SCARA Robots Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm more than 3 axes by QCT277

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									                 Robotics




Classification
Envelopes
Accuracy
Repeatability
                                       History


c3000 BC               Egyptian water clocks and mechanical dolls
c500 BC                Herodotus describes the wooden foot of
                          Hegesistratus
c360 BC                Archytas of Tarentum - wooden bird that could fly
c218 BC                Roman general Marcus Sergius has an iron
                          replacement made for his severed hand
c200 BC                Chinese mechanical orchestra
c150 BC                Hero of Alexandria - De Automatis described a
                          mechanical theatre with marching and dancing
                          figures
c1250                  Albertus Magnus invents household automaton to
                          open doors
c1400                  Swiss and German android clocks developed
1509                   Götz von Berlichingen’s iron hand is made with
                          gearing for manipulating mechanical fingers and
                          thumb
1643                   Blaise Pascal develops mechanical adding machine,
                          the Pascaline
1720                   Bouchon and Falcon in Lyons, France, design looms
                          for weaving patterns into silk
1738                   Jacques de Vauconson builds mechanical duck that
                          quacked, bathed, drank water, and ate, digested,
                          and voided grain
1770                   Pierre and Henri-Louis Jacquet Droz built 3 android
                          automatons: a young boy who wrote letters, and
                          older boy who drew pictures, and a girl who
                          played piano
1774                   John Winkinson invents boring machine to help
                          build steam engine
1787                   James Watt invents flyball governor to control speed
                          of steam engine

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics      2                           Robotics
1795                   Evan's Flour Mill in Philadelphia introduced
                          continuous process
1800                   Metal lathe invented by Henry Maudslay
1801                   Joseph Marie Jacquard invents punch card controlled
                          automatic loom in France
1812                   Charles Babbage begins difference engine to
                          compute mathematical tables automatically
1818                   Eli Whitney invents milling machine
1818                   Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley wrote Frankenstein or
                          the Modern Prometheus
1830                   Charles Babbage conceives the analytical engine,
                          develops many basic principles of computing,
                          Ada Augusta Lovelace writes the software
1873                   C. M. Spencer invents fully automatic lathe or
                          automatic screw machine
1887                   Herman Hollerith begins to mechanize the U.S.
                          census using punched card concept
1892                   Steward Babbitt invents motorized rotary crane with
                          gripper for removing ingots from a furnace
1909                   Henry Ford mass produced automobiles with a 1.5
                          minute cycle time
1921                   Karel Capek wrote play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal
                          Robots), coining the word robot from the Czech
                          word robotit which means worker, drudge, or
                          forced labor
1930                   Vannevar Bush builds analog computer (differential
                          analyzer) to solve integral equations mechanically
1931                   IBM 601 performs decimal multiplication using
                          plugboard programming and electromechanical
                          memory, arithmetic, and control
1937                   Howard Aiken of Harvard with IBM support
                          develops Mark I electromechanical computer as
                          an extension of punched-card technology -
                          completed in 1944

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics      3                           Robotics
1938                   John Atanasoff develops a prototype electronic
                          computer - completed in 1942
1938                   William Pollard and Harold Roseland invent a spray
                          painting machine with recorded paths for
                          DeVilbiss
1942                   Punched paper tapes used to control differential
                          analyzer
1944                   Goertz invented master-slave manipulator
1945                   J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly invent ENIAC
                          (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator)
                          full scale electronic computer at University of
                          Pennsylvania
1945                   John von Neumann develops concept of stored
                          program in the EDVAC computer - completed in
                          1949
1946                   Forrester and Everett develop Whirlwind at MIT
                          general purpose digital computer (16 bits, 42K
                          ips, 5 bit op code, 11 bit address, 5K tubes, 256
                          word memory)
1946                   George Devol invented a playback device for
                          machine control, used it on an electromechanical
                          feedback manipulator
1948                   Bardeen, Bratton, and Shockley invent transistor at
                          Bell Laboratories
1948                   Norbert Wiener publishes Cybernetics describing
                          concepts of communications and control in
                          electronic, mechanical, and biological systems
1949                   EDSAC stored program computer developed at
                          Cambridge University
1950                   Lincoln Lab founded at MIT
1951                   Parsons Corporation and MIT developed APT
                          (Automatically Programmed Tools) language
                          using Whirlwind computer to control a Cincinatti
                          Hydrotel milling machine using flexowrite tape -

