UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE

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					                                                   Stanford University School of Medicine




      The Stanford University Masters of Science in Medicine Degree Program
                               for Ph.D. Students


        A New Program to Teach Translational Medicine to Basic Scientists
 in order to Bridge the Gap between Basic Science and its Application to Human Disease




Program Director:
  Ben A. Barres, MD, PhD

Program Administrator:
  Lorie Langdon

Program Web Site:
  http://msm.stanford.edu
____________________________________________________________________________________
Table of Contents




Introduction and Overview of the MOM Program … ……………………………………………3

Curriculum………………………………………………………………………………………….4

Admissions and Application Procedure…………………………………………………………….7

MOM Program Leadership………………………………………………………………………....8

Contact Information…………………………………………….......................................................9

Tuition and Financial Considerations………………………………………………………………9

Useful Web Links…………………………………………………………………………………10

Frequently Asked Questions………………………………………………………………………11

What is Translational Medicine? A letter from Dean Pizzo……………………………………...13




                                                   2
Introduction and Overview


        The incredible pace of basic science discovery today stands in dramatic contrast to the slow rate of
development of useful medical advances. There is an urgent need for a more efficient mechanism to generate a
larger pool of scientists knowledgeable about human biology and disease. A recent National Research Council
report called training of Ph.D. researchers to translate science to clinical medicine a “critical need.”

        The Masters of Science in Medicine (MOM) degree program will admit highly talented people who
have a serious commitment to translational research but are not interested in becoming clinicians. Our goal is to
train a new generation of Ph.D. students who are highly knowledgeable about human biology and disease, and
thus more able to translate new scientific discoveries into useful medical advances.

        Students offered admission into any of the Ph.D. programs at Stanford University will have the
opportunity to apply for admission to this program on a competitive basis. During their first five quarters,
successful applicants will take basic biomedical science courses with the medical students including anatomy,
physiology, genetics, immunology, and pathology. As a result of recent curricular reforms here at Stanford
School of Medicine, our basic biomedical sciences curriculum is now presented in a succinct format during only
4 mornings a week, allowing plenty of time for MOM students to concurrently take their Ph.D. course
requirements and lab rotations. Moreover in order to make more time for scholarly endeavor, we have
streamlined the content of all courses, and every lecture is videotaped and available the day of the lecture for
viewing. By early in their 2nd year, MOM students will choose a lab for their thesis research, and also elect a
clinical mentor who will discuss translational research needs and help them to arrange a short clinical
experience. Students will also attend our translational research seminar series once a week. On completion of
their Ph.D. degree, participating students will receive a Masters of Science in Medicine Degree.
        Stanford University School of Medicine has long been a world leader in medical training and research
and is therefore an ideal location for this program. Under the leadership of Dean Philip Pizzo, we are currently
in the midst of a launching four new “Institutes of Medicine” whose primary purpose is to promote translational
research in the areas of Cancer/Stem Cells, Cardiovascular Disease, Neurosciences and
Immunity/Transplantation/Infection. As we are located on the central campus of Stanford University,
chemistry, bioengineering, engineering and biology students will be able to participate in the MOM program, in
addition to Biosciences Ph.D. students.




                                                       3
Curriculum

        During their first five quarters in the program, MOM students will take basic biomedical science courses
– including anatomy, physiology, genetics, immunology, and pathology – with the School of Medicine's MD
students. MOM students will concurrently undertake their PhD course requirements and lab rotations. Lab
rotations may also be taken, if desired, in the summer before starting the MOM program and/or the summer
between the first and second years of the program. By early in the second year, each MOM student will choose
a lab for thesis research, and also elect a clinical mentor who will discuss translational research needs and help
to arrange an appropriate short clinical experience. Although it is expected that in most cases the lab that each
MOM student selects for PhD thesis research will likely have a translational focus, this is not mandatory. On
completion of the PhD degree, each participating student will receive a Masters of Science in Medicine degree.

         Although all biosciences PhD students admitted into MOM will start the program at the beginning of
their first PhD year, to accommodate their heavier graduate course load, chemistry, physics and engineering
PhD students start the MOM program at the beginning of their second PhD year. An exception is electrical
engineering PhD students who start the MOM program at the beginning of their third PhD year, after they have
completed the Masters degree portion of their engineering program.

