WARPO FLR Workshop Report by 2tG08pX

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 36

									First sub-regional
workshop to promote
Forest Landscape
Restoration in West
Africa. Ghana, 25 – 27 March 2003
Workshop Report




                                    1
Table of Contents

List of Abbreviations and Acronyms -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------           3

Executive Summary ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4

1. Introduction ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    6
1.1 Background ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------     6
1.2 Objective ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   6
1.3 Organisation --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------    7
1.4 Opening Ceremony ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        7

2. The Concept of Forest Landscape Restoration ------------------------------------------------------------------------------            8
3. Threats to Forest Landscape Restoration in West Africa ------------------------------------------------------------------             8
4. Forest Landscape Restoration Experiences in West Africa ---------------------------------------------------------------               8
4.1 East Africa Cases --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------    9
4.2 West Africa (Ghana) case ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        9

5. Discussion on FLR Experiences and Policy Opportunities ----------------------------------------------------------------               9
6. Group Work on Landscapes ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------          10
6.1 Group 1: Nimba / Fouta Djallon Landscapes ------------------------------------------------------------------------------             11
6.2 Group 2: Kyabobo-Fazao-Malfakassa Landscape -------------------------------------------------------------------------                12

7. Forest Landscape Restoration and Environmental Conventions ---------------------------------------------------------- 12
7.1 Forest Landscape Restoration links with Forest Carbon Sequestration under the Kyoto Protocol ----------------- 12
7.2 Opportunities offered by the Convention on Biological Diversity ------------------------------------------------------ 13

8. Selecting Landscapes for Forest Restoration -------------------------------------------------------------------------------           15
9. Establishing Partnerships and Negotiation for Forest Landscape Restoration ------------------------------------------                 17
10. Forest Landscape Restoration Measuring Indicators ---------------------------------------------------------------------              17
11. Forest Landscape Restoration Workshop Recommendations -----------------------------------------------------------                    18

12. Conclusion and Next Steps ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        19
13. Closing Statements ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------     22
13.1 Vote of Thanks ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------      22
13.2 Closing Address ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------     22

Workshop Annexes

Annexe 1: Workshop Programme ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------            23
Annexe 2: Speeches of Opening Ceremony----------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------              25
Annexe 2.1 Welcome Address by the Chief District Executive -------------------------------------------------------------                 25
Annexe 2.2 Orientation Address by the WWF WARPO Representative --------------------------------------------------                        26
Annexe 2.3 Opening address by the Minister ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------            27

Annexe 3: Concept of Forest Landscape Restoration by Stephen Kelleher-------------------------------------------------                   29
Annexe 4: Forest Landscape Restoration Case Studies -----------------------------------------------------------------------              30
Annexe 4.1 East Africa Cases by Virpi Lahtella -------------------------------------------------------------------------------           30
Annexe 4.2 West Africa Cases (Ghana) by Victor Agyeman ----------------------------------------------------------------                  31

Annexe 5. Potential Links with Carbon Sequestration and the Kyoto Protocol ------------------------------------------- 34
Annexe 6. List of Workshop Participants --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35




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List of Abbreviations and Acronyms

AAC   : Annual Allowable Cut
AfDB : African Development Bank
CBD   : Convention on Biological diversity
CCD   : Convention to Combat Desertification
CDM : Clean Development Mechanism
CEO   : Chief Executive Officer
CI    : Conservation International
CIFOR : Centre for International Forestry Research
COP   : Conference of the Parties
CSIR : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States
EPA   : Environmental Protection Agency
EU-ACP: European Union – Africa Caribbean and Pacific
FAO   : Food and Agricultural Organisation
FFI   : Fauna and Flora International
FLR   : Forest Landscape Restoration
GBSA : Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas
GDP   : Gross Domestic Product
GEF   : Global Environment Facility
GHG : Green House Gas
ICRAF : International Centre for Research in Agro-Forestry
IIED  : International Institute for Environment and Development
INGO : Indigenous Non-Governmental Organisation
IPCC : Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
ITTO : International Tropical Timber Organisation
IUCN : International Union for the Conservation of Nature
MA    : Ministry of Agriculture
MERF : Ministry of Environment and Forest Resources.
MINEF : Ministry of the Environment and Forests
MME : Ministry of Mines and Energy
MPOA : Malaysian Palm Oil Association
NBSAP : National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Programe
NEPAD : New Partnership for Africa’s Development
NFAP : National Forestry Action Programme
NGO : Non-Governmental Organisation
NTFP : Non-Timber Forest Product
OAU : Organisation of African Unity
PRSP : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (a poverty abatement process)
SBSTTA: Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice
TUC   : Timber Utilisation Contract
UN    : United Nations
UNDP : United Nations Development Programme
UNEP : United Nations Environmental Programme
UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFF : United Nations Forum on Forests
US    : United States
USD   : United States Dollar
WARPO: Western Africa Regional Programme Office
WCMC : World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WWF : World Wide Fund for nature
WWFF4L: WWF’s Forests for Life target driven programme




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Executive Summary
Context

The first sub-regional workshop to promote Forest Landscape Restoration in West Africa, was hosted by the Ministry of
Lands and Forests – Ghana, and facilitated by the Western Africa Regional Programme Office of the World Wide Fund
for nature – WWF. The workshop took place from 25 th through 27th of March, 2003 at the Marina Hotel in Dodowa –
Ghana. The organisation of the workshop was preceded by communication for collaboration, with high level officials of
ministerial departments responsible for forestry, NGOs in countries of the West African sub-region, and regional /
international sustainable forest management partners including the FAO, CIFOR, ITTO, IUCN and CI. A multi-
stakeholder planning meeting for the sub-regional workshop was held on Thursday 14 th November 2002 in Abidjan,
during which the development of a questionnaire, to collect country-level FLR information was proposed, and the
period of March 2003, scheduled for holding the workshop.

Objective of the Workshop

The aim of the workshop was to raise awareness and advocate adoption of Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) in West
Africa. The specific objectives were:

1.   To enhance understanding of forest landscape restoration; meaning, raison d’être and processes for implementation
     in West Africa;

2.   Share experiences on the subject, within and out of the West Africa sub-region;

3.   Learn, using examples of policy and field initiatives affecting forest landscape restoration;

4.   Identify priority issues and areas of Forest Landscape Restoration;

5.   Produce action plans and next steps for implementing Forest Landscape Restoration.

Participation

Thirty five workshop participants represented nine (9) West African countries, namely: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia,
Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and Nigeria. Participants came from governmental departments and
parastatal agencies, national and international NGOs, bilateral executing agencies, intergovernmental institutions and
the private timber sector. The workshop was opened by the Vice Minister for the Ministry of Environment and Science
in Ghana, in the presence of the Regional Representative of WWF for West Africa, and the Chief District Executive of
Dodowa, acting as host of the event.

Methodology

Development of the workshop programme was guided by responses received from participants through a questionnaire,
earlier transmitted to Ministers of the concerned governmental agencies and CEOs of the most active forest sector
NGOs in West Africa. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed the necessity to harmonise understanding of the
Forest Landscape Restoration concept early on, during the workshop, and reserve a field trip for the last day of the
meeting. Before coming for the workshop, a number of documents were transmitted to participants to enhance their
familiarisation with the FLR concept. One of these, was the synthesis report (in English and French), of the last
international experts meeting on Forest Landscape Restoration, that took place from 27 to 28 February 2002 in Costa
Rica. A number of panel boards carrying pictures and related information, were displayed at the workshop venue to
convey the raison d’être of Forest Landscape Restoration.

Following its opening, the workshop, progressed through an alternation of expert presentations, discussions, work in
groups, and plenary sessions, during which outputs of the various group-work, were presented for discussion and
upgrading. The workshop programme was structured around three features, namely: i.)- definitions and experiences,
ii.)- national and international policy instruments affecting forest landscape restoration and iii.)- effective action
towards forest landscape restoration and recommendations. The work in groups produced detailed national action plans,
and recommendations read at the end of the meeting.

Definitions

Forest Landscape Restoration was defined as a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance
human well-being in degraded or deforested forest landscapes. The concept has been in development, including field

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testing, in the last couple of years, under the leadership of WWF and IUCN. Its development followed deductions that
conventional tree planting schemes have singularly failed to restore the range of forest goods and services necessary to
maintain healthy ecosystems and contribute to human well-being. Moreover protected areas and conventional forest
management are increasingly viewed as inadequate in checking the ever increasing degradation of global forest
resources, which are depleted along with important forest functions. The vision for restoring degraded forest landscapes
is to have diverse and connected landscapes that will support viable populations of native species throughout their
natural range, meet essential human needs, and enhance the ability of key ecosystems to resist and adapt to threats.

Conclusion and Recommendations

The workshop was administratively closed by the Coordinating Director of the Damgbe West District, though not
before participants read a joint motion of thanks to the government of Ghana for hosting the workshop and the World
Wide Fund for nature – WWF, for facilitating the event. The following recommendations, developed through group
effort and harmonised in plenary, were read out by a designated participant during the workshop’s closing ceremony:

“A the end of fruitful deliberations of the workshop, to promote Forest Landscape Restoration in West Africa, hosted by
the government of Ghana and facilitated by the World Wide Fund for nature - WWF, regrouping representatives of 9
West African countries namely: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and
Nigeria, we, the workshop participants, this 26th day of March 2003, recommend as follows:

1.   That, WWF and partners, should be engaged, as soon as possible, in initiating at least one pilot Forest Landscape
     Restoration project in the sub-region;

2.   That, Governments, and concerned national and international partners should set up a mechanism or mechanisms to
     finance Forest Landscape Restoration pilot action in each West African country;

3.   Partnerships in Forest Landscape Restoration should be encouraged through processes such as Memoranda of
     Understanding (MoU), as well as through collaboration on specific site projects or related initiatives;

4.   Executing partners should integrate forest landscape restoration principles and concept into on-going planning
     phases of projects such as the Mt. Nimba, the Fouta Djallon, and Kyabobo-Fazao-Malfakassa;

5.   Governments and intergovernmental agencies should encourage integration of Forest Landscape Restoration in
     forest programmes and other national rural development, and poverty alleviation planning and programming
     processes;

6.   That, WWF should collaborate with NGO partners and the appropriate ministerial departments in West African
     countries to collate and synthesise information on existing Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) initiatives in the
     sub-region, in order to initiate a data-base on the subject, and promote the exchange of experience;

7.   That, the functional approach advocated by Forest Landscape Restoration, and seen as a means of alleviating
     poverty and enhancing the socio-cultural well-being of local communities, should be promoted at the country level,
     through national workshops involving; NGO’s, government departments, intergovernmental agencies, the private
     sector, local communities, and interested stakeholders;

8.   Governments, and other national and international partners involved in sustainable forest management, should
     engage in a continuous education and awareness programme, on Forest Landscape Restoration;

9.   WWF should collaborate with national governments, NGOs and regional / international partners such as the FAO,
     IUCN, ITTO, and eventually CIFOR in the identification of forest landscapes in the West African sub-region,
     needing FLR action;

10. A Forest Landscape Restoration network, to be facilitated by WWF and national focal points, should be promoted
    in West Africa, for information sharing. Focal points could have the added role of monitoring national Forest
    Landscape Restoration activities;

11. Considering the multifunctional approach advocated by Forest Landscape Restoration, appropriate techniques and
    strategies should be developed for communicating and promoting the process, including communication tools for
    its use as a major sub-regional forest land-use planning process, and finally;

12. That, WWF and other national and international partners should continue to provide support in West Africa, with
    the objective of promoting achievement of concrete Forest Landscape Restoration results;
END.

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1. Introduction

1.1 Background

At the turn of the twentieth century, the Tropical Moist Forest of West Africa measured more than 1.2 million square
kilometers. Commercial forest exploitation intensified during the colonial period, and colonial forest policies were
largely maintained after independence. These policies, and attendant practices, promoted activities such as forest
clearing for agriculture and / or grazing, large-scale expansion and intensification of commodity crops such as coffee
and cacao, and forest clearance to claim land. These actions resulted in conversion of vast expanses of forest to non-
forest, and left much of the remaining forested areas fragmented and degraded. Today, the forest cover of the entire
region covers no more than 15 – 20 % of the original extent. The West African forest is consequently considered one of
the most degraded tropical types on the planet, and has been classified by WWF as critical, endangered and vulnerable.

The degraded condition of West Africa’s forests has exacerbated poverty and, in combination with population growth
and irrational government policies, stimulated the expansion of low-intensity, unsustainable techniques such as clearing
forests with fire, increased bush meat trade, and irrational log export. These practices have, in turn, fostered replacement
of natural semi-deciduous tropical forests with highly human-modified formations. With more than 200 million of the
sub-region’s inhabitants directly depending on forest resources, their continuous erosion, is leading to untold hardship,
especially among the poor.

According to the World Conservation Monitoring Center (WCMC), less than 5 % of West Africa’s moist forest in
coastal lying countries, from Sierra Leone to Nigeria are under protection. Forests outside of protected areas are highly
degraded, deforested and fragmented, rendering them vulnerable to threats and stresses, such as climate change,
invasion by the Sahara desert and mass in-migrations fueled by civil war. These forest areas remain, however, critical
for the maintenance of various environmental, social and economic functions, and enormous restoration potential exists
to regain not just forest cover, but forest functionality. Restoring functions in critical forest landscapes of the sub-region
will stimulate numerous environmental, cultural and economic benefits. Environmental benefits include biodiversity
habitat, wildlife corridors, soil stabilization, de-fragmentation, increased habitat connectivity, and watershed
rehabilitation; cultural benefits will include sacred forests, totem habitats for conservation etc, while economic benefits
accrue from increased availability of forest goods and services, to include fuel-wood, fodder, non-timber forest
products, construction timber, etc.

