How Text Is Organized by STB7n70v

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									                                       How Text Is Organized
Text Structure                  Primary Purpose(s)             Frequent uses               Signal Words           Note-Taking Strategies
                                    for Reading                                                                         Graphic Organizer
                             To understand the              Nonfiction:                before
Chronological
                             sequence.                      Biography                  initially
Order/Sequential                                            autobiography              to begin with
                                                                                       previously
                             To see how a character         history text
                                                                                       next
Describes events in the      changed over time.             Directions
                                                                                       during




                                                                                                                 1699
                                                                                                                 1699


                                                                                                                          1772


                                                                                                                                 1783


                                                                                                                                        1805


                                                                                                                                                 1875



                                                                                                                                                        1890

                                                                                                                                                               1900
order they happen.                                          Instructions               following
                             To get directions or           How something was done     finally
Flashbacks or flashforward   instructions                                              after
                                                            Story poems                now                    Steps:
                                                            Flashback                  then                   1.
                                                                                       first, last            2.
                                                                                       later                  3.
                                                                                       meanwhile
                                                                                       dates
                                                                                       times


                             To understand an idea fully.   Notes                      Importantly
Main Idea / Details
                                                            Essays                      mainly            I. Main Ideas
                                                                                       generally             A. Detail
                             To understand the author’s     History text
                                                                                       also                  B. Detail
                             message                        Science text
                                                                                                                                               web


Makes a point and gives                                                                in fact
                                                            Informative articles
                                                                                       in addition        List
details to support.          To make choices                Prewriting/planning page   for example              Item 1
                                                            Character’s qualities      for instance             Item 2
                             To build background                                       to illustrate


                             To visualize a place or                                   above
Description
                                                                                       near
                             setting                        Caption for a diagram,
                                                                                       in front of
                                                            picture.
                                                                                       inside
                                                            Story setting
                                                                                       colors
                                                            Describe a character       size
Text Structure                  Primary Purpose(s)           Frequent uses                You Might Read                  Note-Taking Strategies
                                   for Reading                                                                                  Graphic Organizer
                             To show similarities         Informative text              Similarly
Comparison                                                                                                                                        T-Chart
                                                          Persuasive writing            in the same way
                                                                                        just like
                             To draw conclusions          Science books
Describes how 2 things are                                                              likewise                     A        A&B             B
                             To infer                     History books
alike                                                                                   in comparison
                                                                                        also
                             To connect prior knowledge                                 same as
                             with new information                                                                        A only A+B B only




                             To show differences          Informational text            in contrast
Contrast
                                                          Persuasive writings           on the other hand however
                                                                                        although                          A only A+B B only
                             To draw conclusions          Science books
Describes how 2 things are                                                              but
                             To infer                     History books
different                                                                               yet
                                                                                        as opposed to however
                             To make informed choices                                   instead of

                             To connect prior knowledge
                             with new information



                             To analyze the plot          In a story to show conflict   this caused
Cause – Effect
                                                                                        an effect of                          led to
                                                                                        because of                               led to
                             To make connections          Persuasive writings to
Describes the result of an                                                              as a result of
                                                          prove a point
event or the reason                                                                     in order to                                 because
                             To show how one event
                                                                                        may be due to, therefore
something happened.          leads to other events.       Explanations                                              This is
                                                                                        for this reason
                                                                                                                                    because

                                                                                        consequently, thus                          because
                             To show how or why                                         this led to
                             something happened                                         so that, nevertheless
      Text Structure            Primary Purpose(s)           Frequent uses                  You Might Read                         Note-Taking Strategies
                                    for Reading                                                                                             Graphic Organizer
Problem/Solution             To solve a problem         Persuasive writing               the problem is…
                             To make choices            “How to” instructions            the difficulty is..
                             To show connections        Editorials                       the challenge                               Problem
Describes a situation or     To draw conclusions                                         need
problem and offers one or
more ways to solve it.                                                                   an answer is
                                                                                         solve
                                                                                         resolve
                                                                                         result
                             For pleasure               Fiction                          sequencing words and                    Freitog Pyramid
Narrative                                                                                                                                   Climax
                                                                                         phrases,




                                                                                                                                                     Action
                                                                                                                                                     Falling
                                                                                                                                   Action
                                                                                                                                   Rising
                             To tell a story
A story with a plot.                                                                     connecting words and            Problem                           Resolution

Exposition                                                                               phrases                                                 Story Map
                             To learn through others’
Rising action (problem)      experiences.
                                                                                                                         characters
                                                                                         references to time (past,       setting
Climax                                                                                   present, future)                problem
                                                                                                                         event
Falling action                                                                                                           event
Resolution (solution)                                                                                                    climax
                                                                                                                         resolution



Various Combinations –       Create complex text        Resources utilized for the development of this chart include:
                                                        Dr. Bonnie Hain, FCPS Curriculum Specialist for English/Language Arts.

A longer piece of text can                              Schoenbach, Greenleaf, Cziko, Hurwitz. Reading for Understanding: A Guide to Improving Reading in Middle and
                                                        High School Classrooms. The Reading Apprenticeship Program Guide. Jossey-Bass Publishers and WestEd, 1999.
have more than one text
structure.                                              Burke, Klemp, Schwartz. The Reader’s Handbook. Great Source Education Group, 2002.
                                                        Vacca and Vacca. Content Area Reading: Literacy and Learning Across the Curriculum, 6 th Ed., Longman, 1999.
                                                         Office of Secondary English - 2004
                                                         Revised for RWW students - 2008

								
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