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Wind Energy - Wind Turbines and Generators

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					Wind Energy
        By
ALTEM POWER LIMITED
        Defining Wind Power

•   Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy,
    such as electricity, using wind turbines

•   Wind energy systems convert the kinetic energy to more useful forms of
    power

•   Wind energy continues to be the fastest growing Renewable Energy Source
    with worldwide wind power installed capacity reaching 14,000 MW

•   Five nations – Germany, USA, Denmark, Spain and India – account for 80%
    of the world’s installed wind energy capacity
    Why Renewable ?

•   Global climate change threatens our economy, national security and the
    physical landscape itself, denying the urgency of global warming. That is why
    we cannot abandon the Kyoto Protocol, which calls for industrialized nations
    to take the lead in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

•   Carbon credits are a key component of national and international attempts
    to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). One
    Carbon Credit is equal to one ton of Carbon. Carbon trading is an application
    of an emissions trading approach

•   The objective of the Kyoto climate change conference was to establish a
    legally binding international agreement, whereby all the participating nations
    commit themselves to tackling the issue of global warming and greenhouse
    gas emissions. The target agreed upon was an average reduction of 5.2%
    from 1990 levels by the year 2012.
Kyoto Agreement Global Status




                 Countries Signed & ratified
                 Countries Signed & not yet ratified
                 Countries , not yet decided
                 Countries , no intention of signing
Types of Renewable Resources

        1        Wind Power

        2        Wave Power

        3        Tidal Power

        4        Solar energy

        5       Hydroelectricity

        6        Geothermal

        7          Biomass

        8           Biofuel
                                       Comparison

                  Fossil Fuel                                      Wind Energy
    •        Have to be procured & made usable                 •       Usable as it exists
             through laborious & environmentally
                      damaging process

    •         Limited in reserves, expected to be                  •     Inexhaustible
                exhausted in coming 60 years

        •     Transportation required, for further
             processing exposing environment to            •   Use where it is available
                           danger

•           Has Geo-Political implications resulting   •   Reduces our dependency on our
            in over-reliance on our energy security               natural security
Why Wind Energy ?

•   Most viable & largest renewable energy resource
•   Plentiful power source
•   Widely distributed & clean
•   Can get started with as small as 100-200 W
•   Produces no green house gas emissions
•   Low gestation period
•   No raw materials & fuels required
•   No pollution
•   No hassles of disposal of waste
•   Quick returns
•   Good alternative for conventional power plants
Wind Power In India

•   The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has
    significantly increased in the last few years. The "Indian Wind Turbine
    Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)“ has played a leading role in promoting
    wind energy in India

•   As of November 2008 the installed capacity of wind power in India was
    9587.14 MW

•   Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it
    generates 1.6% of the country's power
India Wind Power
   Density Map
State Wise Wind Power Potential In India

                       Gross                            Installed
                      potential   Technical potential   capacity
              State    (MW)             (MW)              (MW)
Andhra Pradesh          8275             1750              121

Gujarat                 9675             1780              376

Karnataka               6620             1120              688

Kerala                   875              605               2
Madhya Pradesh          5500              825              53

Maharashtra             3650             3020             1242

Orissa                  1700              680               2

Rajasthan               5400              895              386

Tamil Nadu              3050             1750             3148

West Bengal              450              450               2

Total (All India)      45195            12875             6018
Wind Power Potential In India

•   India ranks 4th in wind installation in the world

•   Is at par with World in terms of manufacturing facilities & technologies

•   Public sectors coming forward for investment

•   Wind power potential in the country is 45000MW

•   Present production is 8760MW

•   Ministry of new & Renewable Energy targets the 11th plan at 10500MW

•   Plan Objective is to attract new & large independent power producers to wind
    sector.
State Level Incentives

• Wheeling charge of mere 2 per cent
• Uniform T&D loss of 5 per cent
•   Buy-back tariff of Rs 3.50 per unit with 15 paisa escalation for 13 years
•   Third party sale and self-use allowed
•   For evacuation arrangement (laying down high tension cables, feeder, sub-
    station, etc),50 per cent money given as subsidy through green fund and rest
    50 per cent as interest-free loan
•   No electricity duty levied for first 5 years from the date of commissioning of
    the projects for captive consumption
•   Construction of approach roads to be fully funded through green fund
•   Diversion of forest land for wind
•   Few states giving sales tax incentive- Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh,
    Maharashtra
Central Level Incentives

