Chapter 8 The Statehood Era by 86k2ZOX1

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									     Chapter 8
The Statehood Era
   1859-1889
 Washington State History
 Moving Towards Statehood
► 1860  – most Indians in WA lived on a
  reservation
► Territory became a place for great
  opportunity for pioneer settlers
► WA territory went from a “hostile territory”
  to a place ready for the advancement of
  American civilization
► WA territory was “a land of ‘progress’, ready
  to embrace the ‘modern world’ and the
  ‘American dream’.”
► WA territory was becoming the PLACE TO BE
 Moving Towards Statehood
► Enticed   people to WA territory by offering
 land
Donation Land Claim Act -1850
 (for the Oregon & WA Territories)
Homestead Act -1862
 (for WA territory only)
 1) pioneer received a land title for up to 160
 acres if he/she lived on the land for 5 yrs
 AND improved upon its original state
 2) any pioneer who lived on the land for 6
 months could purchase the 160 acres for
 $1.25/acre.
 Moving Towards Statehood
► Estimated  400,000-600,000 families
  moved to the American West because
  of the Homestead Act.
► Also available to Europeans – many
  foreign immigrants came to the
  American West and WA territory
Reservations – Loss of Homeland
► Take  a look at pages 228-229 in your
  textbook.
► PAGE 228 MAP—Look at how much land the
  Indians had BEFORE 1850 and how much
  land they had as of 1890
► The U.S. government ignored promise after
  promise to the Indians about losing more
  and more land.
► Indian reservations just kept getting smaller
  and smaller and some even disappeared
  completely.
     Oregon Trail – the later years
►  1850’s & beyond…MANY improvements to the
   trail
Average journey originally took 169 days
between 1850-1869 journey took only 129 days
increase of speed was due to:
1) Infrastructure of the trail improved (paths were
     cleared, major obstacles removed or overcome)
2)   Improvement in wagon technology                   (design was
     changed to fit the rugged terrain, were more stable & less likely
     to tip, and wheels & axels were more durable – less time
     repairing wagons & more time traveling)
3)   Creation of additional trails to fit the needs of
     many travelers (pioneers had more choices)
      Pioneers in Washington
► 1850   – population of Washington territory was
  1,201
► 1860 – population grew to 11,594
► Most residents lived in towns & cities instead of
  rural areas – due to the geography of the area
  harsh deserts of Eastern WA made life
  difficult for pioneers
  climate in Western WA was more suitable for
  them (one problem: thick forests & poor soils
  made agricultural activities quite difficult)
       Pioneers in Washington
► WA  was unique – most of its population
  lived in cities (unlike other areas where
  pioneers settled)
► The population had an urban character
 (quality)
► Lots of diversity in their economic
  activities
► More politically active
► Largest cities in the 1850’s-1860’s:
 Seattle, Tacoma, Everett, Vancouver, Walla
 Walla, Spokane, and Yakima
 Pioneers in Washington - People
► Largest group of immigrants to this area were
  white Americans from eastern U.S.
► Most significant minority group – African
  Americans
  faced discrimination when moving West
  forbidden to claim land through Donation
  Land Claim Act
  Oregon Territory (& later the state of OR)
  banned African Americans from living there
► Other immigrants (smaller groups) that came:
  Scandinavian, Irish, Italian & Chinese
   Pioneers in Washington –
    Development of Towns
► Towns& cities in 1850’s-1860’s
 streets were dirt pathways