Previous efforts within the sub-region to attenuate forest degradation have so far had little real effect. Poor cultural
techniques continue to lead to soil erosion, loss in soil fertility and consequent poor crop yields, weak forest governance
systems remain in many places, and perverse policy incentives resulting in negative environmental impacts and forest
clearing are still in place. The degradation of the sub-region’s principal watershed in Guinea is leading to a drop in
water levels in neighbouring countries; extensive agriculture is leading to expansion of the Sahara desert thereby
inducing averse and unpredictable climatic patterns; fire and irrational forest exploitation are both leading to the rarity
of key fauna and flora species. It is obvious that the loss of biodiversity and other forest functions constitute threats to
the livelihood options available to the poor within the sub-region.

Forest Landscape Restoration is a planned process, that aims to create a balance between ecological integrity and human
well-being. The process targets initiatives supposed to restore lost or diminished forest functions considered to be useful
for human well-being. Such functions include but are not limited to; forest biodiversity survival, micro and macro
climate regulation, water supply in good quality and quantity, good soil water percolation and erosion control, good soil
nutrient cycling, plant pollination and dispersal of reproductive plant parts, good soil formation, adequate production of
food sources etc. It is believed that the restoration of West Africa’s forest landscapes will contribute in reversing
degradation of the sub-region’s economic, social and biological wealth which is bound in its forest and other biomes. It
was on this background that the workshop on FLR was organized and held in the West African sub-region.

1.2 Objective

The aim of the workshop was to raise awareness and advocate adoption of Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) in West
Africa. The specific objectives were:
   To enhance understanding of forest landscape restoration; meaning, raison d’être and processes for implementation
    in West Africa;
   Share experiences on the subject, within and out of the West Africa sub-region;
   Learn, using examples of policy and field initiatives affecting forest landscape restoration;
   Identify priority issues and areas of Forest Landscape Restoration;
   Produce action plans and next steps for implementing Forest Landscape Restoration.

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1.3 Organization

The workshop was jointly organized by the World Wide Fund for nature - WWF and the Government of Ghana, at the
MARINA hotel, Dodowa - Ghana. Thirty five participants from 9 West African countries attended the three days
workshop, drawn from national government services and agencies specialized in forest regeneration and restoration, a
number of international multilateral and bilateral agencies represented in West Africa, and non-governmental
organizations. Simultaneous interpretation services facilitated translation from English to French and vice-versa during
the workshop’s plenary and group-work sessions. A number of documents on forest landscape restoration produced by
WWF and partners i.e., the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO), the Center for International Forestry
Research (CIFOR), and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN), were distributed to participants
during the workshop. These documents include:

   The summary report of the international experts meeting on Forest Landscape Restoration organized by WWF and
    IUCN on 27 and 28 February 2002 in Costa Rica [English and French].
   Forest Landscape Restoration, working examples from 5 ecoregions, by WWF [English and French].
   ITTO guidelines for the restoration, management and rehabilitation of degraded and secondary forests [English].
   Africa’s Dry Forests – Time to Re-engage, and agenda for priority research, by CIFOR [English].

1.4 Opening Ceremony

Three speeches marked the opening ceremony of the workshop, which began at 09.00 am. These included:
a.)- a welcome address by the District Chief Executive for the Damgbe West District;
b.)- a workshop orientation speech by the Regional Representative of the WWF West Africa Regional Programme, and
c.)- a formal opening of the workshop by the Minister of Environment and Science for Ghana.

The three opening speeches, mentioned some achievements in Forest Restoration and provided directives to be pursued
by the FLR workshop participants.

In the first speech, the Chief District Executive of the Damgmé West District, indicated that there were visible signs of
a reduction of valuable forest functions in Ghana. The current rationing of electricity, which is due to a drop in the
water level of the Volta dam, responsible for generating hydro-electricity for the country, was a typical example. He
indicated that the drop in the water level of the dam in recent years, was surely due to a reduction in vegetation cover,
drought and a consequent increase in water use upstream. The Chief District Executive called for collaboration and
requested that restoration should include amenity planting, including the maintenance of city lawn and woods, stressing
that these trees and shrubs have a significant environmental impact, as they ensure a convenient micro-climate in the
city, check the possible devastating effects of strong winds and storms, and reduce dust and sound movements.

In the second speech, the WWF West Africa Regional Representative, Souleymane Zeba, presented the three strategic
components of WARPO’s regional programme; on forests, freshwater and marine resources. The components were
justified simply as the base for primary products such as bush-meat and agricultural land in the case of forests; fish in
the case of marine resources; and irrigation water and fish in the case of the Freshwater component. Souleymane went
ahead to ask a number of questions, eventually used in the workshop’s group work. The questions were:

- How can we work towards the restoration of degraded forest landscapes?
- How shall we analyse the shortcomings and threats to identify priority landscapes?
- How shall we determine socio-economic and ecological criteria and indicators to assess our progress or failures?
- How shall we eliminate the major political and economic incentives that contribute to forest loss and degradation?
- Where should we start with the first FLR cases in our countries?

The third speech or opening address by the Minister of Environment and Science, was delivered by Mrs. Esther
Nyamkye, Vice-Minister of Environment and Science. The Minister indicated that the FLR concept is part of the policy
defined by the current Ghanaian Government within the framework of its Poverty Reduction Strategy. She then went
ahead to reveal amongst others, that in September 2001, Ghana launched a National Forest Plantation Development
Programme, in its Brong-Ahafo region. The aim of the programme has been to restore at least 20,000 hectares of
degraded forest-land all over the country per year; address the wood deficit situation in the timber industry; create jobs
and alleviate poverty, especially in forest fringe communities. The Minister indicated that although the programme will
be receiving World Bank and AfDB support, other development partners should support the initiative, which is aimed at
job creation, poverty reduction and environmental restitution. She hoped that the workshop will produce practicable
recommendations, for restoring degraded lands in the West African sub-region.

The full speeches from the three presenters are attached as Annexe 2 of this report.



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Technical Session I:

2. Concept of Forest Landscape Restoration
The session was led by Stephen Kelleher, Deputy Director of the WWF-US’s Global Forest Programme. The speaker
presented Forest Landscape Restoration as the reaction to a need. He revealed that forest resources contribute 90 % of
the welfare of 1.2 billion people living in extreme poverty the world over, and that most terrestrial biodiversity was
located in forests, which provide a multitude of functions to humans and to other biodiversity (e.g.: soil stabilization,
genetic base, raw materials…).

Unfortunately, approximately 15 million hectares of forests are lost yearly, leaving an ever increasing surface of
degraded forest. This is why efforts through WWF’s ‘Forest For Life’ Programme, on protected areas and sustainable
forest management in collaboration with other partners, is no longer sufficient to reverse the huge forest deficit.

It was reiterated that FLR is a process meant to establish a balance and link between ecological integrity and people’s
well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes. The elements that make FLR different from other concepts, were
enumerated, and include:

1.   the working scale being the landscape;
2.   it focuses on the restoration of goods and services and of forest processes rather than on tree planting;
3.   it is a combination of forest quality and quantity concepts;
4.   it involves strategic alliances with the public, including discussions and negotiations between private & public
     sectors and civil society;
5.   it involves identification of the underlying causes of forest degradation or loss;
6.   it considers a set of solutions rather than a single approach and, is a long-term prospect as opposed to short term.

Stephen presented a multiplicity of linkages or relations that could be developed through FLR, with a variety of
partners, as well as the main processes (international conventions and policies) on which FLR could build. He also
mentioned current mechanisms such as poverty reduction strategies, desertification, climate change etc, that could
benefit or integrate FLR.

The presenter described WWF’s restoration tool, under five points: [TRIKA]

1.   Training in: identifying priority areas according to both ecological and socio-economic criteria; ensuring
     monitoring; involving stakeholders and negotiating agreements and results of technical restoration;

2.   Research on: division and viability of areas; compilation of current restoration methods; inquiry into who does
     what in restoration; FLR and carbon related knowledge; initiatives that lead to forest degradation and loss;
     exploration of mechanisms for determining the value of forest goods & services & sustainable financing of forests;

3.   Implementation: to increase the size of on-going projects; to build capacities; to share experiences and lessons
     drawn; to test the monitoring environment and; to build partnerships;

4.   Knowledge / information / communication: development of information tools; dissemination, sharing and exchange
     of important and critical information;

5.   Advocacy at the following levels: international (CBD, UNFCCC, RAMSAR…); regional (UE, ECOWAS…);
     national (land policy, National Reforestation Programme…).

Stephen’s complete power-point presentation is attached as Annexe 3 of this report.

3. Threats to FLR in West Africa
The session was led by Jean-Paul Lorng - WWF consultant. Jean-Paul presented a summary of responses to the
questionnaire, transmitted to participants before the workshop, in January 2003. The threats were categorised into five
(5) groups:

1.   Political: Responses from the FLR questionnaires revealed that political will or commitment by Government
     authorities towards forest (landscape) restoration was generally insufficient. This was mainly because most forestry
     departments did not have the infrastructure and capacity to integrate objectives of forest regeneration with even
     limited regard for conservation, into their own exploitation oriented objectives.


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2.   Legal and Institutional Environment: Most countries of the sub-region did not have a favourable institutional
     environment for FLR. The framework for forest (landscape) restoration as concerns ownership of the regenerated
     resource, was still a contentious issue in many countries of the sub-region, while planning and coordination
     capacity of restoration activities was still assessed as low in as many countries.

3.   Funding: Financial support by Governments was assessed as persistently low, and external funding was not
     adapted to the realities of beneficiary countries, i.e., they provide very little discretion for adaptive management.

4.   Participation of Actors: Participation was assessed as low, though with increasing interest by the private sector. It
     was also noted that there was insufficient public awareness on the subject of forest regeneration (FLR).

5.   Incentives: Inducements for pursuing FLR ware noted to be marginal in several countries and as such, could not
     elicit massive adhesion of actors other than the state. Moreover, conditions for access to forest resources was not
     clearly defined in several countries of the sub-region.

Questionnaire responses revealed that restoration remained largely an initiative of Government, which unilaterally
ensures its planning and implementation. The common type of reforestation was, planting trees that were often exotic,
for economic objectives such as in the supply of timber, energy and construction wood. Notwithstanding, a few
restoration initiatives with functions other than economic, were being conducted in Nigeria, Guinea, and Sierra Leone.
These need to be supported.

4. FLR Experiences in Africa
4.1 Eastern Africa Cases

The session was led by Virpi Lahtela of IUCN/BRAO. Three cases of FLR were presented from the Eastern Africa
region. In the first of these cases, Acacia wood-lands in northern Kenya were regenerated through a process of
protecting Acacia seedlings and trees. This enabled the restoration of 30,000 hectares of land with good quality Acacia.
In the second case, restoration using local species chosen by the population led to the securing of pasture forest in
Tanzania. The initiative has been responsible for the reclamation of 250,000 hectares of degraded land since 1985. In
the third case, restoration of multiple functions was pursued by the FACE UWA initiative in Uganda since 1994. The
venture succeeded because it addressed the different needs and aspirations of various stakeholders on the landscape.

The lessons learnt from the cases and ensuing discussions were, that:

    While research was useful for effective FLR, it was not always necessary to wait for research or external funding to
     pursue FLR on the ground. Popular commitment has proven in the past, to be a main asset;
    The preferred ‘‘bottom-top’’ approach could start at any time. In fact, it could now with a strong individual.
    Strong personality and good leadership always helps to catalyse and ascertain follow-up and effective execution of
     the process;
    Strong grassroots involvement, as well as an enabling institutional environment with traditional management rules
     and government support are a necessity.

Virpi’s full power-point presentation is attached under Annexe 4 of this report.

4.2 Western Africa Case (Ghana – Global Forest Perspective)

Ghana’s experience in forest regeneration was presented by Victor Agyeman, of the Forest Research Institute of Ghana
(FORIG). Victor underscored Ghana’s Sustainable Forest Management Programme, indicating that the country had a
comfortable lead over many others in sub-Saharan Africa, as concerns conventional forest restoration. He revealed that
the Government of Ghana addresses FLR through an integrated forest management programme that includes;
improvement of tenure, resource use rights and participation; a ban on log export and the illegal use of chain saws;
integrated forest and wildlife management; wildlife, biodiversity and environmental conservation; plantation
development and a reviewed taungya system which strives to improve the benefit flows, especially to poor and
marginalised local communities. Victor’s power-point presentation is attached under Annexe 4 of this report.

Technical Session II

5. Discussion on FLR Experiences and Policy Opportunities
This technical session was divided into a discussion and policy session, both chaired by Souleymane Zeba, WWF
Regional Representative for Western Africa. From previous presentations, it was agreed that some form of FLR was

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practiced in most West African countries, with classical approaches contributing very little to the attainment of forest
functionality. An example of functionality oriented restoration was presented from Nigeria, where the Government
launched a Nypa Palm Eradication Programme in that country’s Delta State in 2002. The Nypa Palm is an exotic
invasive species introduced in Nigeria by the British colonial administration in 1906, to check coastal erosion and
stabilise eroded beaches. The species is however invading mangrove sites and eradicating the latter with a negative toll
on the survival of several fish species, thereby affecting the welfare of local communities, which depend on fish for
their livelihood. The restoration initiative is expected to eradicate the Nypa Palm and regenerate local mangrove species
through an integrated control process to involve all stake-holders. Functions being restored are economic (fish –
breeding site for fish and crayfish; tannin production – from mangrove bark for dying fabrics, including fishing nets);
environmental (protection against sea storms; carbon sequestration etc.); social (broad stake-holder participation; fuel-
wood for fish drying; bark of mangrove trees used in medicines etc.); biodiversity (re-establishment of disrupted food
chains i.e., between water birds and insects; shade for water birds, water antelopes and aquatic fauna; and nesting sites
for bats). The initiative has since been linked to the government’s poverty reduction strategy.

