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					           Western Settlement
            and Immigration
                         South Pass                                  Independence
Portland

             Ft. Boise                Ft. Laramie      Ft. Kearney




       “Give me your tired, your poor, your
         huddled masses yearning to breathe
          free, the wretched refuse of your
           teeming shore. Send these, the
         homeless, tempest-tossed to me: I
        lift my lamp beside the golden door!”
                                                    The New Colossus
                                                       Emma Lazarus
       Timeline of Events
• 1862
  – Homestead Act passed by Congress
  – Morrill Act passed by Congress
• 1864
  – Massacre at Sand Creek
• 1868
  – Treaty of Fort Laramie
  – Red River War
       Timeline of Events
• 1869
  – Suez Canal is opened
  – Central Pacific and Union Pacific
    complete the transcontinental railroad
• 1870
  – Red Cloud, chief of the Oglala Sioux,
    states his people’s case in
    Washington, D.C.
  – Franco Prussian War breaks out
       Timeline of Events

• 1872
  – Secret ballot is adopted in Britain
• 1874
  – Gold is found in the Black Hills of
    South Dakota
• 1880
  – James Garfield is elected president
        Timeline of Events
•1881
   −Garfield is assassinated, Chester Arthur
   becomes president
   −France occupies Tunisia
• 1884
   – Grover Cleveland is elected president
• 1887
   – Dawes Act passed by Congress
       Timeline of Events
1889
  – Oklahoma opened for settlement; the
    land rush begins
• 1890
  – Sioux are massacred at Wounded Knee
  – Morrill Act of 1890 passed by Congress
• 1893
  – Diminished U.S. gold reserve triggers the
    panic of 1893
  – France takes over Indochina
       Timeline of Events
• 1896
  – William McKinley is elected president
  – William Jennings Bryan runs for
    president
• 1899
  – Berlin Conference divides Africa
    among European nations
• 1900
  – Boxer Rebellion takes place in China
  Culture of the Plains Indians
• After the Spanish brought horses to
  New Mexico in 1598, the Native
  Americans way of life was forever
  changed.
• With horses, and eventually guns, Native
  Americans were able to travel farther
  and hunt more efficiently.
• By the mid-1700’s most of the tribes
  had left their farms to roam the plains
  and hunt buffalo.
Plains Indians Hunting Buffalo
 Culture of the Plains Indians
• Increased mobility often led to wars
  with other tribes who trespassed on
  other tribes’ hunting grounds
• A plains warrior gained honor by killing
  his enemies, and “counting coup”
  – Process of touching a live enemy with a
    coup stick and escaping unharmed
• When a truce was called, tribes would
  trade, share news, or enjoy harvests
 Culture of the Plains Indians
• Indians used Buffalo for many things—
  – They made tepees from buffalo hides
  – Used the skins for clothing, shoes, and
    blankets
  – Buffalo meat was dried into jerky or mixed
    with berries and fat to make a staple food
    called pemmican
• The Buffalo provided their basic needs
  and was central to life on the Plains
            Family Life
• Native Americans usually lived in small
  extended family groups with ties to
  other bands that spoke the same
  language
  – Men were the hunters and warriors
  – Women butchered the game and prepared
    the hides—sometimes they were allowed
    to choose their husbands
 Native
American
Families
            Family Life
• Children learned proper behavior and
  culture through myths, games, and
  good examples
• No individual was allowed to dominate
  the group
• Leaders of a tribe ruled by counsel
  rather than by force
• Land was for use by the whole tribe—
  no private ownership of land
                   Religion
• Plains Indian tribes believed that powerful
  spirits controlled events in the natural world

                             • Men or women who
                                showed particular
                                       sensitivity
                                    to the spirits
                             became medicine men
                                       or women,
                                      or shamans
    Settlers Push Westward
• The White man stated that the Indians
  had given up their claim when they did
  not settle down and “improve” the land
• The Prospect of striking it rich was one
  powerful attraction
  – The discovery of gold in Colorado sent tens
    of thousands of miners to the region
     Settlers Push Westward
• Mining Camps and tiny frontier towns
  – Filthy, ramshackle living quarters
  – Rows of tents and shacks with dirt streets
  – Fortune seekers of every description
    crowded the camps and boomtowns
  – Women tried their luck as laundresses,
    freight haulers, or miners
  – Cities like Virginia City, Nevada, and Helena,
    Montana were built on Indian lands
        Railroads Move West
• The arrival of the railroad in the west
  influenced the government’s policy toward the
  Native Americans
• 1834-the federal government passed an act
  that designated the entire Great Plains as one
  enormous reservation
• 1850-the government changed their policy and
  divided the land designating specific boundaries
  for each tribe
• Native Americans continued to hunt on their
  traditional lands regardless of the treaties
The building of
an empire, and
the destruction
  of a people
     Massacre at Sand Creek
• In 1864, the Cheyenne, believing they were
  under the protection of the government,
  peacefully returned to Colorado’s Sand Creek
  Reserve for the winter
• General S.R. Curtis, commander of the west,
  wrote to colonel John Chivington that read, “I
  want no peace till the Indians suffer more.”