•   80 per cent accelerated depreciation on wind farm equipment/devices

•   10 years tax holiday for wind farms

•   Custom duty exemption (Notification No. 21/2002-custom dated 01-03-2002)

•   Excise duty exemption (Notification No. 6/2002-
    Central Excise and
    amendments Thereof)
•   20% additional depreciation under new plant and machinery
•   Under RGGVY scheme 90% subsidy in case of rural electrification through
    renewable energy.
Rural Electrification through Renewable Energy.
Types of Wind Turbine

    Today's wind turbines are much more lightweight than the turbines used on
    windmills of old. The wind turbine is usually standard in design, consisting of
    two or more rotor blades. The energy output of a wind turbine is determined
    largely by the length of the blades, which installers and engineers call
    "sweep.“
    Majorly , there are three types:

•   Large or medium/ small wind turbines
•   Down or Up wind turbines
•   Horizontal or vertical access wind turbines
 Introduction to

ALTEM POWER LIMITED




Manufacturing Wind Turbines
                OBJECTIVE


TO DEVELOP BEST TECHNOLOGICAL WIND MILL AT
             COMPETITIVE PRICE
                    VISION

A DIVERSE, THRIVING & SUSTAINABLE NATURAL WORLD


                   MISSION


TO BE A MAJOR FORCE IN CONSERVING ECO-DIVERSITY
WORLD-WIDE
    Group Introduction

•    ALTEM formed because of the group’s focus on Renewable Energy

•    Part of the group known in Indian Power Engineering Sector with interest in
     renewable energy, power distribution & management equipment

•    The Group is a known name in power sector equipments

•    Well equipped with modern infrastructure & well qualified technicians
Introduction to ALTEM POWER

•   In collaboration with a major European company for manufacturing of wind
    turbine generators

•   Research driven to provide good quality ,reliable , durable & cost effective
    products

•   Core focus on customer service

•   Office connectivity for real time data and faster services
ALTEM Product Range


   1



   2



   3



   4



   5
Technical Parameters (technical parameters may change due to continuous R&D)
Rated Power
(KW)                            9 / 10              15             20 - 25              50
Rated Wind speed
                                  12                12                12                12
(m/sec)
Number of Blades                  2                 2                 2                 3
Rotor dia
(Met)                            6.5               9.5                12                18
Swept area           (Sq
met)                              30                58               113               226
                            Epoxy / Glass     Epoxy / Glass     Epoxy/Glass       Epoxy / Glass
Blade material                 Fiber             Fiber             Fiber             Fiber
Blade weight (approx)
(KGs)                             44                64                80               122
                             Permanent         Permanent         Permanent          Permanent
Type of Generator
                              Magnet            Magnet            Magnet             Magnet
                                                                                  Geared / Direct
Transmission                 Drive direct      Direct drive      Direct drive
                                                                                      drive
                            Fixed / Tilting   Fixed / Tilting   Fixed / Tilting
Tower                           Tower             Tower             Tower             Fixed
Type of Hub                  Fixed pitch       Fixed pitch       Fixed pitch       Fixed pitch
Rotor speed at rated wind
                                 150               100               108               250
speed (rpm)
Cut-in wind speed (m/sec)        2.5               2.5                3                 3
Cut-off wind speed
                                  25                25                25                25
(m/sec)
Control system               PLC based         PLC based         PLC based          PLC based
Approx Nacelle weight
                                 700              1000              1400               2000
(KGs)
Annual Energy output
                               23,000            38,500            64,000            1,28,000
KWH (@ 6m/s)
Factors for setting up a Turbine

•   Ideal site requirements:

Wind Speed – An annual mean wind speed of 5m/s or greater

Proximity to neighbors - More than 50 mt – 100 mt from the nearest neighbor
   property. This in effect eliminates many urban environment

Location - Good clear run of open ground without trees or building to the south
   west, maximizing wind speed & minimizing turbulence.
Wind Turbine Towers as per site conditions