Another forest functionality initiative was reported for the Fouta Djallon highlands in Guinea. The massif, though
located in the central part of Guinea, has a range which extends into Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal and Sierra Leone. It
is also the source of the most important rivers of West Africa namely, the river Niger, the Senegal, the Gambia, Kaba,
Koliba and Kolenté. More than 70 % of these regional rivers originate from the Fouta Djallon highlands. Considering
its importance, the OAU, UNDP, UNEP and the Guinean Government as early as 1981, launched the Fouta Djallon
Highlands Integrated Development Regional Programme, covering the eight riparian countries of Guinea, Gambia
Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The Programme sought to combat desertification,
drought and natural disasters, with impacts on the Fouta Djallon highland ecology, through forest restoration. Functions
targeted for restoration have been economic (employment --); ecological (soil erosion control; flood control-);
biodiversity (natural forest conservation; protection of head-waters); and social (water supply --) etc.

In another case in Burkina Faso, it was revealed that a project was in the pipe-line for the restoration of 202,400
hectares of forest, by planting trees along the banks of rivers and reservoirs; manage the Bontioli wildlife reserve and
rehabilitate 300 km of feeder roads. It will also involve the demarcation of 180 village lands and curb the destruction of
forests and environmental degradation. The African Development Bank (AfDB) was in the process of approving a loan
of US $16.6 million to Burkina Faso to finance the forest management project in the drought-prone West African
country. It was also revealed that the funds will be used to promote income generating activities among people living
near the forests. The project, which will become operational in 2003, shall involve the participation of the populations
living near the forests and enable them to improve their living conditions.

Pertaining to opportunistic policies, the session chairman – Souleymane, indicated that there were a number of
international and regional policy instruments that could support FLR, including: the NEPAD, PRSP, World Bank
policy for forest sector in Africa, African Development Bank’s policy for forest sector in Africa and, the ongoing
discussions in ECOWAS. Concerning NEPAD, it was indicated that issues related to environment and biodiversity
could benefit only when tackled in an integrated and holistic manner, i.e., it would be easier for NEPAD to support
cross-border programmes and initiatives involving one, two or more countries than single stand-alone ventures.
National components of the environmental initiatives could then be managed by the beneficiary governments. FLR
provides such cross border opportunities to benefit from NEPAD support. Projects such as the restoration of
downstream basins or mountain areas common to several countries (Fouta-Djalon, Mount Nimba, Volta Basin…) could
be eligible for NEPAD. Concerning poverty reduction strategies (PRSP): With national discussions currently evolving
at different stages, FLR may not encounter the same level of success as envisaged for NEPAD if presented as a cross
border package. FLR will therefore preferably be introduced to the PRSP at the country-level discussions as a national
initiative, with the conviction that, FLR will effectively contribute in poverty reduction.

Subsequent discussions in plenary enabled participants to share viewpoints and examples on national and regional
policies favourable to FLR and how FLR objectives could be integrated into these policies. The possibility of
presentating the FLR concept to populations for adoption was also discussed.

6. Group Work on Landscapes
This session involved splitting workshop participants into two groups, with each group working on a preferred
landscape within the West African sub-region. Each group was expected to provide a descriptive summary of their
landscape, and provide responses to the following questions:

i. Who are the main stake-holders within the landscape ?
ii. What are the major causes of degradation of the landscape ?
iii. What are the specific threats to FLR on the landscape ?
iv. What are the opportunities for promoting FLR on the landscape ?
v. What activities could be undertaken to promote FLR on the landscape ?
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vi. What should be done or put in place for FLR to succeed ?
vii. How can FLR be integrated into current policies ?

The two groups reflected on the following landscapes:

Group 1: Mt. Nimba Landscape: Made of representatives from Liberia, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal and Sierra Leone.
Group 2: Kyabobo-Fazoa-Malfakassa Landscape: Made of representatives from Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, and Burkina-Faso.

Group Results:

6.1 Group 1: Mt. Nimba Landscape

Description:

The Nimba mountain landscape transgresses the national boundaries of Guinea, Ivory Coast and Liberia. Exploration of
iron ore on the range dates back to 1909. However, due to the diversity of the landscape in terms of both morphology
and vegetation, and the rarity of its endemic fauna, 19,500 hectares of the forest was gazetted in 1943; with 14,500
hectares being on the Guinean side and 5,000 on the Ivorian side, and another 20 kilometres of the un-gazetted range
extending into Liberia. The landscape has been gazetted successively as a Strict Nature Reserve (1944), a Biosphere
Reserve (1980) and a World Heritage Site (1981). Since 1991, the Nimba ‘high conservation value forest’, was enlarged
to incorporate all the land forming the Upper Cavally River Basin in Guinea, covering an area of 145,200 ha., and
arranged as a cluster, of three core zones totalling 21,780 ha (Mount Nimba, Bossou and Déré), a buffer zone of 35,140
ha, which surrounds the three core zones and a transition area of 88,280 ha, the boundaries of which correspond to the
river-shed dividing the Cavally, Gouan and Mani river basins.

The Fouta Djallon highlands meanwhile, was described as the water tower of West Africa. Seven of the region’s major
rivers, including the Niger, Gambia and Senegal, take their rise from these highlands. Notwithstanding, the Fouta is
very degraded, although it remains the home of the northernmost population of chimpanzees in Africa. It is also
renowned for its wide diversity of insects, mainly butterlies, and fish from its numerous streams and rivers. The Fouta
Djallon remains an area characterised by high rainfall, although this is reducing along with its characteristic sub-
montane species of Parinari excelsa and Parkia biglobosa. A number of fragmented classified forests still exist. The
potential for external partnerships in the area is immense.

The Mt. Nimba Group came up with the following responses:

i. Current stakeholders and partners: Governments (Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast); local populations; resource exploiters
(timber, mining, agriculture and animal breeders); funding agencies; academic and research institutions; protected area
agencies.

ii. Principal causes of degradation: Mining by the ex. Company - LAMCO in Liberia; Commercial logging and
agriculture on the periphery of the World Heritage Site; civil war in Liberia causing the interruption (for 15 years) of
restoration work on areas degraded by mining; population movements and refugees from civil war causing pressure on
wildlife; wild fires from increasing subsistence agriculture.

iii. Major threats: War on the western half of Ivory Coast; uncontrolled hunting and poaching; risk of extinction of
certain species; disturbance and destruction of the habitat by displaced people; on-going mining exploration in Guinea.

iv. Opportunities: World heritage site, hence supranational importance; USD 11 million project to be financed by GEF;
interest and support by funding agencies; progress towards a tripartite agreement between Guinea, Ivory Coast and
Liberia for conservation of the Nimba Landscape; envisaged convention between the government of Guinea and the
Rio-Tinto mining company for the latter to pay for conservation expenses of the landscape; restart of mining in Liberia
within the framework of a new forestry law, with provisions for forest protection and rehabilitation; political support by
NEPAD due to trans-boundary status of the landscape.

v. Activities to promote FLR: Continue reforestation (through the FLR functional approach) suspended by the civil war;
re-evaluate biodiversity potential of the landscape; redynamise the Mt. Nimba tripartite initiative (FFI); promote related
activities, i.e., reforestation associated with animal husbandry, agro-forestry etc; protect wildlife corridors; improve
management of the buffer zone; pursue research; protect identified rare species through in-situ or ex-situ conservation.

vi. Mechanisms for success of FLR: Harmonisation of policies; identification of stakeholders on each side of the
landscape; many actions already exist.



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vii. Integrating FLR into existing policies: Review existing policies; propose and appropriately formulate current policies
while integrating FLR; adopt a convincing approach for integrating FLR in specific policy frameworks.

6.2 Group 2: Kyabobo-Fazoa-Malfakassa (KFM) Massif.
Description:

The Kyabobo-Fazao-Malfakassa landscape is a continuous mountain range constituting the eastern limit of the upper
Guinea forest. The landscape is contiguous in geomorphology, topography, vegetation and species, from eastern Ghana
to western Togo. On the Ghanaian side, the core conservation area i.e., Kyabobo Range National Park (21,400 ha) is a
new protected area (awaiting gazettement in the near future), while the Fazao-Malfakassa of Togo (192,000 ha) was
gazetted as early as 1951. The landscape as a whole, is host to a mixture of sub-montane forest and savannah woodland,
separated by extensive gallery forests. Several threatened species occur including the chimpanzee and elephant.
Poaching and illegal honey collection, constitute major problems especially at the Ghana – Togo border. The landscape
meanwhile, has been described as a high tourism potential area (IUCN/UNEP, 1987).

The KFM group came up with the following results:

i. Current stakeholders and partners: Local communities and local authorities: livestock breeders; hunters; farmers;
charcoal producers; construction timber exploiters; traditional chiefs; local representatives of central government,
including protected area agencies of Kyabobo and Fazao-Malfakasa and ; regional authorities.

ii. Principal causes of degradation: Poaching; bush fires; illegal harvesting of construction timber and wood for charcoal
production; slash and burn agriculture.

iii. Major threats: Widespread poverty; inappropriate land tenure policy; increasing population pressure; shortage of
alternative job opportunities; lack of access to financial and other resources.

iv. Opportunities: Existing partnership with international agencies; community participation in FLR; collaboration and
good governance; .

v. Activities to promote FLR: Sensitise local community residents on environmental benefits of the landscape; maintain
gallery forests; identify animal corridors; encourage community forestry and agro-forestry; consolidate the core
protected areas; pursue participative resource management; involve communities in the maintenance of buffer areas;
pursue management of valleys and slopes.

vi. Mechanisms for success of FLR: Set up a mechanism for the equitable sharing of resources; promote a bilateral
framework; set up a planning framework to identify the roles and responsibilities of the different stake-holders.

vii. Integrating FLR into existing policies: Set up an efficient legal framework that favours FLR; promote the Algiers
convention.

Technical Session III

7. FLR and Environmental Conventions
This session was delivered in two parts:

i. FLR and Environmental Conventions : Potential links to Forest Carbon Sequestration under the Kyoto Protocol, and
the CBD’s Ecosystem Approach, presented by Stephen Kelleher, and

ii. Links between FLR and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) presented a day earlier, by Professor Alfred
Oteng-Yeboua of SBSTTA. Meanwhile, it was agreed that restoration guidelines proposed by the Convention on Humid
Areas or Ramsar, would be discussed in a later session, on “selecting restoration landscapes”, to be led by Martin
Nganje – WARPO Forest Officer.

7.1 Potential FLR Links to Forest Carbon Sequestration under the Kyoto Protocol

In the first of this two part session, Stephen made an overview of WWF’s policy on climate change and forest carbon
sequestration, followed by the link between FLR, Biodiversity, livelihoods and the Clean Development Mechanism of
the Kyoto Protocol. The entire paper of the first of these two presentations is attached under Annexe 5 of this report.



                                                                                                                        12
In the second presentation, Stephen indicated that forest carbon sequestration and the potential use of sinks under the
CDM of the Kyoto Protocol was controversial. The issue has provoked much debate, research, analysis and differences
of opinion. The inclusion of afforestation and reforestation under the CDM at Marrakesh, and the current work
programme being developed by SBSTTA, provides the opportunity to explore both the risks and opportunities that
could be presented to CDM project implementers. Such risks include:

i. Social impacts: Lack of adequate or effective local input, participation and benefit sharing, displacement of economic
activity, displacement of people and reduced access to land resources by local people

ii. Environmental impacts: Perverse incentives for sustainable forest management, intensification of forests leading to
more chemical inputs, simplification of structure and function, inappropriate and large scale exotic species plantations.

iii. Permanence: Projects could be at risk from natural causes such as fires and pests, as well as human induced causes
 (agricultural conversion, fire, maintenance)

iv. Leakage: This involves the displacement of economic activities, people and carbon if project design is flawed and or
land tenure disputed.

v. Scientific and measurement uncertainty: This involves questions of whether carbon and atmospheric benefits of
sinks projects can be quantified, measured and monitored at an appropriate scale.

Stephen proceeded with a presentation on how FLR could appropriately address the above questions and risks, as
follows:

Pertaining to Leakage and Additionality:
 FLR creates additional forest and carbon assets
 FLR targets both design for ecological and social benefits
 It is not business as usual but promotes change and incentives for maintaining forest asset
 Stabilise land-use with links to land-use policies and positive local incentives.

Pertaining to Permanence:
 Promotes land tenure and positive land-use options
 It constitutes an incentive for forest (and carbon) maintenance and protection
 Provides opportunities for diverse forest species and forest functions
 Increases forest resistance and resilience to threats

Environmental and Biodiversity Co-Benefits
 Promotes corridor restoration, fragment reduction, habitat restoration, resistance and resilience
 Increase species diversity
 Integrate ecological services – hydrological, soil stabilisation, desertification
 Reduces pressure on natural forests, augments buffer zones, promote in frontier forests to avoid perverse incentives
   for natural forest conversion
 Forest quality and diversity, not just carbon quantity

Social Co-Benefits
 Enhances livelihood through integrated land-uses – multiple goods and services such as agro-forestry, timber and
    non-timber forest products, fodder etc.
 Promote land tenure security – link to policies to reduce negative land-use, community forestry etc.
 Increase productivity through multiple use approach
 Create real partnerships for long-term gains and reduce perverse incentives for forest clearing.

7.2 Opportunities Offered by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

The session was led by Professor Alfred Oteng-Yeboua, Chairman of SBSTTA-CBD, and Deputy Director-General of
CSIR Ghana. Professor Yeboua indicated that, according to article 8f of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ‘each
contracting party shall, as far as possible and as appropriate rehabilitate and restore degraded ecosytems and promote
the recovery of threatened species, inter alia, through the development and implementation of plans or other
management strategies’.

Pursuant to this, a CBD study to understand the main issues in restoration and rehabilitation, evaluating critically costs
and the scientific and technical implications of proposed restoration/ rehabilitation programmes and determining their


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value for conserving and recovering biodiversity has identified the following potential problems under the topic as
including:

   Lack of well- developed restoration/rehabilitation techniques;
   High costs of restoration /rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems, including ecosystems invaded by alien species;
   Lack of information on the effectiveness of restoration and rehabilitation activities in sustaining biodiversity;
   Lack of incorporating monitoring and evaluation in restoration/rehabilitation programmes.
   Insufficient local community participation in planning, developing and implementing restoration and rehabilitation
    programmes and need for better incorporation of traditional knowledge.
   Lack of techniques to reproduce or propagate some rare and threatened species.
   Lack of incentives to recover rare and threatened species.

