Language and the Reading Puzzle

Document Sample
Language and the Reading Puzzle Powered By Docstoc
					  Language and
the Reading Puzzle



      Virginia A. Mann
 Dept. Of Cognitive Sciences
University of California, Irvine
       vmann@uci.edu
    brainconnection.com
Why are poor readers,
poor readers?
  •What makes them err?
    – in decoding
    – in comprehension

  •What can be done?
 ERRORS
   IN
 WRITING
Reversals?

Spelling errors?

Missing words?
    ERRORS IN READING:
POOR DECODING:
Recovering the spoken words that
 written words ‘stand for’

  Basics: vocabulary
           phoneme awareness
           morpheme awareness
           A limit on fluency
Decoding Problems
            Reading Errors
  40


  35                                     Poor
  30
                                         readers

  25


  20
                                         Average
                                         readers
  15


  10
                                         Superior
  5                                      readers
  0
       Sight words Unfamiliar Nonsense

       'every'    'giraffe'   'tiggle'
  ERRORS IN READING

WORKING MEMORY
Temporarily retaining an ordered
 series of words, syllables, etc.

 Basics: in both reading and listening
          a bottleneck on comprehension
       Working Memory Errors
                                      Token Task Errors

                  100

                  95
Percent Correct




                  90
                                                                              Good
                  85                                                          Poor


                  80

                  75

                  70
                                   Level of Complexity/length
                        shortest

                                                    Smith, Mann and Shankweiler 1986
Language and the Reading Puzzle



     Vocabulary
     Vocabulary
     & Early
     & Early
     Language
     Language




          Working memory
Vocabulary & Early Language



   Vocabulary
   & Early
   Language
      Written Language
Transcribes Spoken Language
         • Readers start as
        speakers and hearers

          • Reading suffers
     if spoken language is weak

    Weak language can have both
  genetic and environmental origins
                                                Language, SES and Reading
                                             Cumulative Effects of Language
                                                                                                                                                          Effects of Low Language
                                                      Experience
                                                                                                                                                          Development on Reading
                                                                                  45 Million Words




                                                                                                                                  16
                                                                                                                                  15
                                                                                     High SES                                                                                            High Oral
Estimated Cumulative Words




                                                                                                                                                                                         Language in




                                                                                                                                  12 13 14
                                                                                                                                                                                         Kindergarten
                                                                                                                                                                       5.2 years




                                                                                                              Reading Age Level
                                                                                                                                                                       difference
                             (In Millions)




                                                                                  26 Million Words




                                                                                                                                  11
                                                                                    Middle SES                                                                                           Low Oral




                                                                                                                                  10
                                                                                                                                                                                         Language in




                                                                                                                                  9
                                                                                                                                                                                         Kindergarten




                                                                                                                                  8
                                                                                  13 Million Words


                                                                                                                                  7
                                                                                                                                  6
                                                                                      Low SES

                                                                                                                                  5
                                                                                                                                              5   6   7   8   9   10    11   12     13    14   15   16

                                                                                                                                                              Chronological Age
                                                 12            24            36            48
                                                      Age of Child (In Months)

                             SOURCE: Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American                                     SOURCE: Loban (1967); Hirsch (1996)
                             Children by Betty Hart & Todd R. Risley. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. (1995)
An Environment of Poor Reading


        The Real OC:
        Santa Ana, CA
        Highest in:
        High school dropout
        Household Density
        Poverty
        Speakers of Spanish
Santa Ana children are below the norm –
           even in Spanish!
     100                                                     Normal




     90


                                                             At risk


     80




     70
                   < 30 mo.          31 - 42 mo   > 42 mo.

           Age at baseline measure
Consequences of low education:

     Less income: 37 cents per dollar
     A shorter life: dying 9 years earlier

     1% decrease in the dropout rate:
       100,000 fewer crimes
       400 fewer murders
       $1.4 million annual savings


                                LA Times 1/29/06
 What can be Done?
Improve the schools?
Work before school starts?
 help parents fulfill their role
 as their children’s first teachers



     Home-based Activities
  Building Language Acquisition
  2 ways to optimize the home
          environment
• 1. Coach parents to
  – Be more responsive, positive and engaged
  – exercise children’s spoken language skills
     • Use complex language
     • Ask and listen


• 2. Coach parents to
  – enrich the home literacy environment
  – use dialogic reading
             HABLA:
  ‘Speak!’ for School success
A Spanish language program:
 two years of home visits (92 visits)
 Increases verbal interaction between
 parents and 2-4 yr old children
 Easily-learned, developmentally appropriate
 methods of play
 Books and toys that stay in the home
 (Levenstein et al, 2002)
HABLA as Cost Effective:
1 year of HABLA: $1500
1 year of preschool: $6000
An extra year of school: $6000
Each year of Special Education: $12,000

Cumulative loss of social capital:
PRICELESS
An HABLA family
A Home Visit
                            Positive Gains in Early Language:
                                                HABLA Treated Children, 2001-2005:
                                                    Spanish Language Ability

                           100 100


                           95
                                                                           Without HABLA
PLS-3 Standardized Score




                           90   90



                           85


                           80   80



                           75


                                70
                           70
                                             < 30 mo.          31 - 42 mo            > 42 mo.
                                                Intake            1 Year              2 Years
                                                 524
                                     Age at baseline measure       478                   254


                                                                                            Mann et al, 2007
  Mathematics in       HABLA
   Preschool:
Spanish            English
     Letters in             HABLA
     Preschool
Spanish           English
  A high tech approach to both genetic and
       environmentally based problems:
             FastForWord products

Neuroscience
  F.A.S.T. Power learning formula:
  Frequency & intensity, Adaptivity,
  Simultaneous development, Timely motivation