        Required Courses. The basic medical science courses required by the MOM program are summarized
below. This is an intensive sequence, but it is also flexible, depending on the student, and the student's
background, PhD program requirements, and interests. In many cases, there is overlap between MOM courses
and courses required for PhD degree progress; in some cases PhD students will be able to substitute courses
required by their PhD programs. For instance, while most MD students take GENE 202, most Genetics PhD
students in the MOM program will prefer to take GENE 205, which is more advanced and will satisfy one of
their PhD course requirements. Most students with a molecular background will not need to take certain of the
more elementary courses such as BIOC 205. All courses can be taken Pass/Fail with the exception of courses
required for students' PhD degrees, which must be taken for a letter grade. A more detailed description of each
of the below courses can be found at http://medcatalog.stanford.edu.

Autumn Q1: Will have all Monday, Wednesday, and Friday afternoons free
*BIOC 205: Molec. Foundations of Medicine (weeks 1-4)       3 Units                Chu
DBIO 201: Development and Disease Mechanisms                4 Units                Kingsley
GENE 202: Human Genetics                                    4 Units                Ford
INDE 216: Cells to Tissues (Histology) (week 1-4)           3 Units                Cross
SURG 203A: Human Anatomy I                                  11 Units               Mathers
                                                            25 Units

Winter Q2: Will have all Wednesdays free and all Monday and Friday afternoons free
INDE 220: Human Health & Disease —Basic Principles            2 Units       Farrell
MI 205: Immunology for Medical Students                       4 Units       Lewis
NBIO 206: The Nervous System                                  8 Units       Clandinin
SURG 203B: Human Anatomy II                                   4 Units       Mathers
                                                             18 Units

Spring Q3 : Will have all Wednesdays free and all afternoons free
INDE 221: Human Health & Disease I                                12 Units         Regula
Cardiovascular and respiratory systems.



                                                        4
Autumn Q4: Will have all Wednesdays free and all afternoons free
INDE 222: Human Health & Disease II                             15 Units             Regula
Renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems.

Winter Q5: Will have all Wednesdays free and all afternoons free
INDE 223: Human Health & Disease III                             12 Units            Regula
Brain and behavior, hematology, and systemic microbiology.


       More detailed description of preclinical courses. The first two quarters (Q1, Q2) focus on the molecular
foundations of medicine and the structure of cells and tissues, and build a vital foundation for the scientific
basis of medicine. Clinical correlates are integrated throughout this basic course work to illustrate how basic
science discovery translates into clinical practice.

        The last three quarters (Q3, Q4, Q5) focus on the foundations of human health and disease and are
organized by organ system. For each organ system, these courses integrate histology, physiology, pathology,
microbiology, and pharmacology, and cover normal structure and function, response to disease and infection,
and treatment. Problem-based clinical cases are integrated throughout all of the organ system courses. There is a
final unit on multi-organ systems that provides pathophysiological integration of material from prior units. This
course work will teach PhD students enrolled in the MOM program about the basics of human biology and
disease. By understanding the language of medicine, MOM students will become more effectively able to work
together with physicians to formulate meaningful translational research questions and research plans.

        In each of the first five quarters of the MOM program, because of the recent restructuring of the MD
course curriculum, there will be large amounts of time available for MOM students to do research rotations or
to take some of their PhD course requirements. In addition, we will allow MOM students to begin their first
PhD rotations the summer before the MOM program starts and they have the additional opportunity of taking
another PhD rotation in the summer after the first year of the MOM program. Thus by the time they start the
second year, they will have had time to complete three graduate rotations, in addition to the first three quarters
of MOM coursework, and quite possibly several of their graduate courses as well. By early in their second year,
we expect most students will have chosen labs for their PhD research.


       Other required components of the MOM curriculum. While the above intensive coursework will form
the bulk of the MOM curriculum, there will be several other components of the MOM program that will
stimulate student interest in translational medicine.

        a) Selection of a physician mentor. Each MOM student will be required to select a physician mentor in
addition to a PhD advisor. The student will be free to select a physician mentor who specializes in an area of the
student's interest. Each student will meet with his or her physician co-mentor at least once per quarter to discuss
progress and translational medicine in general. In addition, each student will be encouraged to have at least one
physician-scientist on his/her thesis committee.

        b) Required Clinical Rotation. All MOM students will be required to complete a short but intensive
clinical rotation, which will be decided upon and arranged in discussion with their physician mentors.
Appropriate rotations will depend upon the interests of the students. Students may engage in a one- or two-
month full time clinical rotation, participating fully in most of the usual MD student activities, including patient
rounds, diagnostic rounds, watching patients be examined, grand rounds, and attending other medical lectures.
Alternatively, MOM students might arrange to spend time attending clinic with their physician mentors or