The presenter advocated for these difficulties to be addressed and resolved. He mentioned that the CBD experts group
on forests had stressed ;

   That restoration of forest biological diversity in degraded forests and deforested lands was an issue of growing
     importance in both the developed countries and the developing world; and
   That there is a need to focus more on the potential for synergy from combining different forest categories, including
    primary and secondary natural forests, agro-forests and new forest plantations, to achieve a specified range of forest
    biological diversity and related goods and services.
   That the means to restore forest biological diversity in different situations are poorly understood and research
    should be increased in this area.

Moreover, the 6th Conference of the Parties, in it’s decision VI/22 on forest biological diversity adopted an expanded
programme of work on forest biological diversity in which three elements were established:
1. Conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing;
2. Institutional and socio-economic enabling environment;
3. Knowledge, assessment and monitoring.

It is in the first element that aspects of restoration and rehabilitation are considered.

Meanwhile, 3 goals in the first element provide direct specific objectives and activities for restoration and rehabilitation,
notably, to:
   i. Apply the Ecosystem approach;
  ii. Protect, recover and restore forest biological diversity;
 iii. Reduce the threats and mitigate the impacts of threatening processes on forest biological diversity.

Professor Yeboua indicated that the SCBD was anxious to do the following:-

   Create a web-page on "restoration and rahabilitation of degraded ecosystems" with links to existing initiatives on
    restoration in particular; WCMC, IUCN, and WWF websites.
   Include reports on the restoration activities in the reviews of programmes of work on inland water ecosystems,
    marine and coastal biodiversity and agricultural biodiversity and in the thematic reports on forest biodiversity.
   Draw attention to restoration activities in meetings of the Collaborative partnership on Forests and liaison group
    (CBD, UNCCD,UNFCCC)

The presenter reiterated that all these underscored the fact that the CBD agrees that a global initiative on Forest
landscape Restoration (FLR) can facilitate exchange of resources and information among countries; serve as a pilot for
other biomes; facilitate co-ordination and development of partnerships; generate political commitment; involve all
stakeholders including local communities; promote capacity-building and mobilise funding.

After discussions and clarifications, it was concluded that, due to the rapid degradation of West Africa’s forest
resources, there was a necessity to progress with FLR using an adaptive management approach. The session ended with
work in groups.

Discussions

The preceding presentations generated a lot of interest and discussion, with participants requesting clarification on
participation in carbon credit initiatives. Some questions raised, included:

- What activities qualify for FLR within the framework of a carbon credits initiative ?
- Can local communities benefit from carbon credits ?

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- Are there guidelines for CDM programmes ? Which type of guidelines for developing countries ?
- Are there accounts anywhere on loss and benefits from FLR or carbon credit initiatives ?
- Some governments have committed to large afforestation schemes, should such schemes be abandoned ?
- Can we start FLR now without first working on our national policies and legislations ?
- What could be the minimum duration to generate funds for a carbon sequestration initiative (through the CDM) ?
- What can we do now to ensure that populations are aware of the benefits of FLR ?
- etc.

It was revealed that the World Bank has released a format for participation in the new Bio-carbon Fund, that could be
consulted or retrieved from the internet.

Satisfactory responses were provided to all questions (found in previous and following presentations in this report). The
forum agreed that weak policies might attract plantations that could be unfavourable for local people. There is a need
for environmental screening before projects can benefit from the opportunities offered by the CDM.

8. Selecting Landscapes for Forest Landscape Restoration

This session was led by Martin Nganje, who started by revisiting forest functions in terms of goods and services offered
by the forest milieu. The following functions were discussed:

1. Micro and macro climate regulation,
2. Water supply in good quality and quantity,
3. Good soil water percolation and erosion control,
4. Unhindered soil nutrient cycling,
5. Pollination, including the dispersal of reproductive plant parts,
6. Good soil formation,
7. Adequate production of food and food sources,
8. Useful non foods and other material sources ie resins, latex, dyes etc,
9. Biodiversity, and the conservation thereof,
10. Shade and wind erosion control (buffer),
11. Cultural and traditional rites,
12. Air particle and sound filter,
13. Supply of pharmaceutical products,
14. Wood and related ligneous material,
15. Wildlife habitat and corridors,
16. Eco-tourism and adventure,
17. Research and Education,
18. Employment for collectors,
19. Leisure (past-time) and scenic beauty,
20. Existence value.

The session continued with a revisit of the different types of landscape stake-holders. The following were enumerated:
i. Local communities: not homogenous [gatherers & collectors, farmers, graziers, hunters, tapers, charcoal-makers etc-]

ii. Government [agriculture, animal husbandry and fisheries, territorial administration, forestry, environment, rural
development, tourism, industrial development – ]

iii. Parastatal Agencies [hydro electricity corporations, government executing agencies, ie Forestry Commission or
SODEFOR of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire respectively -- ]

iv. Private sector [industrial agricultural and forest plantations, timber exploiters, tourist corporations ie hotels, miners,
water bottling corporations --]

v. Advocacy organisations and associations ie INGOs and NGOs.

The following framework was provided for selecting restoration landscapes:

   Social: existence of leadership and social organisation, land tenure system and security, historical land-use pattern,
    level of stake-holder collaboration, existence of previous successful locally inspired initiatives, on-going projects,
    technical and financial capacity of beneficiaries.

   Biophysical: condition of vegetation, river basin, soil degradation, ecosystem type, topography –

                                                                                                                           15
   Political and Administrative: legal status – gazetted?, enabling national / local policy, legislation, available
    information on the landscape, trans-bordering –

   Economic: rural economy (grazing, farming etc), governance, --

The session covered aspects on the design of FLR projects, and continued with a review of the guidelines for restoring
humid areas, as specified in the Principles of the Convention on Humid Areas or Ramsar.

In the annexe of the Ramsar COP 8, a first observation states that “The need to reverse wetland degradation, in addition
to the recognition of benefits associated with wetland restoration, has led to initiation of numerous restoration projects
globally. Although there is increasing interest in wetland restoration and opportunities are widespread, efforts to restore
wetlands are still sporadic, and there is a lack of general planning at the national level. Individuals and organizations
interested in restoration often work in isolation and without the benefit of experience gained on other projects”.
Principle 9 of the annexe of Ramsar COP 8 notes: “Careful planning (of restoration initiatives) will limit the possibility
of undesirable side effects. For example, careful planning can allow restoration projects to avoid problems such as
increased numbers of mosquitoes, unwanted flooding, or saltwater intrusion into sources of drinking water. To assist in
planning, an assessment should be made of the features of the site under consideration, and the factors that may affect
its feasibility and success”.

Principle 11 of the annexe of Ramsar COP 8 rightly notes that "the maintenance and conservation of existing wetlands
is (however) always preferable and more economical than their subsequent restoration" and "restoration schemes must
not weaken efforts to conserve existing natural systems". Both quantitative data and subjective assessments clearly
show that currently available restoration techniques almost never lead to conditions that match those of pristine natural
ecosystems. As a corollary to this, trading high-quality habitat or ecosystems for promises of restoration should be
avoided except in the case of overriding national interests. However, restoration of individual sites can contribute to
ongoing management of existing high quality wetlands by, for example, improving overall catchment condition and
contributing to improved water allocation management”.

Principle 14 of the annexe of COP 8 indicates that wetland restoration should be an open process that involves local
community stakeholders as well as stakeholders who will be affected by a project even though they may be
geographically distant from the project, for example, stakeholders living well downstream. All stakeholders, including
local communities and indigenous people and sectoral interests both in situ and ex situ, should be fully involved in a
wetland restoration project from its earliest stage of consideration through its implementation to its long-term
stewardship.

Pertaining to restoration objectives, and performance standards, Ramsar COP 8 notes that many wetland restoration
projects suffer from poorly stated (or unstated) goals and objectives. Without clearly stated goals and objectives,
projects lack direction. By attaching performance standards to each project objective, stakeholders are forced to
consider closely their goals and objectives, and often the development of performance standards leads to revision of
goals and objectives. An example of a goal for a project might be to increase the quality of wildlife habitat. An
associated objective might be to improve habitat value for certain species, such as migratory waterfowl. Performance
standards associated with this objective could specify the number of breeding pairs of several key species that are
expected to use the site after restoration has been completed.

Finally, pertaining to the effective choice of restoration sites, , Ramsar COP 8 indicates that in many cases, restoration
projects begin in response to conditions on a particular site, and thus the site is specified at the project's outset.
However, some projects begin without a site. In these cases, several sites might be assessed before a final project site is
identified. A proposed procedure for identification of potential restoration projects can be divided into three phases:

Phase 1: aims to identify the spatial need for restoration of wetland functions and to set environmental constraints for
restoration in each case.

Phase 2: is more landscape specific, and evaluates the sustainability of the potential restoration projects through a
synthesis of the environmental constraints derived from phase 1 and the socio-economic characteristics and other
particularities of the catchment.

Phase 3: is the final outcome, whereby the evaluation of the previous two phases permits identification and
prioritization of potentially sustainable restoration projects. This final phase stems from the need to make sound
decisions on wetland resource management and leads to successful, cost-effective projects with broad public
acceptance.

The presenter indicated that an advantage of using catchment restoration as an objective for FLR was that biophysical

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units, which are managed at political or economic levels, allow identification of linkages between ecological services,
flexible in scale, and flexible in terms of time of intervention.

9. Establishing Partnerships and Negotiation of Compromises for FLR
This session was led by Jean-Paul Lorng. While making reference to the partners identified above by the previous
presenter, Jean-Paul grouped them in four categories as follows:

    Technical partners (for : ecological criteria, training, development alternatives, economic value of FLR,…);
    Political partners (for: integration into PRSP, PE3, local and regional development plans, legal instruments…);
    Financial partners (for: medium - and long-term investments);
    Experience exchange partners (international exchanges, capitalisation of experiences, research-action ---).

It was indicated that in order to be effective, partnership should be a cooperation that is beneficial to all parties,
addressing their different objectives and vision for a common goal. Working together requires partners to help one
another to attain their common goal or objective. It was agreed that there is a dire necessity to; define clear objectives,
share responsibilities and above all to share the fruits of success.

Partnership was also described as learning together, being prepared to take risks, to be flexible, to invest in a long-term
relationship, to strengthen one another’s capacities, to anticipate problems as progress is made, and to settle disputes as
they arise.

Concerning the negotiation of acceptable compromises among partners, Jean-Paul indicated that the process starts with
the definition of a common vision at the level of the landscape being considered.

Debates generated by the presentation raised some questions such as difficulties of establishing Partnerships between
the Government and Communities, as well as guaranteeing sustainable actions besides the involvement of Government.
The issue of financial assessments of FLR was also discussed in terms of how prospective investors could be convinced
of its profitability. In response, numerous cases were cited in Latin America, where communities involved in landscape
restoration were benefiting from royalties paid by water bottling companies, other cases involved carbon sequestration,
quantified through carbon knowledge projects, and conservation – concession approaches, promoted by some
conservation partners.

10. FLR Measuring Indicators
This session was led by Martin Nganje. Using a framework developed by the WWF Forest Landscape Restoration co-
ordination Unit in Gland – Switzerland, Martin pointed out that FLR indicators should monitor authenticity of the
landscape, referred as its naturalness or ecological integrity, including resilience / resistance and the provision of
benefits. This was defined as “maintaining the diversity and quality of the ecosystems, and enhancing their
(ecosystems) capacity to adapt to change and provide the needs of future generations”. The following table was
presented:

Criteria                       Examples of specific indicators
Indicators relating to authenticity
Forest composition and          Amount/proportion of natural forest (i.e. forest made up of natural species and
pattern                             allowed to develop natural characteristics)
                                Proportion of forest containing several different successional stages (measured
                                    against natural forest type of the region)
Forest ecosystem function  Distribution of rare or threatened forest-dependent species
and process                     Amount of a specific indicator associated with natural forest processes – e.g. dead
                                    timber
Forest fragmentation and        Area of forest in the landscape compared with original forest extent (use FAO
extent                              definition of forest)
                                Median size of forest stands
Indicators relating to environmental benefits
Environmental services          Water quality and quantity
                                Changes in stream sediment load1
Environmental resilience


1
  Note that whilst carbon sequestration might seem to be an ideal indicator, any use of this would require careful handling to ensure
that WWF’s position on the Kyoto Protocol of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is not undermined.
                                                                                                                                    17
and resistance
Indicators relating to secure livelihoods
Increased livelihood           A proxy measure of food, shelter, clothing, education etc, e.g.:
opportunities                   Number of jobs supported by forests in the landscape
                                Numbers of key NTFPs available on a sustainable basis
Reduced human                  Need indicators relating to specific “pressure points” within a landscape
vulnerability
Increased equity               Specific indicators will be needed relating to targets in a landscape, e.g.:
                                Number of traditional livelihoods supported
                                Opportunities for participation in management decisions
Maintenance of cultural        Specific indicators will be needed relating to targets in a landscape, e.g.:
values                          Protection/restoration for sacred sites in forests
                                Number of recreational visits to forests and woodland
Enabling political and          Enabling legislation
institutional environment       Funding
                                Positive government incentives

The framework, and the criteria and indicators, are a theoretical model undergoing field tests and are modified
accordingly, before being finalised for general use.