 •   Small turbine towers - The case of small wind systems (more than a 1KW) is less
     simple, with several types of towers and different heights and configurations: guyed
     towers and non-guyed towers, cylindrical/pipe and lattice configurations, etc.
 •   Their installation should be done a) far enough of obstructions, and on the top or on
     windy hill sides: see Wind Turbines Location; b) with enough room to raise and lower
     the tower for maintenance and stabilization
 •   Guyed small cylindrical Towers - Many small wind turbines use narrow pole towers
     (pipe, tubing) supported by guy wires. It’s a cheap solution, though with some
     disadvantages: they aren't easy climbable (for inspections or repairs) and require more
     land than self-supporting towers, due to the guy wires.
 •   Non-guyed cylindrical towers - Non-guyed tilt-up/cylindrical towers use pipe or tubing
     and a self-supporting design. They do not use guy wires and have a small footprint.
     These towers can include climbing pegs but are a relatively expensive type of tower.
 •   Lattice configuration - Lattice towers use welded steel profiles and are a cheap and
     tested solution. Most lattice towers aren’t guyed, but there are also guyed
     configurations: three legged lattice structures suspended on all three sides by guy
     wires. They are usually climbable.
Typical Block
  Diagram
Obstacles Involved

•   Wind speed at the ground is near zero, and increases with height.

•   A 15m –18m tower will produce between 15%-25% more energy than a 12m
    tower

•   Buildings, trees and other obstacles increase both surface roughness,
    slowing the wind down, and cause turbulence, which significantly affects
    turbine efficiency. This can cause more than a 50% energy loss

•   Dense urban areas suffer from low wind speeds due to high surface
    roughness. Rooftops additionally suffer from turbulence
How to size a Battery Bank

  Battery bank sizing can be one of the more complex and
  important calculations in your system design. If the battery
  bank is oversized, you risk not being able to keep it fully
  charged; if the battery bank is sized too small, you won't
  be able to run your intended loads for as long as you'd
  planned.
Calculative Factors

    Before tackling the calculations, start by identifying a few key pieces of
    information:

•   of electricity usage per day

•   Number of Days of Autonomy

•   Depth of Discharge limit

•   Ambient temperature at battery bank
Step   Process                                                  Example
1      Identify total daily use in Watt-hours (Wh)              6,000 Wh/day


2      Identify Days of Autonomy (backup days); multiply        3 Days of Autonomy:
       Wh/day by this factor                                    6,000 x 3 = 18,000 W

3      Identify Depth of Discharge (DoD) and convert to a       40% DoD:
       decimal value. Divide result of Step 2 by this value     18,000 / 0.4 = 45,000 W


4      Derate battery bank for ambient temperature effect.      60° F. = 1.11
       Select the multiplier corresponding to the lowest        45,000 x 1.11 = 49,950 W
       average temperature your batteries will be exposed
       to. Multiply result from Step 3 by this factor. Result
       is minimum Wh capacity of battery bank:
       Temp. in [degrees] F. Factor
                  80+            1.00
                  70             1.04
                  60             1.11
                  50             1.19
                  40             1.30
                  30             1.40
                  20             1.59



5      Divide result from Step 4 by system voltage. Result is   49,950 / 48 = 1,040 Ah
       the minimum Amp-hour (Ah) capacity of your battery
       bank.
Advantages of ALTEM Wind Turbine


 •   Can be installed with less investment in comparison to high capacity turbines
 •   Possibility of grid connected or stand alone (with battery bank) or hybrid with
     solar/diesel
 •   Installation possible in very limited space
 •   Installation/maintenance does not require crane. This gives opportunity for
     installation on mountains/hills
 •   More than 50 types of towers can be designed as per clients’ site
     requirements with fixed or tilting arrangement
 •   Can be installed in premises of schools/college/hospital/warehouse/housing
     colony & the likes.
 •   Start up or cut in wind speed of 2.5m/sec
  ALTEM’s Achievements


• ISO Certified (see certificate attached)

• CE Certified Products (see certificate attached)

• Export of 25 KW to Italy
ISO Certified
CE Certification
Invest in a greener, brighter & safer tomorrow



                   Lets not blow our future
Thank You !!




               by TEAM ALTEM

				
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posted:6/26/2012
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