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alternative clinical experiences as appropriate and agreed upon by their physician mentors and the director of
the MOM program.

        c) Translational Medicine Seminar Series. Stanford has recently begun a new Translational Medicine
seminar series. Seminars occur once every two weeks and are of high quality. These seminars provide examples
to MOM students of important unsolved questions in medicine and show them that it is possible to do high-
quality, meaningful research on these questions. They also expose students to a wide range of potential mentors
who are engaged in translational research for their PhD thesis work. Students will be encouraged to attend
several other high-quality seminar series, including Unsolved Mysteries in Biomedical Research – offered for
Medical Scientist Training Program (MSTP) students – and a new series called Regenerative Medicine.

        d) Elective coursework in Translational Medicine. MOM students may additionally opt to take elective
translational medicine courses to further explore “Bench-to-Bedside” development of new medical treatments.
Some of these courses have recently been developed; others are now being developed. Examples include: RAD
222/BIOE 222 Multimodality Molecular Imaging in Living Subjects; MPHA 220 Chemistry of Biological
Processes; PATH 218 Computational Analysis of Biological Images; and DBIO 202 Egg to Embryo: Basic
Science and Clinical Approaches to Infertility. A new course on principles of drug development offered by the
Chemistry department will begin this year as well.

        e) Special Seminar Course Designed for MOM students. MOM students will take a special seminar
course developed just for them; it will meet once per week and allow students to maintain an identity as a cohort
and to keep in touch with one another. This course will include a variety of topics related to translational
medicine and feature a variety of guest speakers from Stanford and surrounding medical schools and biotech.
This will allow participants to cover topics not generally addressed in the MD or PhD curricula – such as how to
take a drug from bench to bedside – and provide the opportunity for students to meet in a small group with
translational researchers.

        f) Flexibility in degree requirements. While the above requirements will be recommended to most
students, there may be some students for which all of the above coursework is deemed not necessary by the
MOM steering committee for various reasons. All of the above coursework amounts to 82 units in total. In some
cases, depending on circumstances, exceptions may be made that allow a given student to complete as few as 60
units of the MOM curriculum and still receive a Masters of Science in Medicine degree.




                                                       6
Admissions

       Admission into the MOM program will be on a competitive basis. Entering PhD students who attend
any of the schools of Stanford University will have the opportunity to apply. These schools include the School
of Engineering (home to the Departments of Chemical, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering), the School of
Humanities and Sciences (host to the departments of Biological Sciences, Chemistry, and Physics), and the
School of Medicine. The School of Medicine offers PhD programs in Biochemistry, Biomedical Informatics,
Bioengineering, Biophysics, Cancer Biology, Developmental Biology, Genetics, Immunology, Microbiology
and Immunology, Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Molecular Pharmacology, Neurosciences, and Structural
Biology.

        All students admitted into any of these PhD programs will be eligible to apply to the MOM Program.
We will contact these students after they are officially notified of their admission into these PhD programs,
shortly after April 15, to let them know of their eligibility and the process for applying to the MOM program.
The MOM application will include each student's Stanford PhD program application materials and one
additional essay about why he or she is interested in the MOM program. This essay will be due by May 11. All
applications will be reviewed by the MOM Steering Committee, which will select a group of finalists for phone
interviews. Students accepted into the MOM program will be notified by early in June.

        MOM will admit a diverse group of students annually. Stanford University believes that a student body
that is both highly qualified and diverse in terms of culture, class, race, gender, ethnicity, and work and life
experiences is essential to the education process. Therefore, Stanford is an active proponent of diversity
throughout all levels of higher education. As is the case for all of our graduate programs, the MOM program is
dedicated to training students from diverse backgrounds.



MOM Application Procedure

Applicants must send the following information by e-mail to the MOM Program Director, Ben Barres, by e-
mail at barres@stanford.edu by May 11:

   1) Name, Complete Contact Information including address, telephone number, and e-mail address, and the
      name of Stanford PhD program that the applicant has been admitted into.
   2) A one or two page type written essay indicating why the applicant is interested in attending the MOM
      program. Please indicate how your academic background, research interests, and long-term goals will
      be aided by participation in the MOM program.
   3) For already enrolled PhD students in chemistry, physics, engineering, and bioengineering, in addition
      please submit a Stanford transcript and at least one letter of recommendation from a Stanford faculty
      member.