Cognitive Science
A scope and sequence of materials that build foundational
  cognitive and language skills progressively
        Fast ForWord Reading


A series of products      Builds vocabulary

that targets all levels   builds connections
                          between written and
of reading                spoken words

from decoding             Builds flexibility
                          Builds fluency through
to comprehension
                          repeated reading
   Phoneme Awareness:
The First Key to the Alphabet
Why Phoneme Awareness
Matters? Decoding Words
              Reading Errors
    40


    35                                     Poor
    30
                                           readers

    25


    20
                                           Average
                                           readers
    15


    10
                                           Superior
     5                                     readers
     0
         Sight words Unfamiliar Nonsense

         'every'    'giraffe'   'tiggle'
   The Alphabetic code:
Letters stand for phonemes

      But what are
       phonemes?
The units of language
“Are you here as a teacher?”
        •    1 sentence
        •    6 words
        •    7 syllables
        •   15 phonemes
              …12-13 in the South…
        • 20 letters
• Letters represent phonemes but these are
       •abstract Mental Units
       •not SoundBites

• To understand the ABC’s
      •Children must be aware of phonemes
      •Seeing how c-a-t spells ‘cat’ takes
      a kind of mental surgery
Activities that Require
Phoneme Awareness:
Judgment:
What has a different first sound?
bag baby cat ball
Manipulation:
Say ‘brake’ without the first sound
      rake
   The Antecedents of
  Phoneme Awareness?

• Production and Perception of
  Speech
• Exposure to literacy activities
  (verse and word play, the
  ABC’s, shared reading)
                       Mann and Foy, 2001-2007
    Activities that promote
     phomeme awareness
• Learning the ABC’s
  especially letter sounds
• Matching or Sorting words
  by phonemes
• Manipulating phonemes
• Blending
   Phoneme Awareness Predicts
      Early Reading Success
             Highly
                  6
             aware
                    4


                    2
Phoneme
awareness    Avg.
                    0
in October
                    -2
             Least
             aware
                 -4
                     -20       0       20      40      60        80

                             Reading Ability in 6 months later
                           Reading AbilityMarch
                                                Shah and Mann, 2000
 A Cautionary Note




Intervention and training must be:
lengthy, explicit and intensive
 How FastForWord Reading
Builds Phoneme Awareness:
      Some Examples
     Morpheme Awareness:
Second Key to the English Alphabet
Morphemes in all language:
   Vocabulary builders
Morphemes and English:
1) Spelling and Meaning

 to, too, or two?

 there, their or they’re?

 it’s or its?
   From Peter Bryant’s
“Rogue Apostrophe Gallery”
Morphemes and English:
2) Suffixes and Decoding

 – HEAL       HEALTH
 – SIGN       SIGNIFY
 – ELECTRIC   ELECTRICITY
Morphemes aid comprehension
   yet complicate decoding
      REACT      REACH
      REDO       REAL
      REPLAY     REIGN
      REPAY      REALM
Measuring Morpheme Awareness
• The Cloze Task:

  She is very _______

    active activate activation activize

    lorialize lorial lorify    lorialism
Morphemes: Early Reading Ability

                                            Morphological
                1
                                            Awareness
              0.8
   R-square




                                            Phonological
              0.6
                                            Awareness
              0.4
              0.2
                0       Grade Level
                    3     4     5     6

                                          Singson, Mahony & Mann, 2000
Morphemes:The Bigger Picture

                   95
                   85
 Percent Correct




                   75
                   65                                    Oral
                                                         Written
                   55

                   45
                   35
                   25
                        1   Poor 3rd 4th 5th 6th 6
                              2    3         4     5   Avg.
                            Adult            grade
                                  Ability Level        Adult
How FastForWord Reading
 targets Morpheme Skills:
     Some Examples
The Role of Working Memory:
    Putting it all together




          Working memory
Speakers and readers need
 working memory:

• To understand sentences with
  – Nouns separated from their verbs
  – Embedded clauses
  – pronouns separated from antecedents
• To unify paragraphs
            SENTENCE COMPREHENSION

                                      Token Task Errors

                  100

                  95
Percent Correct




                  90
                                                                Good
                  85                                            Poor


                  80

                  75

                  70
                        shortest




                                   Level of Complexity/length
Consequences in the classroom?
        • Problems with comprehension:

          –   following directions
          –   multiple choice tests
          –   paragraphs
          –   pronouns
          –   embedded clauses

        • For written material this is
          exaggerated by slow labored
          decoding
How FastForWord Reading
 Builds Working Memory:
     Some Examples
 Early language, Vocabulary,
   Phonemes, Morphemes
and Working Memory matter in:

  • All language use

  • The alphabet and decoding

  • Comprehension

  • Reading intervention
        Reading intervention?
        Language Awareness:
        Phonemes and Morphemes




Language                   Literacy
Skills:                    Experiences
Working Memory             Verse, ABC’s
Vocabulary                 Reading
Solutions to the Problem:

 Coach parents

    Use science and technology
    to build products for the
    schools
A CIRCUIT FOR SUCCESS
         SCHOOLS




               Science &
 FAMILIES      Technology
                                     2007 Research

  Bill Jenkins, Ph.D.    Professor Michael Merzenich, Ph.D.                                                   Steve Miller, Ph.D.
                                                                            Professor
                                                                     Paula Tallal, Ph.D.




                           Melissa Agocs                             Logan De Ley, M.S.                        Rebecca Buffum, M.S.
Barbara Calhoun, Ph.D.




       Stefanie Lim       Andrew Ostarello, M.S.                                        Gretchen Donehower, Ph.D.      Marty Burns, Ph.D.
                                                         Virginia Mann, Ph.D.
                                                                                              UC - Berkeley
                                                              UC - Irvine

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:6/26/2012
language:
pages:68