 some cobblestone roads or drives

 non-motorized vehicles such as
 horses, wagons, carts, and carriages

 buildings constructed of wood (it
 was easy to get & faster to build)
         Pioneers in Washington –
          Development of Towns
► Most towns had their own city or municipal
  government (had a mayor and/or town council)
► Had law enforcement officials: sheriffs,
  deputies, and police officers
► At LEAST one church if not more to
  accommodate their residents
► Most towns had schools – attendance was not
  mandatory & grade levels offered differed from
  town to town
 provided basic instruction in: reading, writing, math &
 social studies
       Pioneers in Washington –
            Early Settlers
Arthur Denny
► Moved to Puget Sound in 1851 w/family
► He, his family & his associates are considered
  the founders of Seattle
► Large landowner – this land then became most
  of the city of Seattle
► Encouraged businesses to settle in Puget Sound
  area
► Instrumental in assisting Henry Yessler
  establish his lumber mill & Peter Kirk establish
  his steel mill
► Served in government as postmaster and
  delegate to Congress
      Pioneers in Washington –
           Early Settlers
Lizzie Ordway
► Arrived in Seattle in 1864
► Part of the Mercer Girls (single women who
 came out to PNW to work as teachers or other
 respectable occupations – eventually married important
 local men remember, this area was MOSTLY men so )
► Firstteacher for Seattle Public Schools
► Later, she became the Superintendent of
  Schools for Kitsap County
    Pioneers in Washington –
         Early Settlers
Peter Kirk
► Came to WA Territory in 1886
► English steel mill owner
► Saw potential in population &
  economic growth
► Excited by easy access to coal & iron
  ore
► Founded Kirkland
    Pioneers in Washington –
         Early Settlers
Henry Yesler
► Arrived in Seattle in 1852
► Established lumber mill – one of the
  most important industries in Puget
  Sound
► Lumber from his mill helped to build
  many of Seattle’s early buildings
► He & his family helped to develop
  Seattle
      Pioneers in Washington –
           Early Settlers
Ezra Meeker
► Arrived in Puyallup in 1853
► Spent many years as a farmer
► Wrote about Oregon Trail & its pioneers
► His efforts led to the creation of
  monuments & markers along the trail
► His writings helped to generate interest
  in the Oregon Trail & its pioneers for
  future generations
    Pioneers in Washington –
         Early Settlers
Ben Snipes
► One of WA earliest & most famous
  pioneers
► Was a cattle rancher & herder
► Known for his ability to transport large
  herds of cattle across long distances
  without losing a significant number of
  animals
► 1859 – he brought the first cattle to
  WA territory
      Pioneers in Washington –
           Early Settlers
George Bush
► Moved into WA in 1844 w/wife Isabella
► Considered to be one of the original founders of
  WA state
► Left Illinois for Oregon because he believed he
  could, “…find a place in the world, if there was
  any, where a Negro would be treated like a
  man.”
► Eventually ended up in WA territory and staked
  his land claim on the Skookumchuck River – his
  claim was eventually the city of Centerville (it
  would later be renamed Centralia)
     Early Economic Activities -
             Agriculture
► Dense  forests of Western WA & harsh
  deserts of Eastern WA posed many
  challenges to potential farmers and
  homesteaders
► Even w/these challenges there was an
  abundance of farming that focused on
  producing goods for personal
  consumption (use).
► Any left over food was sold to local
  markets & rarely shipped outside the
  territory.
   Early Economic Activities -
           Agriculture
Cattle Ranching
► Small industry
► Mountain pastures, dry shrub &
  grasslands provided plenty of grazing
  for the cattle
► Provided meat for WA territory, ID
  territory, OR, and parts of CA
► 1st successful commercial agriculture
  activity in WA territory
   Early Economic Activities -
           Agriculture
Dryland Farming
► The raising of crops without the
  benefit of irrigation for water
► Most important crop was wheat –
  grown primarily in Eastern WA (near
 Walla Walla)
     Early Economic Activities -
              Fishing
► One of the most successful early
  economic industries in WA territory
► 1851 – oysters were commercially
  harvested
► 1866 – 1st commercial salmon cannery
  was built
   Early Economic Activities -
             Mining
► 1852  – 1855gold was discovered in
  Colville area
► Small mining towns were founded
► Gold mining areas in WA
  territorySwauk Creek, Wenatchee,
  Blewett, Pierce, Florence, and the
  Peshastin River
    Early Economic Activities -
             Timber
► 1849  – increased demand for Washington’s
  lumber & other wood products thanks to the
  gold rush
► 1853 - Henry Yesler constructed WA
  territory’s 1st steam powered sawmill in
  Seattle
► 1860’s – Puget Sound area became site for
  25 sawmills
  the territory was producing great
  quantities of lumber, pilings, railroad ties,
  shingles, and wooden spars
► Lumber & wood products were shipped
  within U.S. as well as some foreign countries
  like Great Britain, France, Spain, and China.
          Working Conditions
► Turn  to page 237 in your textbook
► Let’s take a look at the working conditions
  for miners and loggers during this time.
        Population Changes
► 1850-1860   – economy & population of WA
  grew significantly but still did not have the
  tremendous growth that other territories
  had at this time.
► 1870-1889 – During these two decades the
  WA territory had a MAJOR increase in
  population.
  grew from 23,955 to 357, 232 – WOW!
         Industrialization
WHY was there such a HUGE population
  growth?
INDUSTRIALIZATION – a change in the
  way that goods are produced
► Factories replaced craftsmen
► Factories could make goods faster and
  cheaper than people could
► Factories in U.S. created goods for
  people all over the country & the world
          Industrialization
FACTORIES IN NORTHEAST U.S.
► Located in big cities
► Plenty of access to shipping networks
► Plentiful supply of workers