Admissions decisions will be communicated to the applicants by early June.




                                                       7
Program Leadership

        The director of the MOM Program is Ben Barres, MD, PhD, who is a Professor of Neurobiology,
Developmental Biology, and Neurology, is a board-certified neurologist, and has a translational research focus
in his own lab. He is also co-director of the neuroanatomy and neurobiology course for first year medical
students, chair of the Department of Neurobiology, and a member of the steering committee of the
Neuroscience Institute at Stanford.


       The MOM Steering Committee is:

Ben Barres, M.D., Ph.D., Departments of Neurobiology, Developmental Biology, and
       Neurology, Director of Masters of Science in Medicine Program
Greg Barsh, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Genetics, Director MSTP Program
John Boothroyd, Ph.D., Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Dennis Carter, Ph.D., Departments of Biomechanical Engineering and Bioengineering
Ajay Chawla, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Medicine (Endocrinology)
Ricardo Dolmetsch, Ph.D., Department of Molecular Pharmacology
Dean Felsher, M.D., Ph.D., Departments of Medicine (Oncology), and Pathology
Neil Gesundheit, M.D., Department of Medicine, Associate Dean for Medical Education
Aharon Kapitulnik, Ph.D., Departments of Physics and Applied Physics
Chaitan Khosla, Ph.D., Departments of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and (by courtesy)
        Biochemistry
Calvin Kuo, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Medicine (Hematology)
Ron Levy, M.D., Department of Medicine (Oncology)
Anson Lowe, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Betsy Mellins, M.D., Department of Pediatrics (Immunology and Transplantation Biology)
Garry Nolan, Ph.D., Department of Microbiology and Immunology
Ellen Porzig, Ph.D., Department of Developmental Biology,
       Associate Dean for Graduate Education
Marlene Rabinovitch, M.D., Department of Pediatric Cardiology


       This is a diverse group of faculty that includes 80% men, 20% women, 13% LGBT, 27% Asian-
American, and 7% Hispanic, and represented many different Ph.D. departments as well as leadership members
of the medical school, graduate schools, and our new Institutes of Medicine. All of these faculty are highly
committed to and experienced with translational medicine.




                                                      8
Contact Information


Program Director:

       Ben A. Barres, MD, PhD
       Professor of Neurobiology
       Stanford University School of Medicine
       Fairchild Building, Room D235
       299 Campus Drive
       Stanford, CA 94305-5125
       Phone (650) 723-3231
       Fax (650) 725-3958
       E-mail: Barres@stanford.edu



Program Administrator:

       Lorie Langdon
       Student Services Officer
       Stanford University School of Medicine
       Medical School Office Building, Room X319
       251 Campus Drive
       Stanford, CA 94305-5404
       Phone (650) 723-6176
       Fax (650) 725-7855
       E-mail: lorie.langdon@stanford.edu




Tuition and Financial Considerations

        The full costs of PhD training (tuition, stipend, and health insurance) are covered by the home PhD
program. Similarly the MOM Program will provide full scholarship aid to cover the full tuition, stipend, and
health insurance costs of up to 6 MOM students for their first MOM year. The number of MOM students that
can be covered will depend on availability of funding. The full tuition, stipend, and health insurance costs for
each Masters of Medicine student will be covered by the MOM program in their first academic year. At the
onset of the 2nd academic year, the full costs of each MOM student will be covered by the home PhD program.
Although some medical school courses will still be taken by MOM students in their 2nd year of the program
(HHD II and III in Fall and Winter quarters respectively), the tuition for these courses will be covered by tuition
paid in the first year (by agreement with the medical school).



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Useful Web Links


Stanford University http://www.stanford.edu

Stanford University School of Medicine http://med.stanford.edu

The Masters of Medicine Program        http://msm.stanford.edu

Stanford University School of Medicine course catalog http://medcatalog.stanford.edu/

Stanford University School of Engineering http://soe.stanford.edu

Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences http://www.stanford.edu/dept/humsci

Stanford University School of Medicine PhD Programs in Biosciences http://med.stanford.edu/PhD

Stanford University School of Medicine MD Program http://med.stanford.edu/MD

Stanford University School of Medicine Medical Curriculum http://med.stanford.edu/MD/curriculum

Research at the Stanford University School of Medicine http://med.stanford.edu/research

Stanford University Institutes of Medicine http://med.stanford.edu/institutes

Faculty at Stanford University School of Medicine http://med.stanford.edu/profiles




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Frequently Asked Questions


1) What is translational medicine?