• Chivington and his troops descended on the
  Cheyenne and Arapaho at dawn on November
  29, 1864 and killed over 150 inhabitants,
  mostly women and children
  Death on the Bozeman Trail
• The Bozeman Trail ran directly through Sioux
  hunting grounds in the Bighorn Mountains
• Sioux Chief, Red Cloud, was unsuccessful in
  appealing to end the settlement on the trail
• In December 1866, the warrior Crazy Horse
  ambushed Captain Fetterman and his company
  at Lodge Trail Ridge
• Over 80 soldiers were killed—the Native
  Americans called this the Battle of the
  Hundred Slain; while, the whites called it the
  Fetterman Massacre
  Death on the Bozeman Trail
• Skirmishes continued until the trail was closed
  by the government
• In return, the Sioux were forced to sign the
  Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868)
  – It forced them to live on a reservation along the
    Missouri River
• Sitting Bull, leader of the Hunkpapa Sioux,
  never signed the treaty
• Although Ogala and Brule Sioux signed the
  treaty, they expected to continue using their
  traditional hunting grounds
Traveling the Bozeman Trail
             Red River War
• The Comanche and the Kiowa engaged in six
  years of raids until the Red River War of
  1874-1875 broke out.
• The Army responded by herding the people of
  friendly tribes onto reservations while opening
  fire on all others
• General Philip Sheridan gave orders to “destroy
  their villages and ponies, kill and hang all
  warriors, and bring back all women and
  children.”
• Those tactics destroyed any resistance on the
  southern plains
              Gold Rush
• Four years after the Treaty of Ft.
  Laramie, miners began settling the Black
  Hills for gold
• The Sioux, Cheyenne, and Arapaho
  protested to no avail
• In 1874, Colonel George Custer reported
  that the Black Hills had gold “from the
  grass roots down.”
• Red Cloud and Spotted Tail vainly
  appealed again
      Custer’s Last Stand
• June 1876, the Sioux and Cheyenne
  held a sun dance
• Sitting Bull had a vision of soldiers
  and some Native Americans falling
  from their horses
• When Custer and his men reached the
  Little Big Horn River, the Native
  Americans were ready
         Custer’s Last Stand
• Led by Crazy Horse, Gall, and Sitting Bull, the
  warriors outflanked Custer’s men and crushed
  them.
• Within an hour, Custer and all of his men were
  dead
• By late 1876, however, the Sioux were beaten
• Sitting Bull and a few followers took refuge in
  Canada, where they remained until 1881
• Eventually, to prevent starvation, he was
  forced to surrender
• In 1885, Sitting Bull appeared in William F.
  “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show
             Assimiliation
• The Native Americans still had many
  supporters
• Helen Hunt Jackson exposed the
  government’s many broken promises in
  her 1881 book, A Century of Dishonor
• Many supporters supported assimilation,
  a plan in which the Native Americans
  would give up their culture and be a part
  of the white culture
                   Assimilation
• Congress passed the Dawes Act of 1887 aiming
  to “Americanize” the Native Americans
• The Act broke up the reservations and gave
  some of the land to individual Native Americans
  –   160 acres to each head of household
  –   80 acres to each unmarried adult
  –   The remainder of the land was sold to settlers
  –   The money received for the remainder of the land
      would be given to the Indians
• By 1932, whites had taken about 2/3rd’s of the
  territory that had been set aside for Native
  Americans
• No money from the sale of the land was ever
  given to the Indians
              Assimilation
• Most significant blow to tribal life on the
  plains was the destruction of the buffalo
• Tourists and fur traders shot buffalo for
  sport
• The food source, clothing, shelter, and
  fuel for the Indians was quickly
  disappearing
• In 1800, there were 65 million buffalo
  on the plains—by 1890, fewer than 1000
  remained
              Wounded Knee
• The Sioux were suffering so they turned to a
  Paiute prophet who promised that if they
  performed a ritual called the Ghost Dance
  their lands and way of life would be restored
• The Ghost Dance spread quickly alarming
  military leaders
  – They ordered the arrest of Sitting Bull
  – Sitting Bull’s body guard, Catch-the-Bear shot one
    of the officers
  – The officers then killed Sitting Bull
