# NOS Proficiency Review

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```					                                                          Nature of Science Review

Objective A1
1. Study the following data chart.
5 Favorite Foods in My 8th Grade Class
Pizza        Hamburgers         Sushi      Pop Tarts          Broccoli
14                 6             27          25                 24
Which of the following graphs would best represent this data?
A. Line graph                                                                 C. Scatter plot
B. Pie graph                                                                  D. Bar graph

2.   Study the graph below.

Pie graphs are used for
A. data that is presented as percentages.                                   C. showing the frequency of variables.
B. demonstrates the dependent variable.                                     D. differentiating between variables.

3.   Use the chart to answer the following question.
The Effect of Drop Height on Bounce Height of a Rubber Ball
Height of Drop (cm)             Height of Bounce (cm)
5                                  4
10                                 6
15                                 11
20                                 13
25                                 16
30                                 21
Which of the following graphs would best represent this data?
A. Bar graph                                                                  C. Histogram
B. Pie graph                                                                  D. Line graph
4.   Use the table below to answer the following question.
Distance vs Time
Time ( seconds ) Distance ( meters )
0                   0
1                   2
2                   8
3                   18
4                   32
5                   50
6                   72
7                   98
8                  128
9                  162
10                 200
Select the graph that best represents the data and describes the relationship between the variables.
A. Bar graph demonstrating acceleration.                                   C. Histogram demonstrating speed.
B. Line graph demonstrating velocity.                                      D. Frequency chart demonstrating force.

5.   Use the graph to answer the following question.

How many players on the team have a batting average between .300 - .399?
A. 1                              B. 5                                C. 7                                      D. 9

7.   Use the data table to answer the following question.
The Effect of Drop Height on Bounce Height of a Rubber Ball
Height of Bounce (cm)                 Average Bounce
Height of Drop
Height for all
(cm)             Trial 1          Trial 2           Trial 3     Trials (cm)
5                4                3                2             3
10                6                6                5             5.6
15               11                12               11           11.3
20               13                14               14           13.7
25               16                15               16           15.7
30               21                20               21           20.7

What is the relationship between the height of the ball dropped to the height of the bounce of the ball when the ball is
dropped from 20 centimeters?
A. The average bounce height is greater than the ball drop height.
B. The average ball bounce height and the ball drop height are equal.
C. The ball bounce height is approximately 70% as high as drop height.
D. The average ball bounce height is 25% greater than the drop height.
8.   Use the data table to answer the following question.

The Effect of Drop Height on Bounce Height of a Rubber Ball
Height of Bounce (cm)              Average Bounce
Height of Drop
Height for all
(cm)             Trial 1        Trial 2       Trial 3        Trials (cm)
5                4              3             2                 3
10               6              6             5                5.6
15              11             12             11               11.3
20              13             14             14               13.7
25              16             15             16               15.7
30              21             20             21               20.7
Which is the independent variable in this experiment?
A. Height of Bounce                                                         C. Average Bounce Height
B. Height of Drop                                                           D. Height of Bounce and Drop

9.   Use the following graph to answer the question.

Who is the 3rd largest land owner in the state of Nevada?
A. State Lands                                                              C. US Dept of Defense
B. US Dept of Agriculture                                                   D. US Dept of Interior

Objective A2

1.   In 1989, two scientists held a news conference to announce to the world that they had observed controlled nuclear fusion in a
glass jar better known as cold fusion technology. It was later determined that their findings were false. Of the following
which is NOT part of the scientific process?
A. Peer review of scientific work in research journals.
B. Validation of scientific results through repeated trials.
C. Making claims about unsubstantiated experimental results.
D. Allowing other scientists to review scientific procedures.

2.   Maintaining permanent records of all experiments including their multiple trials, helps scientists to do all of the following
EXCEPT
A. look for patterns in collected data and discover new information.
B. apply for competitive grants and hire new staff.
C. verify that experimental results are accurate and repeatable.
D. allow peer review of work to extend scientific understandings.