11. Workshop Recommendations
Workshop participants working in country teams produced recommendations, which were harmonised in plenary and
read out by a designated participant during the workshop’s closing ceremony:

“A the end of fruitful deliberations of the workshop, to promote Forest Landscape Restoration in West Africa, hosted by
the government of Ghana and facilitated by the World Wide Fund for nature - WWF, regrouping representatives of 9
West African countries namely: Senegal, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Togo and
Nigeria, we, the workshop participants, this 26th day of March 2003, recommend as follows:

   That, WWF and partners, should be engaged, as soon as possible, in initiating at least one pilot Forest Landscape
    Restoration project in the sub-region;

   That, Governments, and concerned national and international partners should set up a mechanism or mechanisms to
    finance Forest Landscape Restoration pilot action in each West African country;

   Partnerships in Forest Landscape Restoration should be encouraged through processes such as Memoranda of
    Understanding (MoU), as well as through collaboration on specific site projects or related initiatives;

   Executing partners should integrate forest landscape restoration principles and concept into on-going planning
    phases of projects such as the Mt. Nimba, the Fouta Djallon, and Kyabobo-Fazao-Malfakassa;

   Governments and intergovernmental agencies should encourage integration of Forest Landscape Restoration in
    forest programmes and other national rural development, and poverty alleviation planning and programming
    processes;

   That, WWF should collaborate with NGO partners and the appropriate ministerial departments in West African
    countries to collate and synthesise information on existing Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) initiatives in the
    sub-region, in order to initiate a data-base on the subject, and promote the exchange of experience;

   That, the functional approach advocated by Forest Landscape Restoration, and seen as a means of alleviating
    poverty and enhancing the socio-cultural well-being of local communities, should be promoted at the country level,
    through national workshops involving; NGO’s, government departments, intergovernmental agencies, the private
    sector, local communities, and interested stakeholders;

   Governments, and other national and international partners involved in sustainable forest management, should
    engage in a continuous education and awareness programme, on Forest Landscape Restoration;




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    WWF should collaborate with national governments, NGOs and regional / international partners such as the FAO,
     IUCN, ITTO, and eventually CIFOR in the identification of forest landscapes in the West African sub-region,
     needing FLR action;

    A Forest Landscape Restoration network, to be facilitated by WWF and national focal points, should be promoted
     in West Africa, for information sharing. Focal points could have the added role of monitoring national Forest
     Landscape Restoration activities;

    Considering the multifunctional approach advocated by Forest Landscape Restoration, appropriate techniques and
     strategies should be developed for communicating and promoting the process, including communication tools for
     its use as a major sub-regional forest land-use planning process, and finally;

    That, WWF and other national and international partners should continue to provide support in West Africa, with
     the objective of promoting achievement of concrete Forest Landscape Restoration results.


12. Conclusion and Next Steps
This session involved a plenary discussion followed by work in country groups to propose FLR actions at the national
and regional levels, and finally, an assessment of the attainment of the workshop objectives. The plenary session
reviewed opportunities for advancing FLR through national, regional and international binding and non-binding
environmental instruments. National level opportunities could be accessed through the NFAPs, the PRSPs, and the
NBSAPs, while regional level opportunities would preferentially be accessed through the NEPAD, the Niger Basin
Initiative (NBI), and the Volta Basin Authority. Projects such as the restoration of trans-boundary landscapes i.e., the
Volta or Niger Basin watersheds, or mountain areas common to several countries i.e., Mount Nimba, Kyabobo-Mazao-
Malfakassa…, could be eligible for NEPAD support due to their regional impact. Whatever the national or regional
process pursued, it is necessary to sufficiently sensitise governments on the FLR concept and involve forestry and
related planning departments in future FLR work, since these are usually involved in developing project concepts for
inclusion in national programmes.

At the level of country groups, participants were guided by the following ideas:

    Activities to be undertaken to promote Forest Landscape Restoration;
    Those responsible for the follow-up of activities;
    Probable Calendar of execution ( short term = 1 to 6 months; middle term = 6 – 12 months; long-term more than 1
     year).

As a main output of the workshop, “next steps”, from the group work, are presented below:

COTE D’IVOIRE
                            Activities                             Responsible Organisation         Schedule
Vulgarise the Accra workshop report including the reports of     MINEF                              May - June 2003
previous FLR workshop.
Set up a provisional committee to reflect on FLR                 MINEF                              June 2003
Identifier areas suitable for FLR                                Provisional committee              June / July 2003
Create a national co-ordination committee                        Provisional Committee              Octobre 2003
Set up FLR working group for each identified landscape           National Committee                 From 12/2003

GUINEA
                            Actions                                Responsible Organisation            Schedule
Undertake restitution of the outcome of the Ghana workshop       MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie         Avril-June 2003
Set up a team to work on FLR (write ToR)                         MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie         Avril-June 2003
Undertake state of knowledge of FLR and the application of                                             3 months
Conventions related to FLR.
Undertake a study on the context, opportunities and              MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie         3 months
constraintes of FLR in Guinée                                    -
Identify pilot FLR stakeholders                                  MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie         Juillet 2003
Hold a national workshop to share information of the subject     MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie         Juillet 2003
and findings.
Preparation of management plans                                  MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie         12 months

                                                                                                                       19
Implementation of management plans                              MME – MA/EF ; Guinée-Ecologie            2004

TOGO
                       Activities                          Responsible Organisation                  Schedule
Re-activate the multi-disciplinary team on the           MERF                                1 to 2 months
environment.
Undertake a balance sheet on FLR initiatives in Togo     MERF                                2 to 3 months
Identification of one priority FLR site per economic     MERF/WWF and others                 2 to 6 months
region.
Identify and plan FLR work to be undertaken.             MERF/WWF and others                 6 to 12 months
Validate results of the FLR identification work.         MERF/WWF and others
Define mechanisms for monitoring and execution.          MERF/WWF and others                 12 months
Research and funding                                     MERF/WWF and others
Implementation.                                          MERF/WWF and others                 1 to 6 years

NIGERIA
                                         Activities                                                 Schedule
Identify a national focal point (FDF) and a national facilitator (NCF)                      Immediately (1st month)
Organise a national workshop with stakeholders on FLR                                       3rd month
Set up a National Working Group.                                                            3rd month
Organise sensitisation and exchange of information.                                         3rd month
Conduct a national inventory of forest landscapes for restoration in each of 5 ecological
regions within the context of the National Forest Development Programme, and                6th month
international initiatives such as NNJC, the lake Tchad basin and trans-boundary
initiatives between Cameroon and Nigeria.
Write-up a National Plan of Action for FLR : Principles and criteria for setting-up FLR     8th month
Consolidate and harmonise on-going national programmes to integrate the concept of          8th month
FLR (ex : Mangrove/fresh water swamp Ecosystem (Reforestation of mangroves/nypa
palm control ; Sudan / Sahel (DDc programmes; NNJC trans-boundary planting; Micro
water shed; CBFM activities in Rainforest zone).
Constitute partnerships within each FLR landscape.                                          8th month
Mobilise efforts for the implementation of programmes ( institutional networks, capacity    10th month
building, fund-raising, capacity needs assessment and sustainability criteria)
Establish monitoring–evaluation tools, main orientations and standards                      8 – 9 month

SIERRA LEONE
                        Activités                              Responsible Actors                     Schedule
Organise national workshop with stake-holders              Government; NGO                   Short term
Restoration (nurseries and creation of adapted             Government; NGO, Local            Short term
plantations with local species):                           communities
Community development projects (animal husbandry,          Government; NGO                   Middle and long term
bee-keeping, vegetable gardening)
Protection of landscapes                                   Government; NGO; other            Long term
                                                           stake-holders
Advocacy                                                   Government; NGO (Local/Int.)      Long term
Training (Gardes and local guides)                         Government                        Short, middle and long
                                                                                             term
Monitoring                                                 Government; NGO; local            Long term
                                                           communities
Undertake research                                         University of Sierra Leone        Long term

BURKINA FASO
                                      Activities                                    Responsible P.          Schedule
Identify partners in the different countries                                       WWF,UICNBRAO         1 month (From
                                                                                   NATURAMA
                                                                                                        06/03)
Encourage and facilitate co-operation between countries: Mali, Nigeria, Niger,                          Permanent
Burkina Faso, Bénin, Togo
Produce status report on FLR in the above 6 countries using consultants on the                          6 months from
following themes : Case study per country ; Study on trans-boundary initiatives;   Consultants          October/Novembe
proposal of project sites.                                                                              r 2003
Organise national restitution and information workshop in view of the following    NATURAMA             Long term (from
                                                                                                                        20
outputs: network of partners (national, sub-regional); identification of funding    IUCN, WWF         December 2003)
opportunities; choice of pilot landscapes; write-up of a detailed action plan.      MINECV,

GHANA
                             Activities                                  Responsible (Leader)           Schedule
Establish a National Working Group on FLR                              FORIG                        3 month
Write up ToR for the national working group                            FORIG                        3 month
Identify sources of funding                                            FORIG / WWF WARPO            3 month
Undertake a study to identify FLR initiatives and write-up a           Working Group                3 month
synthetic report.
Restitute workshop results in a bid to identify gaps at the level of   Working Group                6 month
knowledge and at the level of currently implemented restoration
initiatives.
Develop a strategic plan for the implementation of FLR                 Working Group                9-12 month

LIBERIA
            Activities                                          Activities                                Duration
                                    - Workshop
                                    - Media coverage
1. Education                        - Identify contact persons at the level of local communities
                                    - Encourage academic institutions to include the concept of       6 month
                                    FLR in their training programmes.
2. Develop a national policy on     - Include FLR in existing national reforestation policies.        1 month
restoration
3. Capacity building                - Train selected individuals from local communities to enable     Short and middle
                                    them participate effectively                                      term
4. Research                         - Undertake socio-economic surveys                                6 month
                                    - Undertake biophysical surveys
5. Ensure sustainable funding       - Develop and apply a viable and equitable funding mechanism      Short and long
                                    to support FLR                                                    term
6. Promote transborder              - Joint rehabilitation of degraded transborder landscapes         Short and long
collaboration.                                                                                        term

SENEGAL

1. Organiser un atelier national sur la RPF
   - Définir le concept
   - Intégrer le concept dans les programmes d’action de projets (RPF)
Public             -         DEFCCS
                   -         D / Environnement
                   -         CNCR (Organisation de Ruraux)
                   -         Représentants de projets (RPF)       (PEIES, Projet Sénégal / Mauritanie )
                   -         ONGs (ENDA, Environnement)
                   -         Recherche Forestière
    - Responsable: Coordination. Régionale
    - Facilitateur: DEFCCS / Recherche forestière. / Dir.. Environnement            (Court Terme)
2. Créer un groupe de travail sur la RPF (Court Terme)
3. Diffuser les résultants de l’atelier    (Court Terme)
4. Ressortir les liens entre la RPF et les différentes conventions internationales (CCC / CLO/ CBIODOV)
5. Elaborer un plan d’Action (Moyen Terme)
6. Choisir 4 sites pilotes (de préférence des sites, des projets opérationnels (Moyen Terme)
7. Développer des partenariats au niveau des sites retenus (Moyen Terme)
8. Créer des comités villageois de gestion des paysages retenus (Long Terme)
9. Faire un Diagnostic participatif des paysages retenus            (Long Terme)
10. Elaborer des projets RPF                                        (Long Terme)
11. Rechercher des financements                                     (Long Terme)
12. Etablir de contrats RPF avec le comités villageois              (Long Terme)
13. Définir un ensemble un système de suivi- Evaluation              (Long Terme)

An examination of the progress of the workshop and an informal assessment of the level of attainment of its objectives,
revealed an outstanding success. All participants testified to the workshop’s remarkable success.


                                                                                                                       21
13. Closing Statements
13.1 Vote of Thanks

The following vote of thanks was read out by a designated participant during the closing ceremony chaired by the Co-
ordinating Director of the Dangbe West District:

“Under the initiative of the WWF and with the support of the Government of Ghana through its Ministry of Lands and
Forests, an important workshop on the restoration of degraded landscapes in West Africa was organised from the 25 th
through the 27th of March 2003, in Dodowa – Ghana.

This workshop brought together about thirty experts representing forestry administrations, State and Para-state
organisations, International organisations, associations of forestry promoters and NGOs from Ghana, Nigeria, Guinea,
Liberia, Togo, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Côte d‘Ivoire.

At the end of deliberations, the workshop would want to express its sincere gratitude to the Government of Ghana for its
assistance in facilitating the hosting of this important meeting.

The workshop would also want to make a specific motion of gratitude to Mrs. Esther Nyamkey, deputy Minister of
Environment and Science of Ghana and to the Chief Executive of the Damgbe West District, who honoured us by their
presence at the opening ceremony of the workshop.

Please accept our sincere thanks.

13.2 CLOSING ADRESS BY THE DAMGBE WEST DISTRICT COORDINATING DIRECTOR AT THE
     FIRST SUB-REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION IN WEST AFRICA

Regional Representative of WWF,
Distinguished Workshop Participants,
Ladies and Gentleman,

I am highly honoured to be invited to officially close this first sub-regional workshop to promote forest landscape
restoration in West Africa, which has been running for the past two days.

First of all, permit me to congratulate the organisers of this workshop and the planning committee who selected
Dodowa as the venue for this very important meeting. I have reliably been informed that you had a very successful
opening yesterday, which was led by the Honourable Deputy Minister of Environment and Science. I have also been
told that you had very interesting technical sessions, where various presentations were made by highly qualified
resource persons. I understand that the contributions made by individual participants were very valuable and I believe
the objectives of the workshop have been achieved.

Ladies and Gentlemen, the challenge, however, would be the effective implementation of the valuable
recommendations that have been made during these two-days brainstorming workshop. I will urge each participant
present here today to ensure that important decisions and recommendations that have been agreed upon will be
communicated to the appropriate authorities in their respective countries. I believe strongly that this is the only way we
can get political commitment from our governments for the implementation of actions agreed upon at such fora.

Ladies and Gentlemen, I am happy to learn that you will be going on a field trip tomorrow to actually have a critical
look at the landscape of this area. As you go out, you will see for yourselves how the ecology has been degraded over
the years. Even though several attempts are being made to reverse the trend of degradation, the results have not been
satisfactory.

I hope that, while on the field trip you will have the opportunity to interact with some of our local people and
communities and I entreat you to begin the sensitisation on forest landscape restoration right there.

Finally, I wish to take this opportunity to thank all of you for coming, and I hope this workshop will be the beginning of
the crusade on forest landscape restoration in Africa and other parts of the world.

At this point, Ladies and Gentlemen, I have the honour to declare this first sub-regional workshop to promote forest
landscape restoration in West Africa duly closed.

