Development of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring 6th Grade by By1wY1a

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									DEVELOPMENT OF A TWO-TIER
DIAGNOSTIC TEST MEASURING 6TH
GRADE STUDENTS’ CONCEPTUAL
UNDERSTANDINGS OF CIRCULATORY
SYSTEM


SACİT KÖSE, GÖKHAN AKKUŞ

PAMUKKALE UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
DENİZLİ-TURKEY
THE IMPORTANCE OF TWO TIER
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS


         The importance and place of concepts in
    science have been proven thanks to a lot of
    surveys. The most important reason for this
    importance to show up is that the misconceptions
    are the biggest handicaps for learning.
      Many methods exist in the literature that has
    been proposed to identify misconceptions. Word
    association (Bahar et al., 1999), interviews
    (Osborne and Cosgrove, 1983), open-ended
    questions (Eisen and Stavy,1988), concept
    mapping (Hazel and Prosser, 1994), two-tier
    diagnostic test (Haslam and Treagust,1987),
    prediction-observation-explanation (Liew and
    Treagust, 1995) and drawings (Martlew and
    Connolly,1996) are the most frequently used
    methods in the identification of misconceptions.
        Although the preperation period takes a little
    long, after it is fully prepared, it has a wide range
    of usage and also efficient. Multiple choice tests
    on their own aren’t enough to determine the
    student’s thought and misconceptions. However,
    we can say that this is a step to define the
    misconceptions. The other step is the reason
    lying beneath the student’s choice. The most
    effective way to find this out is the two-tier tests.
   PURPOSE
      The reason to choose the circulatory system as
    the topic is the obstacles of the students in
    learning other systems of the body who haven’t
    understood the circulatory system; and the
    abundancy of misconceptions in this subject.
       It has been observed that the students who
    haven’t understood the circulatory system
    thoroughly, also have had difficulties in
    understanding excretory, digestive, respiratory
    systems. The students who have understood the
    circulatory system have understood the other
    systems of the body better.
     The purpose of this study is to develop a two
tier diagnostic test measuring 6th grade
students’ conceptual understanding of circulatory
system.
   METHODS AND PROCEDURES


        After scanning the literature, it has been
    observed that the misconceptions about the topic
    aren’t enough.
     As a result, word association test, filling the
  conception map and semi-structured interviews
  have been applied to 7th grade students and
  misconceptions have been defined.
     This study has been achieved by the
  participation of 135 7th grade students for word
  association test and 148 7th grade students for
  concept mapping test.
    Semi-structured interviews were made with
  the 10 students who have the most
  misconceptions.
       To sum up, the steps of preperation,
    application and evaluation of a two-tier test in
    this study, are crucial tools to correctly define the
    misconceptions in the topic of circulatory system
    and such other systems and thus will shed a light
    on many educators and researchers.
STEPS FOR DEVELOPING THE TWO
TIER TESTS

   Defining of the context.



   Gathering information about the student’s
    misconceptions.



   Developing the diagnostic test.
 TABLE 1: THE KINDS AND
 CONTEXTS OF TWO TIER TESTS.
Kinds of two tier      1st tier          2nd tier
tests


1- Multiple choice two Multiple choice   Multiple choice
tier tests                               (+open-ended)


2- Two tier test       True – False      Multiple choice
requiring                                (+open-ended)
classification


3- Open-ended two-     Multiple choice   Open-ended
tier tests
DETERMINATION OF THE CONTEXT



   1st STEP: At this step, the researchers
    determines all the scientific propositions which
    exist in available resources related with the topic.

   2nd STEP: The researcher is provided to observe
    the relations of the topic both with each other
    and the general structure of the topic by the
    preperation of a detailed concept map.
   3rd STEP: The propositions in the first step are
    combined with the concept maps made out of only
    concepts.

   4th STEP: The propositions and the concept
    maps are controlled by the experts of the subject,
    thus proving its validity. After the investigation,
    necessary changes are made in the concept map.
     GATHERING INFORMATION ABOUT
     STUDENT'S MISUNDERSTANDINGS

   5th STEP: The available literature about the
    subject has been interrogated. Depending upon
    this, concept map illusories and the questions of
    the interview have been prepared.

   6th STEP: The applicaion of the interviews as the
    results of the misconceptions from the literature
    and the other misconceptions gathered from the
    investigations has been done. Moreover,
    recording the interviews produce an advantage
    for the evaluation of the information gathered. At
    this step, open-minded questions may also be
    used. This step provides detailed information
    about misconceptions.
   7th STEP: Two tier diagnostic test has been
    developed depending upon the information
    gathered. The 2nd tier has included open-ended
    questions. The misconceptions defined in
    illusories have been used as propositions. At the
    second tier, the students have been supposed to
    write the reasons for their choices as filling in the
    blanks after the phrases such as “because”, “in
    order to explain”, “why I chose this option”. It
    shall be suitable for the validity and scientific
    accuracy of the questions to be evaluated by the
    experts of the topic.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DIAGOSTIC
TEST


   8th STEP: The application of the 7th step might
    be evaluated as a piloted application. Now, the
    second tier development shall begin.