3.   All of the following can be found in a scientist’s notebook. Which of these is considered data?
A. Signature and date on every page.
B. Possible answer to a question that the scientist has.
C. List of possible questions that could be investigated.
D. Measurements recorded during an experiment.

4.   In her laboratory journal, a microbiologist enters the following information: “Some mold & growth was seen on the agar
plate that was streaked with bacteria three days ago. Bacterial colonies were observed on the plate, but the area surrounding
the mold did not show any bacteria.” Which of the following describes the microbiologist’s journal entry?
A. Prediction                                                            C. Conclusion
B. Observation                                                           D. Hypothesis

5.   Observe the following diagram, which is taken from one of Charles Darwin’s notebooks. The words “I think” can be seen at
the top of the page and a branching diagram is shown below that.

The words “I think” represent a permanent documentation of one of Darwin’s
A. hypotheses.                                                       C. observations.
B. questions.                                                        D. laws.

6.   In 1986, scientists at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the former Soviet Union performed an experiment to test reactor
behavior. The reactor overheated and the resulting build-up of steam caused a massive explosion contaminating the region
with high levels of nuclear materials. Which of the following best explains what happened?
A. Scientists failed to follow standard procedures resulting in the explosion.
B. Too much electricity was being generated by the reactor causing the explosion.
C. Soviet designed reactors have no safeguards which caused the explosion.
D. There were no data to support procedures for testing the nuclear reactor.

Objective A3
1. A student measures the length of a pendulum three times. The measurements were 1.42 meters, 1.43 meters, and 1.45 meters. The
actual length of the pendulum was 1.89 meters. What can be said about these measurements?
a. the measurements are accurate                                     c. the measurements are both accurate and precise
b. the measurements are precise                                      d. the measurements are neither accurate nor precise

2. What makes a scientific explanation different from a non-scientific explanation?
a. scientific explanations are based on assumptions                      c. scientific explanations cannot be changed
b. scientific explanations are predictable                               d. scientific explanations are testable

3. The degree to which data matches the true or accepted value is
a. accuracy                                                             c. precision
b. correlation coefficient                                              d. none of the above
4. A student throws five darts at the bull’s eye (centermost circle) of a target and the following pattern results. What can be said about
the grouping of darts?

a. the grouping is accurate
b. the grouping is precise
c. the grouping is both accurate and precise
d. the grouping is neither accurate nor precise

5. Students conduct a laboratory investigation to determine the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity (g). They calculate g to be 8.0 m/s2.
The actual (true) acceleration due to Earth’s gravity is 9.8 m/s 2. What is the percent error for their experiment?
a. 7.0%                                                                     c. 18%
b. 15%                                                                      d. 23%

6. In August 2006, the International Astronomical Union removed Pluto’s status as a planet and named it a dwarf planet. What
prompted the reclassification of Pluto?
a. A new telescope introduced in 2006 allowed scientists to see a better view of Pluto.
b. Scientists based their decision on known data from Pluto and other objects in the solar system.
c. A manned mission to Pluto provided evidence to make it a dwarf planet.
d. Scientists were biased to make the solar system have ten planets.

7. Scientists publish the details of important experiments so that
a. their work can be repeated.
b. their experimental procedures can be reviewed.
c. others can try to reproduce the results.
d. all of the above

8. Scientists have observed data that shows the average temperature of the Earth has risen over the past century. However, there is a
debate among some scientists if the temperature rise is caused by human activity or natural climate change. What is the source of the
global warming debate?
a. Errors in the data collection process.
b. Political bias among scientists and their position.
c. Different interpretations of the same data.
d. Failure of some scientists to publish their data.

9. Pellagra is a disease that first appeared in the United States in the 1820s and was known as the disease of the four Ds: dermatitis,
diarrhea, dementia, and death. There was a debate among scientists if pellagra was caused by poor diet or an infectious agent. Which
of the following evidence supports the fact that pellagra is caused by a poor diet?
a. Pellagra was common in the South, especially in mental hospitals, orphanages, and prisons.
b. Orphans provided with fresh vegetables, meat, and milk recovered from Pellagra or never got it.
c. Staff at institutions (such as hospitals, prisons, and orphanages) did not develop Pellagra.
d. Both b. and c.