        Translational medicine is "bench-to-bedside" research wherein a basic laboratory discovery becomes
applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease and is brought forth by either a
physician-scientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care or by a team of
basic and clinical science investigators. The MOM program prepares PhD students to do mechanistically
oriented, basic disease-oriented research so that they can apply their basic science PhD education in order to
make conceptual advances in our understanding of human disease processes. Further information about
translational medicine and a short overview of the ways in which Stanford University School of Medicine has
been revamping its organization, educational, research, and clinical programs to facilitate translational
medicine, under the leadership of Dean Phil Pizzo, is summarized on page 13.


2) How will a Masters of Science in Medicine degree help me?

        The goal of the MOM program is to train basic scientists about human biology and disease. The MOM
curriculum will provide you with a solid foundation of knowledge about the human body and disease processes,
and will also teach you to translate basic research into useful medical advances. This foundation will also
provide you with the language with which to interact with clinicians and to be able to read and understand
clinical journals. You will learn not only what human diseases are, but what is known—and not known--about
their cause, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. As Dean Phil Pizzo outlines in his letter on page 13, the
ability of basic researchers to interact in small teams with clinicians will be increasingly important in
translational medicine. In addition, as admission into the MOM program will be on a highly competitive basis,
the MOM students constitute a highly elite group of young scientists. An MOM degree is a credential to be
proud of. It also certifies that you are one of a small group of scientists that has had extensive training about
human biology and disease. When you complete your training and apply for jobs, it is likely to be helpful to
you in obtaining a job in biotech, academia, and many other types of employment.


3) How does the MOM program compare to translational medicine degree programs at other universities?

        At present, most translational medicine programs for graduate students are specialized Ph.D. degree-
granting programs. In contrast, at the heart of the design of Stanford’s MOM program is the goal of providing
translational medicine training to Ph.D. students regardless of their research area of interest, without in any way
diluting the quality of their Ph.D. research training in that area of interest. The MOM program thus offers a
way for engineering, physics, and chemistry students, in addition to students in the various other biosciences
programs (genetics, immunology, etc), to obtain intensive research training in their chosen field, while at the
same time also learning about human biology and disease.


4) How long will MOM training delay the completion of my PhD degree?

        On average we anticipate that the delay will be 1 to 1.5 years. Of course, this is a far more time and cost
efficient mechanism for learning about human biology and disease than enrolling in a full MD degree program.



                                                        11
5) Can I transfer from the MOM program into medical school in order to obtain an MD degree?

      The MOM program is targeted to students interested in basic and translational research who wish to
complete a Ph.D. degree and do not wish to be clinicians. Transferring into the MD program is not an option.


6) May I apply to MOM if I am mid-way through my PhD training, have completed my PhD degree previously,
or am currently a postdoctoral fellow?

       Unfortunately, this is not currently possible because the total number of MOM students is presently
limited to 6 students per year. As more funding becomes available in the future, we would like to extend
MOM training to other categories of students.


7) I would like to take the MOM program, but I do not wish to choose a translational medicine lab for my PhD
thesis lab. Is that ok?

        Yes. MOM students may select any PhD lab that is acceptable to their home department. All research
areas are potentially relevant to human disease and the MOM program will enable you to recognize when your
research is relevant to disease. Moreover, an MOM education, because it is interdisciplinary, will help PhD
students in any research area to be better scientists even if their primary focus is in understanding normal
biology. Lastly, we think it is inevitable that students who are interested in translational medicine and who
take the MOM program will be far more likely in their careers to conduct translational research, if not when
PhD students then when they are postdoctoral fellows or in their own laboratories.




                                                     12
                                           Translating Discoveries
              A Strategic Plan for Facilitating Translational Medicine at Stanford University


        In 2001/2002, under the leadership of Dean Philip Pizzo (right), the
Stanford University Medical Center community - a diverse group of department
chairs, senior faculty members, administrators and students - came together in a
series of events to reflect and share ideas, all focused on a strategic plan for a bright
future. The interaction culminated in a renewed vision of the Stanford University
Medical Center as a place for collaboration and discovery, and it laid the
groundwork to make that vision become a reality.

