaminated drinking water, sewage and urban waste
      - Improvement of the living standard by implementation of programs for the management of natural
              resources and bio-diversity
      - Encouraging and supporting the professional associations and other organizations in the manage-
              ment of resources (associations of foresters, fishermen, beekeepers, animal farming, fruit-
              growers, etc.)
      - Clean up of polluted areas
      - Development of territorial planning
      - Forestation

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       - Strengthening of academic and environmental education as a tool for poverty reduction
       - The NGOs will be encouraged to extend their activity to rural and urban areas with a high poverty
               level; beside the projects that aim at sustainable development, they will also implement
               projects for environmental education and awareness.

       Meanwhile, the preventive and mitigating measures for the protection of human health and the bio-
       diversity will also be important for poverty reduction. These measures include:
       - Design of the strategy and Action Plan for the improvement of water supply and sewage treatment
                 systems in rural areas
       - Improvement of the sewerage network in urban areas and construction of sewage treatment plants
       - Construction of urban waste disposal sites, according to the technologies that secure human health
                 and environmental protection in several main cities of the country


5.     EFFECTIVE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ACTION PLAN

       UNEAP is the redimensioning of the first Action Plan, approved in 1994; it clearly identifies the duties
       of the central and local institutions, business, civil society and the public, in line with the political
       changes and the actual stage of the development of the country.
       The key condition for the successful implementation of the plan is the political and financial
       commitment, as well as public support. The Plan provides many activities which do not require
       considerable funding to achieve substantial changes.

       Special importance has been devoted to the preventive measures and integration of environmental
       problems in the sectoral planning process.
       The realization of this plan objectives and meeting of its requirements, undoubtedly demands the
       commitment of the government, through legal changes, institutional arrangements and relevant
       financing.

5. 1   Public awareness and participation of concerned parties

       The success of the UNEAP besides the broad public participation depends on the active participation of
       various groups in the implementation of the activities anticipated by the Plan.
       In general interested groups have participated in the preparation process of the plan and will continue to
       participate during the process of its implementation.

       The important direction for the increase of public awareness will be the collection, processing and
       publication of environmental information for all interested groups, including public at large, managers
       and users of natural resources, scientists and NGOs.


5.2    Institutional organization

       The main responsibility for the implementation of the UNEAP 2001 lies with the MoE. The co-
       ordination of specific activities included in the program is thought to be the responsibility of a small
       unit established within the MoE structure. Nonetheless, the executive responsibility for various
       activities will fall on various bodies, including several ministries. Hence, a Steering committee on
       inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral level, led by the Deputy Prime Minister, should be established. The
       main duty of the Steering Committee will be the analyzing of the policy issues, monitoring of the
       UNEAP implementation and supervision of activity undertaking. Besides MoE, other ministries like the
       Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Trade, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry
       of Transport, Ministry of Public Economy and Privatization, Ministry of Justice, Ministry of Local
       Authorities, Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Public Order will be involved. Each ministry will
       appoint the co-coordinators that will manage the daily activities of individual projects.


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      Activities of awareness raising, information and participation of the public will be co-coordinated by a
      special subgroup, which should have a broad basis and authority to involve the other members when
      and where they will be needed. This subgroup should consists of members of relevant NGOs and civil
      society and should be able to involve media and information representatives, whenever necessary.

5.3   Financing

      Whereas the Government recognizes the environmental problems facing the country, the expenditures
      for environmental protection are not placed among national priorities in public financing. In the first
      place, this has been caused by the financial restrictions in public funds. Partly this has also been caused
      by the lack of experience of MoE to identify economical profits that result from the environmental
      improvement and costs that are caused by environmental degradation. The latter also includes costs in
      public health that should be communicated to the Ministry of Finance having the responsibility for the
      management of public funds. Presently, public environmental expenditures are allocated to only cover
      the operational costs of MoE and its Regional Environmental Agencies.
      Funding of environmental investments are totally inadequate even for the basic monitoring activities
      and controlling equipment for inspection centers. At the same time, the developmental stage of the
      banking system in Albania and economic instability (expressed in the high interest rate in commercial
      loans and short pay back terms) greatly limits the mobilization of capital to invest in the environmental
      infrastructure, which usually requires a long pay back period.
      Actually, the main sources of the environmental income are various fees on pollution and exploitation
      of natural resources. Nonetheless, up to now the income from these fees go directly to the state budget,
      with the exception of clean up tax that goes to the local budget.
      Promotion of the implementation of the political reforms which encourage the effective allocation of
      the resources and avoid the existing trade deviations (e.g. lifting of the subsidies and restrictions for
      foreign trade, protection of the right to private property) will de done, and at the same time generate
      significant environmental benefits.

      Limited public financial resources as well as the need for a strict control on public spending demands
      the application of prioritizing when planning environmental investments.

      The existing system of environmental taxes and charges remains the most important source for the
      domestic environmental income in the near future. These fees do not become another burden, but will
      change the people’s attitude towards the environment and promote the transition to the use of less
      polluting technologies and production processes. Ecotaxes should be accompanied by compensation
      measures, i.e. reduction of other taxes (e.g. employment, income etc.).
      The allocation of the scarce public sources should be focused on win-win investments, which generate
      production profits and at the same time increase environmental benefits, like for example the
      investments in new technologies. The involvement of the private sector, especially small and medium
      enterprises, in environmental activities, is promoted.