• In the aftermath, Chief Big Foot led the
  fearful Sioux away
             Wounded Knee
• On December 28, 1890, the 7th Cavalry
  rounded up about 350 starving and freezing
  Sioux and took them to a camp at Wounded
  Knee Creek in South Dakota
• They then demanded the Indians to give up
  their weapons
• A shot was fired, from which side is unknown
• The soldiers opened fire with deadly cannon
  – Within minutes, 300 unarmed Native Americans
    were dead
• The soldiers left the corpses to freeze on the
  ground
• The Battle of Wounded Knee brought the
  Indian wars-and an entire era-to a bitter end
Medicine Man killed at Wounded Knee
         Vaqueros and Cowboys
• American Settlers first learned how to round up, rope,
  brand, and care for the herds of the open range
• The Texas Longhorns were sturdy, short-tempered
  breeds accustom to the dry grasslands of southern Spain
  – Spanish ranchers raised longhorns for food
• The cowboy way of life stems directly from the Mexican
  vaquero, who was the first to wear spurs, “chaps”, and
  the first to eat jerky
• The Spanish bronco caballo, or “rough horse” became
  known as a bronco
• The strays, or mestenos, were the same mustangs that
  the American cowboy tamed and prized
• The Mexican rancho became the American ranch
• And, the words Corral and Rodeo were borrowed from
  Spanish
Vaqueros and Cowboys
       The American Cowboy
• The demand for the American Cowboy
  was not high until the railroad reached
  the Great Plains
• Cowboys did not generally drive their
  cattle far from their homesteads
  – One exception in 1854; two ranchers drove
    their cattle 700 miles, and put them on
    stock cars bound for New York. When the
    cars were unloaded, the stampede that came
    afterward was too much for the city
  – Parts of the country were still not ready for
    the mass transportation of animals
     Growing Demand for Beef
• After the Civil War, the demand for beef sky-
  rocketed due to rapidly growing cities
• The Chicago Union Stockyards opened in 1865,
  and by spring 1866, the railroads were running
  regularly through Sedalia, Missouri
• Ranchers shipped cattle from Sedalia to Chicago
  and markets in the east
• Farmers became angry when ranchers and their
  cattle trampled crops; therefore, in 1866,
  farmers blockaded cattle in Baxter Springs,
  Kansas resulting in the selling of cattle at cut-
  rate prices or dying of starvation
             The Cow Town
• In 1877, ranchers found a more
  convenient route
  – Illinois rancher, Joseph McCoy, approached
    several Western towns with plans to create a
    shipping yard where the trails and rail lines
    came together
  – Abilene, Kansas enthusiastically accepted the
    plan
  – McCoy built cattle pens, a three-story hotel,
    and helped survey the Chisholm Trail-the
    major route from San Antonio to Kansas
         The Cowboy Way
• The meeting of the
  Chisholm ushered in the
  hey-day of the Cowboy
• Even though folklore
  depicted the Cowboy as
  Anglo-American, as many
  as 25% were African
  American, and at least
  12% were Mexican
• Most of the Cowboy Way
  was a romanticized myth
           The Cowboy Way
• Cowboy’s worked 10-14 hours/day on a
  ranch, and 14+ hours on the trail
• Some cowboys were as young as 15; most
  were broken-down by the time they were 40
• A cowboy might own his saddle, but his trail
  horse most likely belonged to his boss
• Cowboys were valued for the skill of roping
  and riding rather than the color of their skin
• A cowboys gun would most likely be for
  protecting the herd, not chasing outlaws
        Legends of the West
• James Butler, “Wild Bill” Hickok served as
  a scout and a spy during the Civil War
  and, later, as a marshal in Abilene,
  Kansas—he was shot and killed while
  holding a pair of aces and a pair of eights
  in a poker game—a hand still known as
  “dead man’s hand”
• Martha Jane Burke, “Calamity Jane”, was
  an expert sharpshooter who dressed as a
  man and may have been a scout for Custer
“Wild Bill” Hickok and Calamity Jane
     Settling the Great Plains
• It took over 250 years from the first
  settlement of Jamestown until 1870—to
  turn 400 million acres of forests and
  prairies into flourishing farms
• Settling the second 400 million took only
  30 years
                Railroads
• 1850-1871, the federal government made
  huge land grants to railroads—170 million
  acres, worth half a billion dollars—for
  laying track in the West.