       The transformation of Stanford's plan of action was inspired by a revolution
in the biosciences. Previously unthinkable achievements, such as the sequencing of the human genome, and
breakthrough discoveries have helped scientists in once distant fields recognize the benefits of working
together. The synergistic effect of this kind of multi-disciplinary exchange makes future prospects for discovery
appear almost limitless. And the most promising research today - certain to yield dramatic improvements in
human health in the 21st century - lies at the interstices between disciplines.

         Stanford is an ideal place for the intensive multi-disciplinary collaborations called for by today's
scientific and medical community. Its relatively small size and extraordinary faculty contribute to an inherently
interactive place. At Stanford, engineers are already exchanging ideas and expertise with research scientists and
clinicians to advance scientific understanding and translate new knowledge into novel medical treatments and
patient care. However, the Medical Center leaders realize that change is required in order to foster an
institutional environment that supports and encourages this type of interaction. Towards this aim, Stanford has
undertaken a number of strategic initiatives to facilitate translational medicine. These initiatives are
summarized below and at http://strategicplan.stanford.edu


What is Translational Medicine?
A Letter from the Dean
Summarized from the Stanford Medicine Magazine
By Philip Pizzo, MD

       The mission of Stanford University School of Medicine is to be a premier research-intensive medical
school that improves health through leadership and collaborative discoveries and innovations in patient care,
education and research. One of the most important overarching themes that will enable us to achieve our
mission is a renewed focus on translational medicine that embraces research and education as a means of
improving patient care.

        But what is translational medicine? In academic medicine, the term has become widely used and has a
variety of interpretations and meanings among or even within academic medical centers. Let us explore them.
From my perspective, translational medicine can have both a narrow as well as a more general definition.
Perhaps the most specific definition is "bench-to-bedside" research wherein a basic laboratory discovery
becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease and is brought forth by either
a physician-scientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care or by a team of
basic and clinical science investigators.



                                                          13
        Though translational research often focuses initially on a small number of patients, the impact of such
patient-oriented clinical research can have sweeping effects on the practice of medicine. At Stanford, numerous
examples of such translational research and medicine have arisen during the past years. And I have personally
witnessed the impact of translational research during my own work in pediatric oncology, infectious
complications in immunocompromised hosts and pediatric AIDS. These experiences have underscored the
power of translational research in changing the outcome of serious diseases.

       Translational medicine may also refer to the wider spectrum of patient-oriented research that embraces
innovations in technology and biomedical devices as well as the study of new therapies in clinical trials. It also
includes epidemiological and health-outcomes research and behavioral studies that can be brought to the
bedside or ambulatory setting.

        In the absence of translational and patient-oriented clinical research, the delivery of medical care would
remain stagnant and uninformed by the tremendous progress now taking place in biomedical science. Thus,
translational medicine represents a unique aspect of academic medical centers and teaching hospitals – the
prospect of improving current health care through state-of-the-art translational research and medicine.

        While translational research is critical to the future of Stanford medicine, our overall research agenda
must be much broader and deeper. Current translational research is built on the foundations of fundamental
basic research, much of which is undirected and without immediate clinical impact. Indeed, much of today's
translational medicine is built on basic research investigations begun years or decades ago.

        Accordingly, supporting basic research is critical since it is often not possible to predict which of today's
extraordinary ideas in basic science will lead to clinical applications in the future. Thus, a solid basic research
program is vital for translational medicine to flourish. Thankfully Stanford's program in fundamental research is
very strong.

        Stanford excels at fostering basic research and we have developed new initiatives to foster excellence in
supporting translational research. These new mechanisms enhance interaction between basic and clinical
scientists as well as create an infrastructure – both administrative and physical – that facilitates and supports
translational research. We have developed new institutes that will bring together basic and clinical scientists to
address areas of translational medicine. These include institutes devoted to cancer and stem cell biology and
regenerative medicine, infection and immunity, neurosciences, and cardiovascular disease. We hope that such
programs will foster communication and collaboration between our scientific and patient-care communities and,
above all, generate knowledge that will improve the lives of adults and children.

       I also believe that the future success of translational medicine will be more readily achieved by
educating and training medical and graduate students about the important interface that links medicine and
science. Indeed it is my hope that the students we teach today will bring forth the translational research
discoveries of tomorrow.

       To fulfill our mission of improving health through leadership and collaborative discoveries and
innovations that improve patient care, education and research, we believe that translational research and
medicine provide an overarching umbrella. Further, we believe that a focus on translational medicine will play
an important role in further distinguishing Stanford as a premier research-intensive School of Medicine.




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