      One of the possible ways to mobilize financial sources for environmental investments is the earmarked
      environmental fund, which could collect the income generated from economic instruments and
      contributions from foreign donors. As a rule, environmental funds are used to subsidize the equipment for
      end-of-pipe treatment or clean technologies, implementation of environmental programs and research,
      management of protected areas and environmental awareness and education. Nevertheless, in light of the
      IMF requirements to concentrate all extra-budgetary funds in the state budget, it is necessary that an
      environmental fund be created within the state budget.
      The actual economic situation of Albania and the great demand for limited natural resources, indicates
      that there will not be any large environmental investments on the short and medium term, without the
      support of foreign partners and without co-financing agreements. There exist a potential to increase the
      role of international donors, although the attraction of foreign assistance requires a greater domestic
      commitment for environmental expenditures, administrative reforms and improvement of the project
      management cycle. In Albania a considerable number of environmental activities have been


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      undertaken, supported by various donors and implemented by MoE. The Government can find new
      donors through established international mechanisms.

      Technical and financial assistance can be found through various cooperation programs of EU, UNEP,
      UNDP and other international financing institutions like the World Bank Group, EBRD and various
      bilateral donors and private foundations.
      The first step in the increase of the efficiency of environmental financing is the development of the
      Action Plan, which clearly identifies the priorities for environmental investments in various stages of its
      implementation. These priorities can serve as a basis for the selection of projects to be financed through
      domestic or foreign sources.

5.4   Risks and mitigation measures

      The main risks related to the UNEAP implementation can be divided in four groups:
      - Level of commitment
      - Changes in attitude towards the environment
      - Human and technical resources
      - Financial Availability
      The active participation of central and local level, concerned groups, academic and other governmental
      institutions, public and civil society, is decisive for the successful implementation of the Action Plan.
      In order to materialize this commitment it is necessary to change the attitude to the environmental
      issues, both from the government in understanding the development priorities and allocated resources
      for environmental protection, as well as for the public at large.

      The implementation of the Action Plan also requires a sufficient capacity in institutions with technical
      capabilities and skills some of which are relatively unknown to the Albanian institutions.

      Some of the activities proposed in the Plan will directly or indirectly generate funds or improve the
      level of income. Nonetheless, the realization of UNEAP 2001 objectives will certainly require
      additional funding.
      It is important to emphasize that some risks related to the Plan implementation and relevant mitigation
      measures should not be seen apart from each other, but as an inter-related system.

      The mitigation measures include public awareness and other activities which will increase trust and
      induce changes in attitude and increase commitment. These measures imply the building of capacities
      and strengthening of institutions through training and tailored programs.
      The funds for various activities are anticipated to be ensured from local and foreign sources. The
      bilateral and multilateral partnerships are necessary for the implementation of the UNEAP.
      Table 26 summarizes the main risks for the successful implementation of the UNEAP and relevant
      minimizing or mitigating measures.

      Table 26 Risk and Mitigation Measures

       Risks                             Mitigation Measures
       Limited Governmental              Increase of MoE’s role in political decision making
       Commitment                        Distribution of information in all levels, regarding economic benefits of
                                         environmental protection
                                         Development of partnership with NGOs, private sector and other
                                         interested groups
                                         Drawing of public attention to main environmental issues
       Slow changes in the               Increase of public awareness through community involving activities
       attitude towards the              Increase of environmental data, through better collection, processing,
       environment                       analyzing and distribution.
                                         Distribution of information on economic benefits of environmental
                                         protection in all levels
                                         Development of human resources


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       Risks                             Mitigation Measures
       Limited human resources           Capacity building in all levels
       and institutional                 Development of partnerships with the government, NGOs, private sector
       development                       and other interested groups

       Lack of governmental              Partnership with bilateral and multilateral donors
       funding for environmental         Identification and effective communication of local and global profits
       protection                        from nature conservation
                                          Macroeconomic stabilization and regeneration of economic growth


5.5   Monitoring and Evaluation

      To measure and evaluate the implementation of different activities of the Action Plan and also identify
      the general impact of the project implementation, several physical indicators have been defined. The
      progress indicators include the strategies for the realization of various activities of the Action Plan, as
      presented in the sectoral reports. Nevertheless, it should be noted that the complete and precise
      formulation of each of the indicators of progress and impact would be determined, when the individual
      activities will be elaborated in detail. Impact indicators presented in Table 27 provide a conceptual
      framework to make a systematic assessment of the progress in accomplishing the environmental
      objectives, which may not be measured directly. It should be understood that each of these conceptual
      indicators includes a set of progress indicators, which can be easily measured and understood by the
      decision makers.

      Table 27 Indicators

       Main groups of problems           Impact indicators               Progress indicators
       - Specific problems of            - Reduction of pollutant        - Life expectancy
         environmental elements            discharges                    - Appropriate weight in birth
         (including air, water and       - Reduction of the              - Level of infant mortality
         soil pollution)                   pressure on basic natural     - Reduction of water borne diseases
       - Over-exploitation of              resources and natural  - Application          of      economic
         natural resources and             habitats                          instruments                  in
         threatened ecosystems           - Improvement of the                environmental management
         (including overexploitation              quality of life - Air pollutant emissions in tons
         of water, soil, forest and      Reduction of             - Protected areas in percentage against
         loss of biodiversity)             environmental hazards    total surface area
       - Problems of environmental                                - Agricultural land part against land
                                           on the public health-
         health and risks                                                  surface
                                             Reduction
                                             environmental danger on     - Surface of forests
                                             nature and biodiversity     - Improvement of soil fertility
                                                                         - Application of fertilizers per ha
                                                                         - Increase of per capita income
                                                                         - Forest rehabilitation
                                                                         - Degree of covering population
                                                                                 with public services
                                                                         - Degree of recovery of damaged
                                                                                 natural resources
                                                                         Degree of use of renewable natural
                                                                          resources in comparison with non
                                                                          renewable ones




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