• In one grant, both the Union Pacific and
  Central Pacific received 10 square miles of
  public land for every mile of track laid in
  a state and 20 squares miles of land for
  every mile of track laid in a territory
                 Railroads
• In the 1860’s, the two companies began a
  race to lay track
  – The Central Pacific moved eastward from
    Sacramento
  – The Union Pacific moved westward from
    Omaha, Nebraska
• Civil War veterans, Irish and Chinese
  immigrants, African Americans, and
  Mexican Americans did most of the work—
  laying up to 8 miles of track a day
                Railroads
• On the Central Pacific line, more than 90
  percent of the workers—about 12,000
  men—were Chinese
• They labored under extremely difficult
  conditions—including avalanches and 40
  foot snow drifts—for as little as $30-35
  a month
• White workers often received about the
  same amount, but received board and
  lodging
                 Railroads
• By the spring of 1869, both railroads had
  reached Utah
• 15 years later, the country boasted five
  transcontinental railroads
• The east and west were forever linked
• The railroads sold some of their land for 5-10
  dollars an acre
• Some companies successfully sent agents to
  Europe to recruit buyers
• By 1880, 44 percent of the settlers in Nebraska
  and more than 70 percent of those in Minnesota
  and Wisconsin were immigrants
Government Support for Settlement
• Another powerful attraction of the West
  was the land itself
  – In 1862, Congress passed the Homestead Act,
    offering 160 acres of land free to any citizen
    or intended citizen who was head of the
    household
  – From 1862 to 1900, 600,000 families took
    advantage of the government’s offer
  – Several were Exodusters—African Americans
    who moved from the post-Reconstruction
    South to Kansas
Government Support for Settlement
• Despite the massive response, private
  speculators and railroad and state government
  agents sometimes used the law for their own
  gain
• Cattlemen fenced open lands, while miners and
  woodcutters claimed national resources
• Only about 10 percent of the land was actually
  settled by the families
• In addition, not all the plots were of equal value
  – 160 acres in Iowa or Minnesota could provide a decent
    living, but farmers with drier land needed more to
    make up the difference
Government Support for Settlement
• Eventually, the government strengthened
  the Homestead Act
• 1889—a major land giveaway in Oklahoma
  attracted thousands of people
• In less than a day, over 2 million acres
  were settled
• Some land-hungry settlers settled it
  before it was declared open—since they
  claimed the land sooner than they were
  supposed to, Oklahoma became known as
  the “Sooner” State
    The Closing of the Frontier
• Henry D. Washburn and fellow explorer, Nathaniel P.
  Langford asked Congress to help protect the wilderness
  from settlement
• In 1870, Washburn, who was surveying land in
  northwestern Wyoming described the area as
  “…possessing unlimited grandeur and beauty”
• In 1872, the government created Yellowstone National
  Park
• 7 years later, the government forced railroads to give up
  their land that was equal in area to New York, New
  Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia
  combined
• Settlers continued to buy government land, and 10 years
  later the Census Bureau declared that we no longer had
  a continuous frontier—the frontier no longer existed
          Taming the Prairie
• Frontier settlers faced extreme hardships
• Since trees were scarce, most settlers
  built their homes from the land itself
  – Homes were dug into the sides of ravines or
    small hills—a stovepipe jutting from the ground
    was often the only clear sign of such a dugout
    home
  – Other homes were called Sod houses, because
    they were made from sun dried bricks of
    mud—they were cool in the summer and warm
    in the winter, but they were small and offered
    little light or air
    • They were havens for rodents, pests and snakes,
      and leaked constantly
             Taming the Prairie
• Virtually alone on the prairie, settlers had to be
  self-sufficient
• Women worked along side the men in the fields,
  plowing the land and planting and harvesting the
  fields
  –   They sheared sheep and carded wool for clothing
  –   Hauled water from the well they helped to dig
  –   Made soap and candles from tallow
  –   Canned fruits and vegetables
  –   Skilled in doctoring
  –   Sponsored schools and churches to build strong
      communities
           Taming the Prairie
• Inventions to aid in homesteading:
  – 1837: John Deere invented a steel plow that could
    slice through the heavy soil
  – 1841: the grain drill to plant the seed
  – 1847: Cyrus McCormick began to mass-produce a
    reaping machine
  – 1869: the spring-tooth harrow to prepare the soil
  – 1874: barbed wire to fence the land
  – 1878: the corn binder
• By 1890, there were 900 manufacturers of farm
  equipment
• In 1830, it took 183 minutes to produce a
  bushel of grain—by 1900, it took 10 minutes
  using the new tools
Steel Plow          Spring tooth harrow
Mechanical Reaper           Corn Binder
           Taming the Prairie
• The federal government supported farmers by
  financing agricultural education
• The Morrill Act of 1862 and 1890 gave federal
  land to the states to help finance agricultural
  colleges
• The Hatch Act of 1887 established agricultural
  experiment stations to inform farmers of new
  developments
• Researchers develped grains for arid soil and
  techniques for dry farming, which helped the
  land to retain moisture
• These innovations enabled the dry eastern plains
  to flourish and become “the breadbasket of the
  nation”
          Farmers in Debt
• Elaborate machinery was expensive
• Farmers often had to borrow money to buy
  it
• When prices for wheat were higher,
  farmers could repay their loans
• When prices were lower, farmers needed
  to raise more crops to make ends meet
• This situation gave rise to a new type of
  farming—bonanza farms created by
  railroad companies and investors
            Bonanza Farms
• 15,000-50,000 acres for single-crop
  spreads
• By 1900, the average farmer had nearly
  150 acres under cultivation
• Between 1885 and 1900, the plains
  experienced drought, and large single crop
  operations couldn’t compete with smaller
  farms that could be more flexible in the
  crops they grew
• The Bonanza Farms slowly folded into
  bankruptcy
Bonanza Farms
         Bonanza Farms
• The labor needed to plow and harvest