Objective A4
1. Experimental controls are used in scientific investigations to
A. prevent multiple data sets that will interfere with the testing of the hypothesis.
B. lower costs of performing multiple trials to insure accuracy and precision.
C. assist in maintaining accurate records that reflect the true data collected.
D. allow for the graphing of one set of independent and dependent variable data.

2.   Control groups are useful in scientific experiments because they
A. are easily identified by the experimenter during the investigation.
B. are cheap and relatively easy to maintain throughout the experiment.
C. prevent the data collection from being contaminated by other variables.
D. provide a standard for comparison with the data collected in the investigation.
3.   A scientist sets up an investigation to study the effect of temperature on bacterial growth. She plans to count the bacterial
growth each day as she changes the pH slightly, places the petri dishes with the bacteria in the refrigerator and in an
incubator, and varies the type of agar that she uses. What observation can you make about her experimental design?
A. Her design will effectively measure temperature changes on bacteria growth.
B. She has too many variables that will affect understanding the temperature changes on bacterial growth.
C. Different types of agar and pH changes will not prevent understanding the effect of temperature on bacterial growth.
D. All her variables are controlled within the design of the experimental investigation.

4.   A researcher wants to study whether a new soft drink will be popular with consumers due to its taste. He wants to have a test
group taste the soft drink in comparison to other popular brands on the market. Which research design would be an
acceptable method for the researcher and controls variables?
A. Have multiple soft drinks available. Each participant tastes most of them and selects his favorite.
B. Have each participant view the types of soft drinks and taste all of them selecting the best flavor.
C. Participants taste the new soft drink and one other drink rinsing their mouth with water after each test recording their
favorite beverage.
D. Each participant tastes the new soft drink compared to other soft drinks keeping a score card of what beverage they
liked best.

5.   Scientific investigations include
A. having a testable hypothesis.
B. testing multiple variables at one time.
C. using several control groups.
D. having undefined data sets.

6.   Scientific investigations include all of the following EXCEPT
A. having an appropriate control group.
B. identifying a testable hypothesis.
C. testing one variable at a time.
D. having multiple unrelated data sets.

7.   A student is designing a science fair project to test the relationship between the rate of a chemical reaction and different
factors such as changing the temperature, pH and size of the reactant materials. He decides to test the hypothesis: Rate of
reaction increases when the temperature of the reaction is increased. In his experimental design, he heats his reaction and
increases the acidity of the solution. Which of the following is correct?
A. He is testing two variables at the same time.
B. He has a correct hypothesis in relation to the experimental design.
C. The experimental design could be improved by grinding the reactants.
D. He has identified his control for the investigation.

8.   In order to light a Bunsen burner, a student should do the following:
A. turn on the gas, light the match, place the match flame in two inches above the burner.
B. turn on the gas, light the match and adjust the burner controls.
C. adjust the burner controls, turn on the gas then light the match.
D. light the match, turn on the gas, touch the match to the tip of the burner, adjust the controls.

9.   When measuring liquids, always
A. select small graduated cylinders for large quantities of liquid.
B. pour small quantities into large graduated cylinders.
C. select the graduated cylinder that best measures the quantity you need.
D. pour directly from the container into your laboratory without measuring it.

10. A student is conducting an experiment using a Bunsen burner when the fire bell rings. What should he do?
A. Exit the room and quickly exit the building following directions from hall monitors.
B. Turn the gas off, exit the room and quickly leave the building.
C. Leave his eye goggles on, exit the room and quickly leave the building.
D. Turn the gas off, pour the reaction down the sink, exit the room and quickly leave the building.

11. A student is conducting an experiment that requires her to pass a test tube through a flame in order to heat the contents of the
test tube evenly. Which piece of equipment is most appropriate for this activity?
A. Test tube holder because it adjusts to the size of the test tube.
B. Test tube rack because it is made of wood.
C. Crucible tongs because they are very small.
D. Buret clamp because it can be secured to the ring stand.