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics      4                           Robotics
                         NC component completed 1954, APT completed
                         by Douglas Ross and others in 1956
1951                   Eckert and Mauchly develop mass produced
                         commercial computer UNIVAC (Universal
                         Numerical Integrator and Calculator)
1951                   Third generation programming language compilers
                         written
1951                   Raymond Goertz invents teleoperator-equipped
                         articulated arm for the Atomic Energy
                         Commission
1952                   IBM 701 computer marketed - delivered in 1953
1953                   SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air
                         defense system development project started
1955                   Pennsylvania Railroad leased IBM 705 to handle the
                         paperwork
1956                   FORTRAN developed
1956                   George Devol invents programmable robot, calls it
                         univeral automation, founds Unimation
1956                   Cincinnati Milacron introduce numerical control
                         machine tool
1957                   Tidewater Oil's "Refinery of the Future" used IBM
                         650 to monitor complex refinery operations
1957                   Barnes drilling machine had 4 spindles for automatic
                         tool changing
1958                   AN/FSQ-7 Sage (Semi-Automatic Ground
                         Environment) computer delivered for NORAD
                         combat centers (25K tubes, 30,000 sq. ft., 32 bits,
                         175 tons, 1500 KW power)
1958                   Wallace E. Brainard developed automatic tool
                         changer for Kearney and Trecker Milwaukee
                         Matic maching center
1959                   LISP and Cobol developed
1959                   Ferranti developed a coordinate measuring machine
                         using linear diffraction gratings

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics      5                            Robotics
1959                   Planet introduces a commerical pick-and-place robot
                          controlled by limit switches and cams
1960                   Unimate robot installed at Ford Motor to tend die-
                          casting machine
1960                   AMF introduces VERSATRAN commercial robot
1961                   Unimation introduces servo-controlled industrial
                          robot
1961                   Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce form INTEL
1961                   Collins prosthetic hand developed
1961                   Ernst arm, a teleoperator slave arm equipped with
                          touch sensors, is connected to a computer at
                          MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory
1961                   General Motors installs Unimate robot on a
                          production line
1962                   Ivan Sutherland developed Sketchpad (MIT) - a
                          CRO driven by a Lincoln TX2 - beginning of
                          computer graphics
1963                   Coon include APT in computer graphics functions
1963                   American Airlines developes SABRE reservation
                          system for IBM 7090 computer
1963                   American Machine and Foundry Versatile Transfer
                          developed (Prab)
1963                   Roehampton arm development begun
1963                   Edinburg arm developed
1964                   GM announced DAC-1 (Design Augmented by
                          Computer) console installed on IBM 7094
                          computer (Dr. Harranty)
1965                   Expert system DENDRAL developed by Edward
                          Fiegenbaum at Stanford
1965                   Bell Lab announced GRAPHIC 1 remote display
                          system
1966                   IBM Component Division implemented a system to
                          aid A.C. module design for sytem 360
1967                   Freeman worked out a hidden-line algorithm

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics     6                           Robotics
1968                   Stanford Reserach Institute develops Shakey, a
                          mobile robot with vision
1968                   Kawasaki Heavy Industries negotiates license from
                          Unimation
1969                   General Electric develops experimental walking
                          truck for U.S. Army
1969                   Unix
1969                   Williamson developed a flexible manufacturing
                          system in the Molins System 24
1970                   Stanford Arm with camera and computer stacks
                          colored blocks
1970                   First National Symposium on Industrial Robots
1970                   Unimate robot used for die casting at GM
1970                   Japanese National Railways placed seven lathes
                          under simultaneous control, introducing DNC
                          (direct numerical control)
1970                   Ted Codd proposed relational database management
1970                   200 robots in use worldwide
1971                   Japan Industrial Robot Association formed
1972                   RCA announced GOLD system for I.C. layout
1972                   Geometrical modelling systems PADL were
                          developed at the University of Rochester
1973                   Richard Hohn of Cincinnati Milacron introduces T3
                          (The Tomorrow Tool) minicomputer-controlled
                          industrial robot that tracks objects on a moving
                          conveyor
1973                   Chasen justified the CAD system (Lockheed)
1974                   Scheinman forms Vicarm to market version of
                          Stanford Arm with minicomputer control for
                          industrial applications
1974                   ASEA introduces electric drive industrial robot
1974                   3500 robots in use worldwide
1975                   Robot Institute of America formed
1976                   Viking II lands on Mars

Artificial Intelligence and Robotics     7                           Robotics
1977                   ASEA Brown Boveri Robotics Inc. introduces two
                         sizes of micocomputer controlled electric drive
                         industrial robots
1977                   British Robot Association formed
1977                   6500 robots in use worldwide
1978                   Unimation with G.M. help and Vicarm technology
                         develops the PUMA (Programmable Universal
                         Machine for Assembly) robot
1978                   HP's microporcessor-based raster scan display
1979                   GM, Boeing described how to bridge gap between
                         CAD and CAM
1979                   Visicalc spreadsheet introduced on Apple computers
1980                   Fujitsu Fanuc Company of Japan develops
                         automated factory
1980                   MAZAK flexible manufacturing factory is built in
                         Florence, KY
1980                   14,000 robots in use worldwide, 4000 robots in use
                         in US
1981                   Robotics International/SME formed
1982                   Microbot and Rhino introduce first educational
                         robots
1982                   27,000 robots in use worldwide, (table 1-1)
1983                   Heath introduces Hero1 robot
1984                   Adept Corp. introduces electric direct-drive robot
                         arms to eliminate need for gear or chain drives
1985                   68,500 robots in use worldwide
1988                   Richard S. Muller invents micromachine at Berkeley
1990                   150,000 robots in use worldwide
1990                   ASEA Brown Boveri Robotics, Inc. purchases
                         robotics division of Cincinnati Milacron
1992                   William Barger employs Robodoc, a robotic arm, in
                         hip-replacement surgery