  the bonanza farms was seasonal
• A farm required only a few hands
  most of the year might need 150 men
  for the April plowing and 400 for the
  fall harvesting
• Harvesting crews moved from one
  farm to another, from south to north,
  during the summer
            Farmers in Debt
• Farmers also felt pressure from the rising cost
  of shipping grain
• Railroads charged Western farmers a higher fee
  than they did farmers in the East
• Also, they sometimes charged more for short
  hauls than longer ones due to the lack of
  competing transportation
• Farmers grew as much grain as possible, on as
  much land as they could acquire, which resulted
  in going further into debt
• Farmers were not defeated by the high prices
  and the conditions on the plains—instead it drew
  many farmers together
           Economic Distress
• During the Civil War, the government had issued
  $500 million in greenbacks—worthless paper
  money that could not be exchanged for gold
• They started to retire the greenbacks which
  caused farmers discontent, because they were
  now having to pay back their loans with hard
  money that was worth more than what they had
  originally borrowed
• At the same time, they were receiving less for
  their crops and the railroad companies were
  charging more for transporting their crops
Greenbacks
           Economic Distress
• Between 1867-1887 the price of a bushel
  of wheat fell from $2.00 to $.68
• In effect, farmers lost money at every
  turn
• Farmers pushed the government to issue
  more money into circulation
• Bland-Allison Act of 1878 required the
  government to buy and coin at least $2-
  $4 million worth of silver each month
  – It wasn’t enough to support the increase in
    the money supply that the farmers wanted
      Problems with Railroads
• Farmers mortgaged their farms for credit
  to buy seed and supplies
• Suppliers charged high rates of interest,
  sometimes charging more for items bought
  on credit than they did for cash purchases
• Farmer got caught in a cycle of credit
  that meant longer hours and more debt
  every year
           Farmers’ Alliances
• 1867—Oliver Hudson Kelley started the Patrons
  of Husbandry, an organization for farmers that
  became popularly known as Grange
• Its original purpose was to provide a social
  outlet and an educational forum for isolated
  farm families
• By the 1870’s, Grange members spent most of
  their time and energy fighting railroads
• The Grange’s battle plan included teaching its
  members how to organize, set up farmers’
  cooperatives, and sponsor state legislation to
  regulate railroads
           Farmers’ Alliances
• The Grange gave rise to other organizations who
  sympathized with farmers
• Alliances sent lecturers from town to town to
  educate people about topics such as lower
  interest rates on loans and government control
  over railroads and banks
• Membership grew to more than 4 million—mostly
  in the South and West
• The Southern Alliance was the largest—about
  250,000 African Americans belonged to the
  Colored Farmers’ National Alliance
• Some alliance members promoted cooperation
  between black and white alliances, but most
  accepted the separation of the organization
                 Populism
• Known as the movement of the people—
  born with the founding of the Populist, or
  People’s Party
• July 2, 1892, a Populist Party convention
  in Omaha demanded reforms to lift the
  burden of debt from farmers and other
  workers and to give the people a greater
  voice in their government
                  Populism
• The proposed changes were so attractive to
  struggling farmers and desperate laborers that
  in 1892 the Populist presidential candidate won
  almost 10 percent of the total vote
• In the West, the people’s party elected five
  senators, three governors, and about 1,500
  state legislators
• The Populist programs eventually became the
  platform for the Democratic Party and kept alive
  the concept that the government is responsible
  for reforming social injustices
                Panic of 1893
• During the 1880’s farmers were overextended with debts
  and loans
• Railroad construction had expanded faster than markets
• February 1893, the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad
  went bankrupt, followed by the Erie, Northern Pacific,
  Union Pacific, and the Santa Fe
• Gold supply had worn thin, partly due to the governments
  obligation to buy silver
• People panicked and traded paper money for gold
• The panic spread to Wall Street where prices of stocks
  fell rapidly
• Price of silver plunged, causing silver mines to close
• By the end of the year 15,000 businesses and 500 banks
  had collapsed
          Panic of 1893
• Investments declined, and consumer
  purchases, wages, and prices also fell
• Panic deepened into depression as 3
  million people lost their jobs
• By 1894 1/5th of the workforce was
  out of work
• Many farm families suffered by
  hunger and unemployment
            Silver or Gold
• Two major political parties became deeply
  divided in a struggle between different
  regions and economic interests
• Bankers and business owners of the
  industrialized Northeast were Republicans
• Farmers and laborers of the agrarian
  South and West were Democrats
• The central issue between the two would
  be the basis of the nation’s monetary
  system
        GOLD BUGS AND SILVERITES
Bankers and Businessmen       Farmers and laborers


Gold standard less money in   Bimetallism
circulation                   More money in circulation

Loans would be repaid in      Products would be sold at
stable money                  higher prices

Deflation                     Inflation
•Prices fall                  •Prices rise
•Value of money increases     •Value of money decreases
•Fewer people have money      •More people have money
          Silver or Gold
• Backing of currency was an important
  campaign issue because people
  regarded paper money as worthless if
  it could not be turned in for gold or
  silver
• Because silver was more plentiful than
  gold, backing currency with both
  metals would make more currency
  (with less value) available
   Bryan and the “Cross of Gold”
• 1896 campaign—
  – Republicans nominated William
    McKinley
  – Democratic Party nominated
    William Jennings Bryan
     • Gave the famous “Cross of Gold”
       speech
  – “We will answer their demand
    for a gold standard by saying:
    You shall not press down upon
    the brow of labor this crown
    of thorns, you shall not
    crucify mankind upon a cross
    of gold.”