I wish you all a pleasant field trip tomorrow and for those who will be travelling outside Ghana, I say, “Bon Voyage”.
For those who will wish to come back to Ghana in future, I say, you are always welcomed.

Thank you and God bless you.

                                                                                                                       22
Annexe 1: Workshop Programme


24th March

        -    ARRIVAL OF PARTICIPANTS.

        -    INDIVIDUAL FAMILIARISATION WITH THE RESULTS OF PREVIOUS WORKSHOPS ON
              FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION (Documents to read).

        -    SETTING UP OF FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION PICTURE DISPLAY

25th March

08.30   REGISTRATION

09.00   OPENING
        09.00-09.10       Opening courtesies [Workshop Facilitator]
        09.10-09.20       Welcome Address by the District Chief Executive of Dodowa
        09.20-09.30       Address & Presentation of Workshop Objectives by the Regional Representative of WWF
        09.30-09.40       Opening Address by the Minister of Lands and Forests – Ghana

        09.40-10.00       Coffee Break

TECHNICAL SESSION I

10.00   DEFINITION AND EXPERIENCES IN FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION
        10.00-10.30  Concept and Evolution of Forest Landscape Restoration [ Stephen K. ]
        10.30-10.50  Threats to Forest Restoration / Regeneration in West Africa [Lorng Jean-Paul]
        10.50-11.30  FLR Experiences in Africa [short presentations from West African participants & Virpi L of
                     IUCN ]
        11.30-12.00  Questions and Discussion [Workshop Facilitator]
        12.00-12.40  Group Work [questions per group: i.- what are the advantages for working at the landscape
                    scale ? ii.-who are the principal actors ? iii.-what will work ? what wouldn’t work and why ?]

        12.40-13.00       Presentation of Group Results [Workshop Facilitator]

13.00   BREAK
        13.00-14.0       Lunch Break

TECHNICAL SESSION II

14.00   FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION AND NATIONAL POLICY
        14.00-14.30 Policy and Legislation Affecting FLR [ Souleymane ZEBA ]
        14.30-15.00 Questions, Discussion & organisation in Working Groups [Facilitator]
        15.00-16.00 Work in 3-4 Policy Groups [Questions per group: i.- how and where does FLR fit with the
                    policy ? ii.- how can it be developed into a strategy or strategies and actions ? iii.- in which
                    existing policies or programmes do the strategies fit ?]

        16.00-16.20       Coffee Break

        16.20-17.20       Presentation of Group Results [Workshop Facilitator]
        17.20-17.45       Questions and Discussion : End of Day 1 [Workshop Facilitator]

26th March

TECHNICAL SESSION III

08.30   IMPLEMENTING FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION : SESSION I
        08.30-08.50 FLR and Environmental Conventions I: Potential links to Forest Carbon Sequestration under
                    the Kyoto Protocol and the CBD’s Ecosystem Approach [Stephen K, Alfred Yeboua]

        08.50-09.20      FLR and Environmental Conventions II [ Convention on Desertification: Georges-H. Oueda]
                                                                                                                       23
        09.20-09.40      Selecting Landscapes for Forest Function Restoration [ Martin ]
        09.40-10.00      Creating Partnerships and an Enabling environment for Forest Landscape Restoration [Open
                         discussion to be led by the Facilitator ]
        10.00-10.40      Questions and Discussion [Workshop Facilitator]
        10.40-11.00      Coffee Break

11.00   IMPLEMENTING FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION : SESSION II
        11.00-11.20 Designing Forest Landscape Restoration Initiatives [ Facilitator]
        11.20-11.40 Monitoring Progress of Forest Landscape Restoration Initiatives [Martin ]
        11.40-12.00 Questions and Discussion [ Workshop Facilitator]
        12.00-12.30 Next Steps in FLR - Group Work – Facilitator.
        12.30-13.00 Presentation of Group results

13.00   BREAK

        13.00-14.00       Lunch Break

14.00   IMPLEMENTING FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION : SESSION III
        14.00-14.15 Developing a Sample FLR Initiative: Set-up Groups. 2 landscapes to be targeted [Facilitator]
        14.15-15.30 Group Work
        15.30-16.15 Presentation of Group Results [Workshop Facilitator]

        16.15-16.30       Coffee Break

        16.30-17.15       Questions and Discussion [Workshop Facilitator]
        17.15-17.25       Presentation of Recommendations and Workshop Communiqué [ Participant]
        17.25-17.30       Closing Remarks [ Director of Cabinet / Co-ordinating Director of Dagmé West District]

27th March

08.30   FIELD TRIP.

        Landscapes to be visited:

        - Adumenya [Historic Baobab, Gyekumwe legendary forest, Village bee-hives & meeting site in sacred forest]
        - Shai Hills [Caves and wildlife, as ancestral home of the Dagme Shai, expelled by the British in July 1892]
        - Aburi Botanical Garden [ex-situ conservation and spectacular plant relations]




                                                                                                                   24
Annexe 2: Speeches of the Opening Ceremony
Annexe 2.1 : WELCOME ADDRESS BY THE DISTRICT CHIEF EXECUTIVE OF DAMGBE WEST
             DISTRICT ASSEMBLY, DURING THE FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION WORKSHOP
             - MARINA HOTEL DODOWA: 15 to 17 March 2003

The honourable Minister of Environment and Science,
The Regional Representative of the WWF – West Africa Programme,
Honourable Representatives of Bilateral & Multilateral Establishments Represented in Ghana,
Distinguished Participants,
Dear Participants, Ladies and Gentlemen;


I am very pleased to welcome this august assembly to Ghana and to Dodowa, an ancient town in the Damgbe West
District Assembly, to participate in this all important workshop. To those of you coming to Ghana for the first time,
permit me say AKWABA ! We hope you will be touched by the proverbial Ghanaian hospitality and you will carry
good memories of our dear country back home. We wish to assure you that the District Administration will collaborate
with the organisers of this workshop to ensure your comfort and security during your stay in Ghana.

Ladies and Gentlemen, the hosting of the first West Africa sub-regional workshop on forest landscape restoration in
Ghana is not only historical but very significant for the socio-economic advancement of Ghana. Not long ago, Ghana
and indeed most countries of the West Africa sub-region were rich in natural resources with abundant fauna and flora.
Our ecosystem was indeed a haven for many endangered species world-wide. For example, in the past, a journey from
Accra to Dodowa was very interesting and spectacular as one had to pass through low-lying terrain with diverse
beautiful scrubs and orchards which portrayed the beauty of nature. The city of Accra was also a beautiful green land
with avenue trees and flowers of diverse colours.

Today, the situation is not the same. Our environment is degraded. As you travel around, you are likely to see partial
and totally degraded woodlands with bare soil. The reasons for this changing environment are ; excessive harvesting of
trees for timber and fuel-wood, unsustainable farming practices, uncontrolled sand winning and quarrying for all sorts
of construction materials, and annual bushfires. All of these activities impoverish and degrade the environment ranging
from the pollution of watercourses, to widespread loss of soil and soil fertility, which leads to a decline in agricultural
yields and a continuous cycle of ever increasing poverty. I hope that the subject of this workshop and its output will
address these issues and provide a framework and a road-map towards their solution.

Ladies and Gentlemen, the problems associated with excessive forest landscape degradation bring to the fore, the issue
of water resources. I do not know whether we still need more research, but I am convinced by experience that as the
vegetative cover disappears, the level of water in our rivers and dams drop. The sharp drop in the level of water in the
Akosombo dam in the recent past has often led to an eventual drop in power supply, provoking what we now hear of –
power rationing ! It appears to me that no one institution, Ministry or Department can resolve this problem single-
handedly. We shall all need to put our hands and heads together at the level of the cities, at the level of the nation and at
the sub-regional level of West Africa. This is all the more reason why we identify very strongly with this first sub-
regional workshop on forest landscape restoration.

We hope that amenity planting, city lawns and woods will constitute part or an aspect of the type of restoration to be
addressed by this workshop as these trees and shrubs have a significant environmental impact, including the production
of a convenient micro-climate in the city, checking the possible devastating effects of strong winds and storms, reducing
dust and sound movements etc.

Honourable Minister, Distinguished Participants, Ladies and Gentlemen, I shall not end my address without expressing
gratitude to the organisers for choosing the city of Dodowa, close to Accra for this first sub-regional meeting on forest
landscape restoration, as well as to you all, for honouring and making yourselves available for this workshop. I wish
you all an enjoyable stay in Dodowa and hope that the objectives of this workshop will be achieved.

Thank you.




                                                                                                                          25
Annexe 2.2: MESSAGE FROM SOULEYMANE ZEBA , WWF REPRESENTATIVE FOR WEST AFRICA,
            TO THE OPENING CEREMONY OF THE REGIONAL WORKSHOP ON FOREST
            LANDSCAPE RESTORATION (DODOWA, GHANA, 25-27 March 2003)


Your Excellency, The Minister of Environment and Science,
Your Excellency, the Chief of the District of Dodowa
Representatives of Diplomatic Missions and International Institutions
Honourable Guests from national and West African institutions
Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen,


It is a great pleasure for me to highlight the remarkable co-operation that has been developing over the past years
between West African countries and my organisation, namely the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). We are happy
to note that WWF is more and more considered as an ideal partner for conservation and sustainable development. As a
global network represented in more than 100 countries, in all the continents, WWF is a solution-oriented organisation,
with a great added value for developing countries through its expertise, its international advocacy campaigns on our
environment and the living conditions of local people.

In West Africa, our regional programme 2001-2005 aims mainly the sustainable use of 3 strategic products: Forests,
Freshwater, and marine resources. As you know, our economies are based on agriculture and extractive products.
Coffee, cocoa, cotton, fish, timber, meat, bush-meat, etc., are produced from our lands, rivers, and seas, for our
consumption, but also for international markets. These lands that were the birthplace of great civilisations for centuries
are threatened today.

In West Africa, only 14% of our original forests remain. A large proportion of our land surface is degraded, which in
addition to its conservation implications is resulting in huge damage to the well-being of millions of people.
Deforestation is heavy within certain areas and much of the original forest cover has been removed to open land to
agriculture, logging and hunting. Today, only 130,000 km 2 or 10% of the original cover is considered to contain pristine
forests.

Therefore, it is obvious that conservation strategies that rely solely on protected areas and sustainable management of
remaining forests have proved insufficient, either to secure biodiversity or to stabilise the environment. Reversing this
degradation is one of the largest and most complex challenges of this 21 st century. Unless we meet this challenge,
poverty reduction strategies are condemned to very few short term results.

Your Excellency,

We are proud to be here today, in our beautiful Ghana, to discuss about how we can work with Governments and
communities to help restore important Forest Landscapes.

The questions are:

How do we work to restore these degraded forest landscapes ?
How do we analyse the gap and the threats to identify priority landscapes ?
How do we determine socio-economic and ecological criteria and indicators to track our progress or failure ?
How do we eliminate major economic and policy incentives contributing to forest loss or degradation ?
Where to start with the first cases of forests landscape restoration in our countries ?

This workshop is designed to give enough content to a potential programme of forest landscape restoration in our
region.

I am particularly happy for the quality and the wide experience of participants.
I would like to express our sincere thanks to the Government of Ghana, for the support and the friendship they have
granted us, since the beginning of the preparation of this workshop.


Thank you for your attention.




                                                                                                                       26
Annexe 2.3 : ADDRESS BY THE HONOURABLE MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENT AND SCIENCE DURING
             THE OPENING OF THE FIRST SUB-REGIONAL WORKSHOP TO PROMOTE FOREST
             LANDSCAPE RESTORATION IN WEST AFRICA, 25th to 27th March 2003



Colleague Minister of State,
Your Excellencies, Ambassadors,
Representatives of International Organisations,
Distinguished Workshop Participants,
Ladies and Gentlemen,


It is a great pleasure for me to share my thoughts with you at the opening of this workshop, which is the first sub-
regional workshop to promote forest landscape restoration in West Africa. In the first place, I wish to express my
profound gratitude to the organisers of the workshop for this noble initiative and for selecting Ghana as the venue for
the programme.

Distinguished participants, you will agree with me that all over the world today, forest and wildlife resources are
declining at a rather faster rate than they are being replenished or regenerated. This situation, if not reversed, could pose
a serious threat to the economic, social and biological wealth of many nations especially those of us in the developing
countries, whose livelihood is most dependent on forest and wildlife resources. It is in this light that I deem this
workshop as a timely intervention and a very important initiative for the sub-region.

Distinguished ladies and gentlemen, as you are aware, previous efforts within the sub-region to reverse the trend of
forest degradation have so far had very little effect. Forest and wildlife resources in the sub-region continue to be
degraded as a result of overexploitation of timber resources either through legal or illegal logging by concessionaires,
illegal chainsaw operations, mining and mineral exploration, excessive slash and burn agriculture, perennial bush-fires,
indiscriminate poaching of wildlife, overgrazing, insufficient involvement of communities in the management of the
resources, coupled with negligible economic returns to the land and resources owners.

Ladies and gentlemen, the forestry sector plays an important role in the national economy and is firmly integrated in our
rural economies. The sector contributes about 6 % of GDP, earns 11 % of the country’s foreign exchange and provides
about 30 % of export earnings. The total wood export earnings per annum is about USD 170 Million. The sector makes
substantial contribution to Government revenues through fees and taxes and provides direct employment to about
75,000 people and indirect employment to over 2 million people.

In spite of the importance of the forestry sector, it has not yet received the necessary support it deserves, leading to
rapid depletion of the forest resources. Statistics show that at the turn of the 20 th century, Ghana had about 8.6 million
hectares of forest-land. However, due to excessive deforestation, Ghana has only about 1.6 million hectares of forest
left. This indicates a deforestation rate of 65,000 hectares per annum. It is indeed estimated that the annual loss of
timber, cash and food crops to wildfire alone is currently at 3 % of GDP. Wildfire has therefore severely reduced not
only the productive capacity of our forests but it has also had major impacts on other functions of the forest, including
water supply, soil fertility and wildlife.