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics     8                          Robotics
                                Definition of a Robot


Generic types of robots
    Industrial - "An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multi-
        functional manipulator designed to move material, parts,
        tools, or specialized devices, through various programmed
        motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" -
        examples: Cincinatti Milacron, Asea, Unimate

         Educational - Hero

         Entertainment - C3PO, R2D2

         Human-like - (droid)




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics      9                 Robotics
                                       Robot Capabilities


Motion
     - Axes of motion/degrees of freedom
     - Work envelope
     - Coordinate system

Power/Precision/Repeatability

Speed

Sensing
     - Sight (vision) / light
     - Sound (acoustic)
     - Proximity (range)
     - Touch
     - Force

Output
    - Speech
    - Computer Signals
    - Displays

What robots can do (Table 2-1)




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics           10           Robotics
                                  Robot Classification


Cartesian (or rectangular) Robots - 3 linear axes, supported from a
        base

Gantry Robots (also rectangular)- 3 linear axes, supported from a
        gantry

Cylindrical Robots - 2 linear axes, 1 rotary axis

Spherical (or polar) Robots - 1 linear axis, 2 rotary axes - a fading
        breed

Articulated (jointed arm, revolute) Robots - 3 rotary axes - major
        offering of robotics industry

SCARA Robots - (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) -
     more than 3 axes, combination of articulated (with rotary
     axes mounted vertically) and cylindrical - allows some
     floatation at final position for parts insertion - becoming
     quite popular

Work Envelope (Figures 2-1 and 2-2)




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics       11                   Robotics
                           Additional Axes of Motion


Robots, in addition to the three major axes of motion, can have
        both minor axes of motion and an additional major axis of
        motion

An additional major axis of motion can be obtained by mounting
        the entire robot on a traverse track on the floor or
        overhead. Sometimes this axis of motion is not
        programmable

Minor axes of motion of a robot are contained in a wrist assembly,
       mounted to the end of the robot arm. An additional 1 to 3
       axes of motion are provided. Names used for these axes of
       motion are pitch, yaw, roll, bend, and swivel. As the
       names imply, these are generally all rotary axes.




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics   12                   Robotics
                                       Robot Control

Non-servo point-to-point robots
     low technology - about 10% of U.S. market
     "pick and place," "limited sequence," "bang-bang"
     more human intervention needed to re-program (adjust stops)
     $4000 to $35000
     pneumatic or hydrolic control (no electric)
     payload from ounces to 75 lbs (because of decelleration)
     no jointed arms available

Servo-controlled point-to-point robots
     medium technology - about 80% of U.S. market
     general purpose robots
     use servomechanisms capable of stopping the robot at any
        point along any axis of motion
     $13,500 to $220,000
     electric, hydrolic, or (rarely) pneumatic control
     payload from ounces up to tons - all types of arms available

Servo-controlled continuous path robots
     about 10% of U.S. market, 90% of which used in spray
        painting
     specialized designs based on intended use
     intermediate as well as endpoint data stored on a time basis,
        frequently programmed by leading it through the pattern
     $55,000 to $225,000 - usually hydrolic control, jointed arm




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics        13                Robotics
                                       Robot Tradeoffs


Payload - specified at 100% (or 75%) or arm extension - can be
        tons

vs.

Velocity - can be in excess of 200 inches/second

vs.

Repeatability - how close it comes to previous location
Accuracy - how close it comes to desired location




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics         14             Robotics
                                   Robot Applications


             Application                                1980   1990

             Spot Welding                               41%    3%
             Arc Welding                                4%     14%
             Painting/Finishing                         11%    5%
             Materials Handling (machine                29%    31%
                     load/unload)
             Assembly                                   6%     37%
             Other                                      9%     10%




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics       15                        Robotics
        Comparison Points When Choosing A Robot


Degrees of freedom
Cost
Drive type
Software available
Kinematic construction
Closed loop/open loop
Payload in grams
How many I/O ports
Repeatability
Operational radius
Movement limited or wide in all axes
Speed
Multiple vs. single speed
Teach pendant
On-line with host
I/O
External communications protocol
Hard home
Sensing via gripper
Transmission
Feedback
Off-line programming
Courseware availability/curriculum
Number of program lines allowed
XYZ program
Design of work cell
Program parameters




Artificial Intelligence and Robotics   16     Robotics
Artificial Intelligence and Robotics   17   Robotics

								
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