             End of Populism
• Bryan faced a difficult campaign
• His free-silver stand led gold-bug democrats to
  nominate their own candidate
• It also weakened his support in cities, where
  consumers feared inflation because it would raise
  prices of goods
• In addition, Bryan’s meager funds could not
  match the millions backing McKinley
  – He tried to make up for the lack of funds by
    campaigning in 27 states—sometimes making as many
    as 20 speeches a day
  – McKinley campaigned from his porch, while others
    went out and spoke on his behalf
           End of Populism
• With McKinley’s election, Populism ended,
  burying the hopes of the farmers
• The movement left two powerful legacies,
  however: a message that the down-
  trodden could organize and have political
  impact, and an agenda of reforms, many
  of which would be enacted in the 20th
  century
IMMIGRANTS AND
 URBANIZATION
  “Give me your tired, your poor,
  your huddled masses yearning to
breathe free, the wretched refuse
   of your teeming shore. Send
these, the homeless, the tempest-
 tost to me, I lift my lamp beside
         the Golden Door!”
                    --Emma Lazarus
    Through the “Golden Door”
• 1870-1920—approximately 20 million
  Europeans arrived in the U.S.
• Before 1890 many came from Western and
  Northern Europe, but after 1890, many
  more came from the Southern and Eastern
  parts
• Many came to escape religious persecution
• Others left because of rising population in
  an overcrowded Europe
• Many others left to have independent lives
  in America
     Through the “Golden Door”
• While the East Coast was flooded with
  Europeans, Chinese immigrants came in on the
  West Coast
• 1851-1883—about 300,000 Chinese arrived
• Many came to seek their fortunes after the
  discovery of gold in 1848 sparked the California
  gold rush
• Chinese immigrants helped build the nation’s
  railroads, including the first transcontinental line
• After the railroads, they turned to farming,
  mining and domestic service
• Chinese immigration, however, was limited by a
  congressional act in 1882
    Through the “Golden Door”
• In 1884, the Japanese government allowed
  Hawaiian planters to recruit Japanese workers,
  and Japanese emigration was born
• The U.S. annexation of Hawaii in 1898, led to a
  boom in Japanese immigration to the West Coast
• As word of high U.S. wages spread, more and
  more Japanese came
• In 1907 30,000 left Japan and moved to the
  West Coast
• By 1920, 200,000 lived on the West Coast
    Through the “Golden Door”
• 1880-1920—about 200,000 arrived in the
  eastern southeastern U.S. from the West
  Indies-Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico
• Many left because jobs were scarce
• Mexicans immigrated to find work and freedom
  from political turmoil
• The 1902 National Reclamation Act, which
  encouraged irrigation, created new farmland in
  the Western States and drew Mexicans to work
• About 700,000 Mexicans—7% of the population—
  came to the U.S. over the next 20 years
          A Difficult Journey
• By the 1870’s almost all immigrants traveled to
  the U.S. by steamship
• The trip across the Atlantic took about a week
• From Asia across the Pacific, 3 weeks
• Many traveled in steerage, the cheapest
  accommodations in a ship’s cargo hold
• Rarely allowed on deck, immigrants were crowded
  together in the gloom, unable to exercise or
  catch a breath of fresh air
• Sleeping in louse-infested bunks and share
  toilets with many others
      A Difficult Journey
• Under these conditions, disease
  spread quickly
• Many died before reaching the new
  world
                 Ellis Island
• After the long journey, immigrants still had to
  face the anxiety of not knowing whether or not
  they would be admitted to the U.S.
• They had to pass inspection at immigration
  stations like Ellis Island in the New York harbor
• About 20% were detained for a day or two at
  Ellis Island before being inspected
• However, only about 2% were denied entry
• The processing was an ordeal that might take 5
  hours or more
              Ellis Island
• First, they had to pass a physical test by
  a doctor
• Anyone with a serious health problem, or
  contagious disease, like tuberculosis, was
  promptly sent home
• Next, the government inspector who
  checked the documents and questioned
  immigrants to determine whether they met
  the legal requirements for entering the
  U.S.