12. When instructed by your teacher, the proper way to smell a chemical is to
A. put the container next to your nose and inhale.
B. waft the smell away from your nose.
C. waft the smell towards your face.
D. have your lab partner smell the chemical.

13. When handling an acid that accidently spills on your hand, you should
B. start rinsing your hand under the faucet.
C. put a base on your hand to neutralize the acid.
D. use a paper towel to wipe the acid off your hand.

14. A student is conducting a laboratory investigation and needs to obtain chemicals for his lab station. He should do all of the
following EXCEPT
A. know the names and formulas of the chemicals needed for the investigation.
B. know the quantities of all the chemicals needed for the activity.
C. take all the chemicals to his desk and measure what he needs.
D. carry only what he can safely manage to his desk and then obtain the remaining materials.

15. Which of the following is the BEST procedure before doing any laboratory investigation?
A. Clean up the lab station and gather all the materials.
B. Read and make a list of all the materials needed for the activity, note all the safety issues.
D. Wait for your teacher to tell what materials you will need when the laboratory is ready to begin.

16. Which of the following is not part of scientific inquiry?
A. Analyzing data.
B. Collaborating with peers.
C. Doing a verification lab.
D. Testing a scientific question.

17. All of the following are important components of scientific inquiry EXCEPT
A. explaining new results in terms of current scientific knowledge.
B. using evidence to support scientific concepts and understandings.
C. presenting scientific findings to scientific community and peers.
D. learning a new laboratory technique for separation of mixtures.

18. Why is it important to explain new findings in terms of current scientific knowledge?
A. New findings can help us to understand or revise current theories and concepts.
B. New findings can help scientists promote their careers and obtain grants.
C. Current scientific knowledge cannot be revisited or changed.
D. Scientific knowledge is the same as scientific laws and not subject to change.

19. Collaboration among scientists is an important component of scientific inquiry for all of the following EXCEPT
A. scientists can learn from each other by sharing ideas and findings.
B. scientists tend to argue during collaboration and fail to generate new ideas.
C. new procedures for problem solving can develop through collaboration.

20. Your neighbor asks you to review her child’s science fair project design. The student wants to test the hypothesis that green
plants need sunlight to grow. She plans to grow one plant on her patio and the other plant in the closet. Which of the
following would you suggest?
A. Be sure to leave the plant in the sun, then place the same plant in the closet.
B. Be sure to control variables such as water, fertilizer and temperature.
C. Use shade tolerant plants for the closet and sun tolerant plants for the patio.
D. Use distilled water mixed with Miracle Grow fertilizer for both sets of plants.
21. You and your lab partner need to design an experiment to test for the effect of acids on metals. You decide to use one type of
acid and control the concentration but test different metals such as copper, aluminum, iron and tin. Your lab partner wants to
use several different types of acids. Which of the following is your BEST response to her?
A. There is not enough time during the class period to test different types of acids and their effects on metals.
B. Different types of acids are more difficult to obtain and too much time would be spent trying to find them.
C. The experiment needs to be controlled and testing several acids on different metals is too many variables.
D. Collecting the data from her design requires setting up several data charts which is more difficult to analyze.

22. A student wants to test Mendel’s hypothesis that crossing a tall pea plant with a short pea plant will produce only tall pea
plants. He obtains pea plant seeds from the nursery and germinates them. Which of the following is the most correct
A. He does not know what the genotypes of his plant seeds are.
B. The plants may be infertile and unable to produce flowers.
C. The phenotypes are easy to identify after they fully mature.
D. The plants are identical in genotype and phenotype.

23. A student finds an unlabeled bottle of white substance left at his desk and wants to identify it. His teacher says that it is either
sodium chloride or glucose because these two substances were used in the last class. Which of the following procedures
would be the most appropriate way to test for the nature of the substance?
A. Dissolve it in distilled water. Perform a conductivity test. If it conducts then it is a salt. Sugars do not conduct
electricity.
B. Dissolve it in water, then taste the water to see if it is salty or sweet. Glucose tastes sweet and can be identified.
C. Use a magnet to see if one of the substances is attracted to the magnetic field.
D. Use equal amounts of each of the substances dissolved in water and calculate their densities

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