   9th STEP: A notation chart which shows the two
    tier diagnostic test, being in accordance with
    which information propositions and concepts, has
    been prepared

   10th STEP: The test has been presented to
    experts,educators and teachers of the topic to
    prove its validity.
TABLE 2: THE CRITERIAS OF
EVALUATING USED IN TWO-TIER OPEN-
ENDED QUESTIONS
Understanding
                 Explanation                    Evaluation       Score
Levels                                           Criterias
The True Reason   The answers including all      True answer -
                  the aspects of the valid       True reason        3
                  reason
Partly True       The answers not including      True answer –
Reason            all the aspects of the valid   Partly true        2
                  reason                         reason
The False         The answers including          False answer –
Reason            untrue information             True reason        2

Empty             Giving an unrelated, unclear   True answer –
                  answer or leaving a blank      False reason       1
                                                 False answer-
                                                 False reason        0
RESULTS

TABLE 3: WORD ASSOCIATION TEST RESULTS
 CONCEPTS             SCORES
 VEIN                   215
 ARTERY                 260
 BLOOD                  523
 HEART                  417
 LUNG                   230
 OXYGEN                 459
 FOOD                   659
 SMALL CIRCULATION      198
 LARGE CIRCULATION      186
      In Table 3, the correct scores from the papers
    are given. As you see, the misconceptions are
    abundant in the topics of veins, areteries, lungs
    small and large circulations. Moreover, these
    findings support concept mapping and interview
    results.
 TABLE 4: CONCEPT MAPPING
CONCEPTS                   %TRUE   %FALSE   %EMPTY

Artery                     64.88   33.10    2.02
Vein                       64.20   33.78    2.02
Capillary                  86.49   10.81    2.70
Ventricle of               39.87   57.43    2.70
Atrium of                  33.79   62.16    4.05
Right ventricle            36.50   60.13    3.37
Left abdominal pressure    37.85   58.78    3.37

Windscreen washers blood   51.37   29.72    18.91

Heart                      77.03   6.08     16.89
CONCEPT             %TRUE   %FALSE   %EMPTY
Left atrium         33.80   61.48    4.72

Right atrium        36.50   59.45    4.05

Leukocyte           49.33   35.13    15.54

Erythrocyte         55.41   32.43    12.16

Bypass              63.52   26.35    10.13

Heart Transplant    69.60   21.62    8.78

Large Circulation   72.99   22.29    4.72

Small Circulation   71.63   22.97    5.40

Lymph Circulation   54.06   38.51    7.43
        The semi-structured interview has given
    paralel results to those of word association
    testing and concept map. Together with the
    misconceptions and information lackings seen
    amongst the students like blood cells, segments
    of heart and vein variences; it has also been
    observed that there has been an abundancy in
    information lackings in circulation system among
    the students, apart from the results of concept
    map and word association testing results.
       The reliability of the concept map results is
    0,79 with Spearmen-Brown correcting formula
    after the correlation of 0,66 of concept testing
    analysis.

       The validity of the test has been gained by
    the evaluation of experts and science and
    technology teachers.

       The data were used to develop 20 two-tier
    multiple choice items in which the students have
    had some misconceptions and difficulties in
    understanding about the circulatory system.
    Sample questions are given Appendix.
CONCLUSION

      The importance and place of concepts in
  science have been proven thanks to a lot of
  surveys. The most important reason for this
  importance to show up is that the misconceptions
  are the biggest handicaps for learning.
      To sum up, the steps of preperation,
  application and evaluation of a two-tier test in
  this study, are crucial tools to correctly define the
  misconceptions in the topic of circulatory system
  andsuch other systems and thus will shed a light
  on many educators and researchers.
     APPENDIX

     WORD ASSOCIATION TEST
   Explanation: Dear students, please write your concepts
    which you think first about these human circulatory
    system concepts, your time is 5 minutes. The more you
    write your concepts, the more you get scores. All of the
    concepts have ten relation concept.
   VEIN: ...............................................................
   ARTERY: ............................................................
   BLOOD: ..............................................................
   HEART: ...............................................................
   LUNG: ................................................................
   OXYGEN: .............................................................
   FOOD: .................................................................
   SMALL CIRCULATION: .........................................
   LARGE CIRCULATION: ........................................
CONCEPT MAP 1
CONCEPT MAP 2
EXAMPLES OF A TWO TIER
QUESTIONS
1. The second tier is open-ended

   Which of the vein variences following is the vein
    generally carrying clean blood?
   A-Vein
   B-Artery
   C-Capillary
   D-Thinvein
   EXPLANATION:
    …………………………………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………
    …………………………………………………………………
    ………
2. The   second tier is again multiple choice

   Which one isn't a blood cell?
I. Windscreen washers blood
II. Leukocyte
III. Erythrocyte
IV. Blood plasma
   The reason that I have chosen this option is:
A) Blood plasma is a blood cell
B) There are three blood cells and they are windscreen washers
   blood, leukocyte, erythrocyte
C) Blood Plasma is a red, leukocyte is a white and windcsreen
   washers blood all of them are a blood cell
D) _______________________________________________________

								
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