              Ellis Island
• The requirements included: proving they
  had never been convicted of a felony,
  demonstrating that they were able to
  work, and showing that they had some
  money (at least $25 after 1909)
• From 1892-1924-Ellis Island was the
  chief immigration station in the U.S.
• An estimated 17 million immigrants passed
  through
            Ellis Island
• Steerage passengers were allowed to
  bring only a hundred pounds of goods
• Immigrants had to leave many
  possessions behind
• The Museum display at Ellis Island
  includes many of those belongings left
  behind
               Angel Island
• While Europeans arrived at Ellis Island on the
  East Coast, Asians were arriving on the West
  Coast through Angel Island in San Fransico
• Between 1910-1940, about 50,000 Chinese
  immigrants entered the United States through
  Angel Island
• Processing was harsher than that at Ellis
  Island—immigrants endured harsh questioning and
  long detention in filthy, ramshackle buildings
  while they waited to find out whether they would
  be admitted or rejected
      Cooperation for Survival
• Once admitted, immigrants faced the challenges
  of finding a place to live, getting a job, and
  getting along in daily life while trying to
  understand an unfamiliar language and culture
• Many sought out people with similar cultural
  values, religious beliefs, and spoke their native
  language
• People pooled their money to build churches or
  synagogues
• Committed to their own cultures but also trying
  hard to grow into their new identities, many
  immigrants came to think of themselves as
  “hyphenated” Americans
     Cooperation for Survival
• As hard as they tried to fit in, these new
  Polish-, Italian-, and Chinese-Americans
  felt increasing friction as they rubbed
  shoulders with people born and raised in
  the U.S.
• Native people often disliked the
  immigrants’ unfamiliar customs and
  languages
• They were viewed as a threat to the
  American way of life
       The Rise of Nativism
• Many native-born Americans thought of
  their country as a melting pot, a mixture
  of people of different cultures and races
  who blended together by abandoning their
  native languages and customs
• One response to the growth in immigration
  was nativism, or overt favoritism toward
  native-born Americans
• Nativism gave rise to anti-immigrant
  groups and let to a demand for
  immigration restriction
         The Rise of Nativism
• Many nativists believed that Anglo-Saxons—the
  Germanic ancestors of the English—were superior
  to other ethnic groups
• They did not object to immigrants from the
  “right” countries
• “Right” countries—British, German, and
  Scandinavian
• “Wrong” countries—Slav, Latin, and Asiatic
  Races
• Nativists sometimes objected more to
  immigrants’ religious beliefs than to their ethnic
  backgrounds
         The Rise of Nativism
• Many were Protestants, and felt that Roman
  Catholics and Jews would undermine the
  democratic institutions established by Protestant
  founders
• The American Protective Association, a nativist
  group founded in 1887, launched vicious anti-
  Catholic attacks, and many colleges, businesses,
  and social clubs refused to admit Jews
• In 1897, Congress, influenced by the
  Immigration Restriction League—passed a bill
  requiring a literacy test for immigrants
• Those who could not read more than 40 words in
  English or their Native tongue would be refused
  entry
The Rise of Nativism
          • Although President
            Cleveland vetoed
            the bill, it sent a
            powerful statement
            of public sentiment
          • In 1917, Wilson
            could not stop a
            similar bill from
            being passed
       Anti-Asian Sentiment
• Nativism also found a foothold in the labor
  movement, particularly in the West, where
  native-born workers feared that jobs
  would go to Chinese immigrants, who would
  accept lower wages
• The depression of 1873 intensified anti-
  Chinese sentiment in California
• The Founder of the Workingmen’s Party,
  Denis Kearney, headed the anti-Chinese
  movement in California
        Anti-Asian Sentiment
• In 1882, the government slammed the
  door on Chinese immigration for ten years
  by passing the Chinese Exclusion Act
• This act banned entry to all Chinese
  except students, teachers, merchants,
  tourists, and government officials
• In 1892, Congress extended the law for
  another 10 years
• In 1902, Congress restricted immigration
  indefinitely, and it was not repealed until
  1943
   The Gentlemen’s Agreement
• The fears that had led to anti-Chinese agitation
  were extended to Japanese and other Asian
  people in the early 1900’s
• In 1906, Japanese children were segregated by
  being placed in separate schools
• When Japan raised protest about how their
  emigrants were being treated, President
  Roosevelt, worked out a deal
• Under the Gentlemen’s agreement of 1907-08,
  Japan’s government agreed to limit emigration of
  unskilled workers to the U.S. in exchange for
  the repeal of the San Francisco segregation
  order
        Urban Opportunities
• The technological boom in the 19th century
  contributed to the growing industrial
  strength of the United States
• The result was rapid urbanization, or
  growth of cities, mostly in the regions of
  the Northeast and Midwest.
• Most of the immigrants became city
  dwellers, because cities were the cheapest
  and most convenient places to live.