How was WA territory affected by these
  factories?
► Factories needed raw materials to create
  goods
► Minerals & lumber were in high demand
► WA (among other western regions) had
  these precious natural resources
         Industrialization
IMMIGRATION
► Factories required a massive work
  force to operate & feed the machines
► More people were needed to harvest
  the natural resources for the factories
► Lots of immigrants arrived in NYC &
  San Francisco from other parts of the
  world – many moved to other parts of
  the country including the WA territory
         Industrialization
► With the high demand of the natural
  resources & getting them to the
  factories and beyond the U.S. had to
  create a more efficient way to deliver
  the goods.
► Shipping by sea was expensive & time
  consuming – still faster than overland
  wagons.
► What was built to solve this problem?
  RAILROADS
  The Central Pacific & Union Pacific
              Railroads
► 1862 Railroad Act & 1864 Railway Act -
 chartered and approved the construction of the
 U.S.’s first two transcontinental railroads
 Central Pacific Railroad & Union Pacific
 Railroad
 were the direct link between Midwest & East
 Coast regions and northern CA


► 1863-1869– railroad tracks were laid heading
 east from Sacramento, CA
 west from Omaha, NB
 May 10, 1869 - 1st time people & freight could
 move across the western U.S.
Washington’s First Railroads
Oregon Steam Navigation Company
► Formed in 1860 by prominent Portland
  businessmen
► Had control of all passenger & freight
  traffic on Columbia River
► Each year more than 10,000
  passengers & 10,000 tons of freight
  were transported by the company.
► 1879 – Henry Villard (prominent
  railroad tycoon) purchased the
  company
Washington’s First Railroads
Walla Walla & Columbia River Railroad
► Dr. Dorsey Baker (Walla Walla business
  man) financed the construction of the
  railroad.
► Carried gold from Idaho mines to markets in
  Portland & brought valuable supplies back
  to Idaho mining towns
► 1879 – Baker sold majority of his stock to
  Oregon Steam & Navigation Co.
► 1880 – Henry Villard bought remaining
  portion of Baker’s stock (now he owned the
  entire company)
  Washington’s First Railroads
► 1880  – Henry Villard reorganized
  his railroad & shipping companies
► Was renamed: Oregon Railway &
  Navigation Company
► Owned 643 miles of railroads in WA
  & OR
► Practically had complete control of
  the movement of passengers &
  freight along the Columbia River
  Washington’s First Railroads
Northern Pacific Railroad
► 1864 – Congress chartered this railroad
► Was to be built from Duluth, MN to Tacoma, WA
► To be built by railroad tycoon – Jay Cooke
► 1879 – only sections of railway were completed


► Jay Cooke went bankrupt & had to sell
► By 1881 – Henry Villard gained control &
  financed the completion of the railway
 he changed final destination to Portland to better
 utilize his existing railroads in that area
 a line from Yakima to Tacoma was created later on to
 complete the original route
 Population impact of Railroads
► Journey to WA territory took weeks
  instead of months
► No longer needed to bring along massive
  amounts of supplies – made trip less
  expensive
► 1870 – population grew to 23,955
  thanks to the transcontinental railroad
► 1880   – population grew to 73,116
 Population impact of Railroads
► Population  growth brought about a greater
  diversity of people
► 1890 – ¼ of Washington’s population had
  been born outside the country (#12 of all the states)