Fellow participants, in order to sustain the socio-economic functions of the forest and wildlife resources, and to
maintain environmental quality, the Government of Ghana has put in place pragmatic measures to reverse the trend of
deforestation and land degradation. If you will permit me, I will mention a few of these measures being pursued.

a)- The President’s Initiative on Reforestation

Ladies and gentlemen, in September 2001, the President of the Republic of Ghana, H.E., J.A. Kufuor, launched the
National Forest Plantation Development Programme, in the Brong-Ahafo region. The aim of this Presidential initiative
is to restore at least 20,000 hectares of degraded forest-land all over the country per annum; address the wood deficit
situation in the timber industry; create jobs and alleviate poverty, especially in the forest fringe communities.

So far, 17,000 hectares of various timber species have been established all over the country under the Taungya System.
The planting target has recently been expanded to 80,000 hectares per annum with the active involvement of both the
private and public sectors. Under the programme, public sector institutions such as the Forestry Commission shall
undertake commercial plantation development while corporate institutions and Timber Utilisation Contract (TUC)
holders would also be provided with opportunities for investing in large-scale commercial forest plantations.



                                                                                                                          27
Similarly, schools, the Department of Park and Garden, Metropolitan and District Assemblies and Unit Committees
would be mobilised to implement the urban forestry aspect of the programme. This involves tree planting in parks, open
spaces, along roads, recreational centres and specially designated areas.

The plantation programme is currently being funded by the Government of Ghana through the Forest Plantation
Development Fund. However, additional support is expected from the African Development Bank, the World Bank,
Green Funds and the private sector. I would also particularly encourage other development partners to support this
initiative, which is aimed at job creation, poverty reduction and environmental restitution.

Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen, other programmes being pursued include the following:

b)- Restoration of vegetation in heavily mined areas by mining companies;
c)- Biodiversity conservation, which involves the demarcation and protection of globally significant biodiversity areas
    all over the country;
d)- Savannah Resources Management and wood-fuel production;
e)- Wildlife Protected Area Management and watershed management;
f)- Enhances agricultural development programme to ensure a more intensive land-use system

Ladies and Gentlemen, apart from these programmes enumerated above, the Ministry of Environment and Science has
put in place effective policies and regulations to guide quality environmental management in Ghana. In addition, the
Government has signed various international environmental management conventions and agreements to guide sound
environmental management in Ghana. Prominent among these are the Kyoto Protocol of the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change, the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants and the Catagena Protocal
on Biosafety.

Distinguished workshop participants, in order not to bore you with a long address, I wish to state again that this
workshop on forest landscape restoration is a timely intervention and a laudable initiative worthy of commendation. The
subject falls directly within policy directions of the current Government (Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy) and I hope
with the presence of all the technocrats gathered here today, this forum would come out with a very effective and
practicable recommendations for restoring degraded lands in the sub-region. It takes a collective effort to overcome the
threats of deforestation and environmental degradation on the livelihood of mankind, and I believe strongly that the
time to act is now.

Ladies and Gentlemen, on this note, I now have the utmost privilege to declare the First Sub-regional workshop to
promote Forest Landscape Restoration in West Africa, duly opened.

Finally, I wish you a fruitful deliberation during the period of the workshop and may you have a pleasant stay in
Dodowa, Ghana.


Thank you all for your attention and may God bless you.




                                                                                                                      28
Annexe 3: Power-point Presentation on the Concept of FLR
          by Stephen Kelleher:


 Forest Landscape Restoration, Responding to a need:                  This loss and degradation impacts on people and biodiversity

 Forest resources directly contribute to 90 % of the 1.2 billion      ►Biodiversity hotspots : The 25 hotspots which once covered
 people living in extreme poverty (W.Bank)                            12% of the lands surface are now reduced to 1.4% of land
                                                                      (C.Biol)
 The majority of terrestrial biodiversity can be found in forests     ►Desertification : Affects in total, the lives of 1/6th of the
                                                                      world’s population
 Forests provide a range of functions to people & biodiversity (eg;
                                                                      ►Arable land: It is estimated that 0.3 to 0.5 % (5-7 M ha. Of
 soil stabilisation, genetic pool, raw materials etc)
                                                                      total world arable land is lost annually due to land degradation
                                                                      (IIED)
  YET ……..
                                                                      Forest Landscape Restoration:
 ►An area the size of Nepal is lost each year (15 Million ha.)
                                                                      Definition:
 ►A much bigger area is being degraded                                “A planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity &
                                                                      enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded
                                                                      landscapes”.
                                                    WWF-F4L                                                               WWF-F4L




                                                                      What is different ? AIM
 What makes FLR Different ?
                                                                      √ To restore forest goods, services and processes for people and
 √ Scale: Landscape                                                   biodiversity
 √ Focus on restoring goods, services & processes of forests          √ Habitat, migratory routes & nesting grounds
 rather than planting trees
                                                                      √ Non Timber Forest Products
 √ Encompasses forest quality and forest quantity                     √ Soil stabilisation and watershed quality
 √ Strategic Alliances : involving people, discussions &
 negociation between private, public & civil society.                 What is different ? DUAL ROLE

 √ Strives to address root causes of forest loss / degradation        Quantity as well as quality
 √ Involves a package of solutions rather than a single approach
 √ Emphasises a long term perspective                                 Eg: Portugal: Second largest Eucalyptus plantations in the world
                                                                      – (over 300,000 ha.):
 FLR requires working at many levels                                  √ Working with communities to develop guidelines for the
                                                                      implementation of afforestation subsidies.
                                                     WWF- F4L                                                            WWF-F4L




  What is different ? Strategic Alliances:                            What is different ? Addressing root causes:
 Working with local communities, government, research                 Eg: Bulgaria forest strategy:
 institutes and business                                              √ The Bulgarian gov. adopted strategy in 2001 to:
                                                                      - Halt further conversion of flood-plain habitat
 √ √Involves people as active partners                                - Replace at leat 1/3 of plantation with restored forest
 √ Addresses negotiating trade offs                                   √ Based on economic analysis, to look at costs / benefits and
 √ Requires locally appropriate solutions                             alternatives
 √ Recognises need for a mix of skills and resources

 Eg: New Caledonia:
                                                                      What is different ? Package of solutions

 √ Working as key technical partner together with 8 local partners    Eg: Malaysia
 √ Restoring dry forests (10,000 ha. Left very fragmented)
                                                                      √ Working with decision makers at national level through legal
 √ Opportunities for links to other dry forests (Madagascar,          & policy measures to reduce natural forest conversion
 Vietnam, Mexico, Costa Rica, West Africa Sahel---)                   √ Establishing a local forest restoration committee by District
                                                                      office (local gov.)
                                                    WWF-F4L
                                                                                                                         WWF-F4L




                                                                                                                                         29
  Malaysia continue:                                                                          Linkages
  √ Working to engage both private sector (oil palm companies &
  civil society to identify important areas for restoration.
                                                                            Partners            Processes              Issues
  Working with:
  √ Communities to reduce human elephant conflicts
  √ Oil palm companies to improve forest management standards
  and best practice                                                      IUCN                   CBD              -Poverty alleviation
  √ Industry representatives (MPOA, Malaysian Palm Oil                   CIFOR                  CCD              - PAs & SFM
                                                                         ICRAF                  ITTO             - Multi-disciplinary
  Association) to develop common views
                                                                         CARE                   UNFCCC           (social, agric.)
  √ Buyers of palm oil to encourage selective buying                                                             - Multi-layered
                                                                         World Bank             UNFF
                                                                                                EU-CAP           (policy practice)
                                                                         ITTO
  China: Complementing Protected Areas & well managed forests                                   SAPARD           - Desertification
                                                                         Governments:
                                                                                                UK               - Climate Change
                                                                         (UK, Costa             initiative       - Fires
  √ Panda habitat corridors (estimated decrease in habitat by 37%        Rica, Uganda)          on FLR
  in the next 50 yrs)                                                    UNEP-WCMC              NEPAD
  √ Addressing root causes of degradation (eg: Grain for green)
  √ working with local communities                                  WWF’s Restoration target = Action-oriented learning
                                                       WWF-F4L      network.                                       WWF-F4L




  .Looking    Forward: Opportunities and Priorities                 Looking Forward: Opportunities and Priorities
                                                                    3. Research:
  1. Implementation:
                                                                    - Fragmentation and viable areas (effect on species)
  - Scaling-up current projects                                     - Collection, compilation of actual restoration methods
  - Network of projects                                             - Survey on who is doing what in restoration
  - Building capacity                                               - FLR and carbon knowledge
  - Sharing lessons learnt                                          - Incentives that drive forest loss and degradation
  - Testing the monitoring network                                  - Valuing goods and services – Exploring mechanisms for
  - Building partnerships                                              valuing forest goods and services
                                                                    - Lessons learnt
                                                                    - Sustainable financing of restoration
  2. Training:                                                      4. Knowledge / Information and Communication

  - Mapping of priorities > based on ecological as well as socio-   - Developing information tools
    economic criteria                                               - Disseminating, sharing, exchanging critical information
  - Monitoring                                                      - Lesson learning
  - Engaging stakeholders and negotiating agreement
  - Technical restoration issues                                    5. Advocacy
                                                                    - International (eg: CBD, UNFCCC)
                                                      WWF-F4L       - Regional (eg: EU, NEPAD, ECOWAS, AfDB)
                                                                    -National (eg:land tenure issues, national afforestation programs)


Annexe 4: Power-Point Presentations on FLR Case Studies.

Annexe 4.1: East Africa Cases by Virpi Lahtella

  Forest Landscape Restoration: 3 Lessons – E . Africa              2. Reserved Wood-browse Areas in Tanzania
  1. Acacia Woodland Recovery in Northern Kenya                     The Challenge:
  The Challenge:
                                                                    ► In 1985, much of the landscape transformed into semi-desert
  ► Droughts; relief camps > vast land degradation
                                                                    The Activities:
  The Activities:
                                                                    ► Over 250,000 ha of degraded land restored since 1985.
  ►Protection of Acacia seedlings & trees: > 30,000 ha of land      How ?    - HASHI Programme in 1986
  restored to quality Acacia tortilis woodland.                              - Restoration of ngitili
   How ?: - Goats
             - Customary reserves grazing area rules                The Lessons:
             - Strong individual
             - Community commitment                                 ► Work with locals
                                                                    ► Build on existing institutions
  The Lessons:                                                      ► Decentralisation > land right to rural communities

  ►Little external involvement – internally driven.
                                                      WWF-IUCN                                                        WWF-IUCN


                                                                                                                                        30
  3. Restoring Multiple Functions : FACE-UWA in Uganda
                                                                For FLR to make an Impact, it is necessary to:
  The Challenge:
                                                                ► Build on existing practice
  ► Forests largely destroyed due to civil wars and poor        ► Engage the full range of stake-holders
  agricultural practices.                                       ► Generate, learn and share lessons
                                                                ► Use as far as possible, existing co-ordination mechanisms
  The Activities:

  ► Since 1994, aim to establish up to 25,000 ha and approx.    Main lessons learned so far:
  10,000 ha to date. Primary focus is Carbon
  ► Conflicting community needs and project activities          ► There is no need to wait for research or funds > bottom-up
  ► IUCN & UWA pilot tested collaborative management            activities can be started now
  approaches                                                    ► There is need for a strong individual to catalyse the process
                                                                ► There is need for a strong commitment at the ground level
  The Lessons:                                                  ► There is need for a strong enabling institutional environment
                                                                ie (traditional rules, government support etc
  ► Multiplicity of functions
  ► Increased involvement of people                                                                              WWF-IUCN
                                                   WWF-IUCN



Annexe 4.2 : FLR Ghana Case
             by Dr. Victor Agyeman

Forest Landscape Restoration in Ghana

Ratio of Deforestation to Reforestation (Plantation
         Tropical Africa -                   32:
         Tropical America -                    6:1
         Tropical Asia              -          2
         Ghana (High Forest)-                20:1(pre 2002)
         Ghana             “        -          1:1 (Since 2002)
Source: World Resources Institute (94-95)
HOW DEGRADED ARE THE FOREST RESERVES IN THE HIGH FOREST ZONE OF THE COUNTRY?
UNDERLYING CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION IN GHANA:
     POLICY FAILURES
     LAW ENFORCEMENT AND GOVERNANCE
     WILDFIRE
     HIGH POPULATION GROWTH
     AGRICULTURE
     LOGGING
     SURFACE MINING
LOG EXPORT AND CHAIN SAW BAN
     Log export ban in 1995 to secure resource base
     Problem is that such a policy accord “environmental considerations” priority over “financial considerations”
     Chain saw operation ban in 1999 to prevent illegal exploitation and increase revenue
     Impacts among others are:
     Loss of about US$1.7 million to government through non-payment of stumpage fees by illegal chain sawers
     Depressed domestic prices creating a disincentive to processors supplying the domestic market

POOR REGULATION OF TIMBER INDUSTRY CAPACITY
    Systematic increase in milling capacity – currently 5 times the AAC
    High level of exploitation
    Illegal harvest exceeds AAC by 2.5 times
    Decreased efficiency of industry due to obsolete machinery and lack of skilled labour




                                                                                                                              31
FOREST RESOURCE ALLOCATION
    Lack of transparency
    Inherent weaknesses in legislation TRMA,1997 (Act. 547) and TRMR (LI 1649)
    Inequitable distribution of the timber resource due to the absence of limitation on TUC holdings by companies
    Low pricing of timber, which is not allowing the country to optimize the use of available timber resources
      Problem of stumpage sharing between the Government and the landowners
TIMBER PRICING AND BENEFIT SHARING
    Forest resource pricing is currently not based on market forces.
    Forest fees, including stumpage fees have not been reviewed since they were set in 1998
    Stumpage value represents the maximum amount, in a competitive market, that a timber utilisation contract
      (TUC) holder will be willing to pay for harvesting a tree or stand.