• Cities also offered unskilled laborers
  steady jobs in mills and factories
    Americanization Movement
• Designed to assimilate people of wide-
  ranging cultures into the dominant culture
  of America
• This social campaign was sponsored by the
  government and by concerned citizens
• Schools and voluntary associations provided
  programs to teach immigrants skills needed
  for citizenship—such as, English literacy,
  American History, Government, Cooking,
  Social Etiquette
    Americanization Movement
• Despite these efforts, many immigrants
  did not wish to abandon their traditions
• Ethnic communities provided the social
  support of ther immigrants from the same
  country
• However these neighborhoods became
  overcrowded and dangerous
• This was intensified by the migration of
  peoples from the country
   Migration from Country to City
• Rapid growth in farming technology during the
  second half of the 19th century was good news
  for some, but bad for others
• Farming was more efficient, but meant that
  fewer laborers were needed to work the land
• Many had to move to the city to find whatever
  work they could
• Many farmers who lost their jobs were African
  Americans—they moved to cities such as Chicago
  and Detroit in an effort to escape racial
  violence, economic hardship, and political
  oppression
Migration from Country to City
• Many found conditions in the Northern
  cities not much different
• Segregation and discrimination were
  often the reality in Northern cities
• Job competition between blacks and
  white immigrants caused further
  racial tension
              Urban Problems
• Housing—2 options
  – Nice house on the outskirts of the city, but would
    have transportation options
  – Cramped room in a boarding house at the center of
    the city
• As the population grew, new types of housing
  were designed—
  – Row houses—single family homes that shared walls
    with the house on either side—packed many families in
    one city block
  – After working-class families left the central city,
    immigrants often took over their old housing,
    sometimes with two or three families in one house—
    these dwellings were, called tenements, unsanitary and
    overcrowded
             Urban Problems
• To improve such slum conditions, New York City
  passed a law in 1879 that set minimum
  standards for plumbing and ventiliation in
  apartments
• Land lords started building tenements with air
  shafts that provided an outside window for each
  room
• Since the garbage was infrequently pick up,
  many dumped their garbage into these air shafts
  creating a problem with vermin
• To keep the stench out, they often nailed these
  air shafts shut—making them more dangerous
  than before
             Urban Problems
• Transportation
  – Mass transit—transportation systems designed
    to move large numbers of people along fixed
    routes
    • Street cars-San Francisco 1897
    • Electric subways-Boston 1897
• Water
  – Public waterworks were built in the 1840’s-
    1850’s to provide safe drinking water
  – But even by the 1860’s, many residents still
    did not have plumbing and were required to
    get water from faucets on the street
            Urban Problems
• The necessity of improving water quality
  to control diseases such as cholera and
  typhoid fever
• To make city water safer, filtration was
  introduced in the 1870’s and chlorination
  in 1908
• But this did not provide safe water to all
  residents
             Urban Problems
• As the cities grew, so did the challenge of
  keeping them clean
• Horse manure piled up on the streets, sewage
  flowed through open gutters, and factories
  spewed foul smoke into the air
• Without dependable trash service, people
  dumped their garbage on the street
• Even though private contractors called
  scavengers were hired to sweep the streets,
  collect garbage and clean outhouses, they often
  did not do the jobs properly
             Urban Problems
• Crime
  – As populations increased, pickpockets and
    thieves flourished
  – Although, New York City organized the first
    full-time, salaried police force in 1844, it and
    most other city law enforcement units were
    too small to have much impact on crime
• Fire
  – The limited water supply in many other cities
    contributed to another menace: the spread of
    fires
  – Major fires occurred in almost every large
    American city through the 1870’s
             Urban Problems
• With no water, and homes built of wood, most
  cities went up in blazes when fires ignited.
• At first, most city firefighters were volunteers
  and not always available when they were needed
• Cincinnati established the first paid fire
  department in 1853
• By 1900, most cities had professional
  firefighters, and the introduction of a practical
  automatic fire sprinkler in 1874 and the
  replacement of wood as a building material with
  brick, stone or concrete also made cities safer
 The Great
Chicago Fire,
    1871
San Francisco
 Earthquake,
    1906
         Reformers Mobilize
• As problems mounted, social welfare
  reformers targeted their efforts at
  relieving urban poverty
• Social Gospel Movement, preached
  salvation through service to the poor
  – Established settlement houses, community
    centers in slum neighborhoods that provided
    assistance to people in the area
  – Provided educational, social, and cultural
    services
          Reformers Mobilize
• Settlement houses were founded by Charles
  Stover and Stanton Coit in New York City in
  1886
• Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded
  Chicago’s Hull House in 1889
• Janie Porter Barrett founded Locust Street
  Social Settlement in Hampton, VA—first
  settlement house for African Americans
• By 1910, 400 settlement houses were
  operational in the U.S.
• The settlement house helped cultivate social
  responsibility toward the urban poor

				
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