► Largest group came from Europe
  main group was from Scandinavian
  countries: Finland, Sweden, Norway &
  Denmark
  other immigrants from: Eastern Europe,
  Russia, Germany, Italy, Greece, and Ireland
 Population impact of Railroads
► SignificantChinese population
  had worked in gold fields of CA & ID and
  construction of transcontinental railroads
  migrated to WA when other work slowed
  down
► Small communities of Japanese & Filipino
  descent
  1870’s-1880’s – smaller populations
  later decades these populations grew
  MUCH larger
           Social Tensions
► People  of European descent had no
  problem fitting in to WA society
► People of color, such as Japanese,
  Filipino, & African Americans faced
  greater challenges and discrimination
► Chinese immigrants faced the
  strongest discrimination & resentment
            Social Tensions
► Chinese  immigrants came to WA in
  search of employment
  worked in canneries & in the fields
  doing agricultural work
► Americans began to resent the Chinese
  for taking all the jobs away from
  Americans

► Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 –
 forbade new immigrants from coming
 in the U.S. from China
            Social Tensions
        of the Chinese Exclusion Act did
► Passage
 NOT ease tensions

             clubs formed all over the U.S.,
► Anti-Chinese
 including Washington

     an anti-Chinese Congress in Seattle
► 1885
 demanded that all Chinese leave WA
 600 Chinese immediately left for Portland
 others stayed & faced possible violence
 Check out pages
 246-247 in your
textbook for more
about the Chinese
   exclusion in
   Washington.
   Economic Impact of Railroads
AGRICULTURE
► Commercial farm began to flourish, especially
  in Eastern WA
► Three categories of commercial farming:
  dryland farming (in Palouse Hills & Columbia
  Basin) – produced wheat, barley, oats, & hay
  without irrigation
  irrigation farmers (Columbia, Yakima,
  Wenatchee, Okanogan, & Walla Walla) – raised
  fruits & vegetables using irrigation
  ranchers (foothills of the mountain areas) –
  raised cattle, horses, & sheep
 Economic Impact of Railroads

► Oneof the most important early
 commercial crops – hops
 key ingredient for production of beer
 first hops farms located in Western
 WA, primarily White River Valley &
 around Olympia

    business – exported all over the
► Big
 world
DESERT LAND ACT – 1877
Gave 640 acres of free land to any
  person who would irrigate it for 3
  years
► Designed to promote agriculture & the
  development of irrigation systems in
  the western U.S.
► This was important in developing
  eastern WA
 Economic Impact of Railroads

FISHING
► Commercial fishing was still a
  prominent economic activity

► Presence of railroads made it even more
 profitable
 Economic Impact of Railroads
MINING
► Industry grew – other minerals besides
  gold
► Coal – numerous deposits were found all
  around the state
  important energy source for residents
  living in WA during 1880’s-1890’s
► Silver, zinc & lead – mined in ID but
  Spokane profited by supplying food,
  tools, equipment, & machinery
 Economic Impact of Railroads
TIMBER
► Major sawmills operating in Seattle,
  Tacoma, Port Gamble, Port Madison,
  Port Blakely, & many other communities
  in Puget Sound area & one in Spokane.
► Lumber industry responsible for 80% of
  WA territory’s total manufacturing
  income from 1860-1880
► 1889 – WA’s 310 sawmills produced in
  excess of 1 billion board feet of lumber
  annually
                 Statehood
► WA  territory existed from March 2, 1853 – Nov.
  11, 1889 (36 years)
► 1870 – Congress increased population
  requirement to 125,000
  1878 – WA only had a population of 75,000
► 1880’s – WA economy & population grew at a
  fast pace thanks to completion of Northern
  Pacific Railroad
  By 1889 – WA population was more than
  300,000 people

► Became   the 42nd state of the U.S. on Nov. 11,
 1889

								
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