POOR RESOURCE RENT COLLECTION AND INEQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF RENT
    Poor capture of economic rent
    Lack of effective action plans to undertake a series of fiscal and regulatory measures to tackle the
      unsatisfactory harvesting and wood rent collection

INCIDENCE AND IMPACTS OF FOREST FIRES
POOR AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

IMPROVING TENURE, RESOURCE USE RIGHTS AND SECURING PARTICIPATION
    Improving lands management
    Promotion of customary tenure systems and institutions
    Easy Access to land and Security of Tenure
    Streamlining of land administration

INTEGRATED FOREST AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
    Forest and Wildlife utilisation and protection
    Enhancing community-based (collaborative) resource management
    Enhancing resource-based enterprises development
    Equitable distribution of costs and benefits (Benefit Flows enhanced)
    Maximisation of revenue through enhanced efficiency and increased production of value-added products
    Capacity Building
    Improved law enforcement and governance

SAVANNAH RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
    Development of essential infrastructure, institutions and systems for water, forest and soil management
    Sustainable on-reserve management
    Integrated watershed management off-reserve
    Development of sustainable woodlot production systems
    Efficient establishment, utilisation and marketing of woodfuel
    National Action Plan Against Desertification

WILDLIFE, BIODIVERSITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
    Demarcation and development of management plans for Globally Significant Biodiversity Areas (GBSAs)
    Review of all Wildlife Protected Areas Management Plans and costing of the plans
    Active involvement of local communities in wildlife resource management in PAs and off reserves
    Enforcement of Wildlife laws and Regulations
    Capacity building of EPA, establishment of NAFGIM,updateof Land cover/Landuse map of Ghana, review of
      National Action Plan to combat drought and desertification

PLANTATION DEVELOPMENT
    Increase forest cover by 20,000 ha per annum
      Creation of Jobs
      Poverty alleviation
      Enhance livelihood support activities
    Facilitation of “Modified Taungya”, Farm Forestry, small-holder and commercial plantation development

REVIEW OF MODIFIED TAUNGYA PROGRAMME

Plantation programme suspended in the late 1970’s due to:

                                                                                                               32
       Financial problems
       Pest Infestation, especially of indigenous species
       Abuse of Taungya System
       Inequitable Benefit Sharing, especially to participating Farmers

ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF THE MODIFIED TAUNGYA
    Farmers will essentially be owners of the products
    FC, landowners and forest fringe communities will be share-holders
    Farmers to remain on the land till maturity
    Farmers will carry out most of the functions including prunning, maintenance and tending
    FC will be responsible for training the farmers, inventory/stock surveys and Auctioning or marketing of
      products.
    Land Lease agreement will be signed (Taungya group, FC Chief Executive and Landowner)

OBJECTIVES
    Review current benefit sharing framework
    Develop an equitable framework to:

    i.)- Improve the benefit flows, especially to poor and marginalised local community people
    ii.)-Ensure that anybody who wants to participate in plantations is not marginalised either in participation or
    negotiation process

BENEFIT SHARING FRAMEWORK
 OLD SHARING FRAMEWORK
    FC (Govt.)        - 60%
    ASL               - 4%
    Dist. Assem.      - 20%
    Trad. Auth.       - 7%
    Stool             - 9%
    Community         - 0%
    Farmers           - 0%




                                                                                                                      33
Annexe 5: Potential Links to Forest Carbon Sequestration under the Kyoto Protocol,
          by Stephen Kelleher
“Climate change is happening. Greenhouse gas levels are rising and are now at their highest atmospheric concentrations
for more than 400,000 years. This increase is attributed to human activities. Consumption of fossil energy is driving this
trend, accounting for about 80% of human-caused CO2 emissions. Land disturbance – burning, loss, and degradation of
forests, rangeland and soils – accounts approximately for the remaining 20%. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) estimates that at least one-third of the world’s remaining forests may be adversely affected by changing
climate, especially in the boreal zone where the warming will be greatest. The Hadley Centre for Climate Change at the
UK Meteorological Office has predicted that, by 2050, forests globally will become a significant net source of CO 2
emissions. This will lead to even greater emissions of carbon dioxide, contributing to a climate change cycle already
well-underway. Climate change impacts on biodiversity are already evidenced by shifting migration ranges of insects
and animals, modified flowering and fruiting cycles, and species extinctions. Additional impacts include drought or
flood-induced die back, conversion to grassland, steppe, or desert, increased vulnerability to pests, fire and invasive
species. The prospect of broad-scale forest loss due to changing climate places a premium on slowing the rate of climate
change, while working in tandem to protect forests by reducing fragmentation and increasing resilience to climatic
stress.

Decisions at Kyoto Protocol negotiations in 2001 allow the use of certain carbon sequestration activities, and carbon
‘credits’ gained through these activities, to meet industrialized countries' Kyoto emissions reductions commitments both
at home and overseas. Forest carbon sequestration (sinks) is (are) characterized as an increase in carbon stocks on the
land base through such activities as afforestation, reforestation, agro-forestry, forest restoration, etc. Parties further
agreed to the principle that any sequestration project should contribute to the "conservation of biodiversity and
sustainable use of natural resources". While WWF has opposed the use of sinks due to its conviction that permanent
fossil fuel emissions reductions must be the prime focus of efforts to address climate change, coupled with concerns
about potential negative outcomes of badly designed or implemented sinks projects, these Kyoto decisions have moved
the process forward in ways that influence WWF’s work and engagement on forests and climate in general, and forest
carbon sequestration/sinks in particular. WWF accepts the outcomes of the Bonn and Marrakech agreements on forest
carbon sequestration because it is critical to get the overarching Kyoto framework for emissions reductions into force.

WWF believes that as such, carbon sinks have a potential role to play in the fight against global warming provided
measures to enhance sinks are taken with appropriate care. Restoring forest ecosystems and changing farming practices
could also help protect biodiversity and promote a range of other environmental and social values, including clean water
and land tenure reform. At the same time, measures to enhance carbon sinks can pose potential risks to biodiversity and
local livelihoods if implemented incorrectly, and could compromise efforts to reduce GHG emissions. It is imperative
that adequate environmental and social safeguards be put in place to address these risks. Fossil fuel combustion remains
the major cause of global warming and any global warming program must focus primarily on clean energy solutions to
the problem of rising industrial and transportation-sector emissions.

WWF will work with governments, industry, NGOs and local communities to play an increased and proactive role by
initiating a series of pilot forest sinks projects to explore how risks can be mitigated and benefits enhanced. These
projects, through activities such as habitat restoration and reduction of forest fragmentation, can enhance our knowledge
and help increase the resilience of forests to climate change. WWF will also identify and publicize projects that pose a
threat to biodiversity, local communities or climate change, and will explore constructive ways to work with partners to
identify and mitigate potentially negative projects. To develop this approach, WWF is working with governments,
particularly those in lesser-developed countries most susceptible to climate change impacts, to explore sequestration
options that pose the least risk, and could potentially benefit biodiversity and sustainable development efforts. WWF's
current approach to sinks, particularly in lesser-developed countries, focuses on forest landscape restoration that
advances biodiversity and livelihood objectives, not solely carbon gains”.




                                                                                                                       34
ANNEXE 6: List of Workshop Participants
 FIRST SUB-REGIONAL WORKSHOP TO PROMOTE FOREST LANDSCAPE RESTORATION IN WEST
                                   AFRICA

                                        25th –27th March 2003

                                  WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS

      CÖTE D’IVOIRE                INSTITUTION                           ADDRESS
1. AHIMIN Olivier                    SODEFOR                      01 B.P 3770 Abidjan 01
(S/Director Reforestation)                                          Tel.225 22 44 46 16
                                                                Olivierahimin@hotmail.com
2. AUGOU T. Antoine                    MINEF                         Tel. 225 07057969
(S/Director Reforestation)                                        Augoutch@hotmail.com
3. Martin NGANJE                        WWF                       08 P.B. 1776 Abidjan 08
(WARPO Forest Officer)                                              Tel. 225 22 44 87 86
                                                                 Mnganje@wwfwafrica.org
4. Jean-Paul LORNG                    Consultant                  01 B.P. 3770 Abidjan 01
                                                                    Tél. 225 05 64 62 54
                                                                 Jpaul_lorng@hotmail.com
5. Kalé Gbegbe                          WWF                       08 P.B. 1776 Abidjan 08
(Project Officer)                                                   Tel. 225 22 44 87 86
                                                                   gkale@wwfwafrica.org
6. Souleymane ZEBA                      WWF                       08 P.B. 1776 Abidjan 08
(WARPO Representative)                                              Tel. 225 22 44 87 86
                                                                  szeba@wwfwafrica.org
7. Djatta Ouattara                 WWF- WARPO                     08 P.B. 1776 Abidjan 08
(Workshop Accountant)                                               Tel. 225 22 44 87 86
                                                                  Odjatta@wwfwafrica.org
           GHANA
8. Dominic BLAY                   FORIG – Kumasi                    Tel. 233 05160123
(Senior Researcher)                                                 Fax. 233 05160121
                                                                     dblay@forig.org
9. M.H. Duku                 Ministry of Environment and
                                       Science
10. Christopher Manu             Friends of the Earth              Tel: 233 21 512 311
(Conservation Director)
 Friends of the Earth                                                 foe@ghana.com
11. Ishmael Dodoo               Ghana Wildlife Society           P.B 13252 Accra, Ghana
(Forest officer - GWS)                                             Tel. 233 21 665 197
                                                                   wildlife@ncs.com.gh
12. Joseph OSIAKWAN          Ministry of Lands and Forests          P.B. M 212, Accra
(Planning Officer)                                                  Tel. 233 21 666711
                                                                  osiakwan@mlf-gh.com
13. J.A ARMAH                  President, Ghana Timber           C/O Mr. Joseph Osiakwan
(Syndicate President)           Association - Takoradi              P.B. M 212, Accra
                                                                    Tel. 233 21 666711
14. Hubert Idwaltz                   KfW (GTZ)                          PO Box. 39
                                    (GTZ Forum)                      233 21 031/28179
15. Mike Pentsil                       FPDC                      mikepentsil@yahoo.com

16. Mme Esther Nyamkwe       Deputy Minister, Ministry of             PO Box M 232
                              Environment and Science             Accra 233 21 666 049
17. Victor Agyeman           Ministry of Lands and Forests          P.B. M 212, Accra
                                                                   Tel. 233 21 666711
18. David Kpelle              Conservation International          P.B. KA 30426, Accra
(CI-Ghana Forest Officer)                                          Tel. 233 21 773893

19. Peter Addai                       Consultant                    Box: CT 521 Accra
                                    (Interpretation)
20. Theophile K. Seddoh               Consultant                    Box: CT 521 Accra
                                                                                            35
                                        (Interpretation)
21. Emmanuel TACHIE-            Environmental Protection Agency                     P.B. M 326
OBENG                                        (EPA)                              Tel. 233 21 662465
(Programme Officer)                                                         etachieobeng@yahoo.com
         GUINEA
22. Mamadou S. DIALLO                   Guinée Ecologie             214 Rue DI 501, Dixinn. B.P 3266, Conakry
(CEO)                                                                           Tel. 224 11 216888
                                                                            dmsaliou@afribone.net.gn
23. M. Saliou DIALLO             Ministère de l’Environnement                    B.P. 295 Conakry
(Technical Adviser)                                                             Tel. 224 11269962
                                                                                 Fax. 224 414913
                                                                               saliouprof@yahoo.fr
      BURKINA FASO
24. Georges H. Oueda                     NATURAMA                         01 BP 6133 Ouagadougou 01,
(NRM Officer)                                                                   Tel. 226 364959
                                                                             Oueda1@hotmail.com
25. Virpi Lahtela                            IUCN                             lahtela@hq.iucn.org
(Programme Assistant)
            TOGO
26. Moumouni A. KERIM            Direction de la Faune & Chasse                B.P 335 Lomé, Togo
(Director)                                                                      Tel. 228 221 4029
                                                                               direfaune@yahoo.fr
27. Folly Yao DJIWONU            Direction de la Protection et du             B.P. 7728 Lomé, Togo
(Director)                       Contrôle de l’Exploitation de la               Tel. 228 221 4604
                                              Flore                              yfolly@yahoo.fr
          NIGERIA
28. Alade ADELEKE               Nigeria Conservation Foundation     P.B. 74638 Victoria Island – Lagos, Nigeria
(Conservation Director)                                                         Tel. 234 –1-2642498
                                                                             aaledekerdi@hotmail.com
29. Mr. S.A. Okonofua            Federal Department of Forestry           P.B 468 GARKI, Abuja, Nigeria
(Deputy Director)                                                               Tel. 234 09 3144551
                                                                                Fax. 234 9 3144552
      SIERRA LEONE
30. Abdoulai Barrie              Conservation Society of Sierra                 P.B 1292 Freetown,
                                            Leone                               Tel. 232 22 229716
                                                                               ahbarrie@yahoo.com
31. Aiah P. Koroma               Conservation Society of Sierra
                                            Leone                           CSSL 2 Puke St. Freetown
                                                                                232 22 22 97 16
          LIBERIA
32. James COLEMAN                Society for the Conservation of               P.B. 2628 Monrovia
            (CEO)                       Nature in Liberia                      Tel. 231 06 552 040
                                                                             scnlib2001@yahoo.com
33. Alfred KOTIO                Forestry Development Authority       P.B. 10-3010, 1000 Monrovia 10, Liberia
 (S-Director Reforestation)                                                      Tel. 231 510864
          SENEGAL
34. Maguette KAIRE                       ISRA / CNRF                             B.P 2312 Dakar
(Senior Ecology Researcher)                                                     Tel. 221 8323219
                                                                               Fax. 221 8329617
                                                                              Maguette.Kaire@ird.sn
      INTERNATIONAL
35. Stephen Kelleher                         WWF                          Stephen.Kelleher@wwfus.org
(S/Director GFP WWF-US)
                                          Chairman,                       P.O.Box M 32 Accra – Ghana
36. Prof. Alfred Oteng-Yeboua           SBSTTA-CBD.                          Tel. 233 21 777651 - 4




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