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Problems of Agricultural and Remedial Measures

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Problems of Agricultural and Remedial Measures Powered By Docstoc
					C HAPTE R




  3
    AGRICULTURE:
 ECONOMICS AND POLICY
Chapter Outline:
   1   Causes of Low Productivity Per Acre


   3    Remedial Measures
PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURE SECTOR:
 The problems of agricultural sector in LDCs are varied and
 complex. Low productivity cannot be attributed to any single factor.

 • Defective Land Tenure System:
  The land Tenure system of a country throws light on the
  relationship between land owners and cultivators. Such
  relationship between the owners and tenants is not very cordial
  and plausible. It is the tenants who cultivate the lands but the
  major share of the farm produce is taken away by the owners and
  landlords. In such state of affairs, the tenants do lose their interest
  in respect of cultivation and production.
  in addition to this, because of greater role of natural calamities in
  agriculture sector and rapid increase of wages and incomes in the
  non-agriculture sector have shown a great resentment on the part
  of the poor cultivators.
• Govt. Policies:
  The development of agri. Sector is based upon public policy and
  govt. priorities for agri. Sector. The farmers are complaining that
  agri. Sector has not been given due importance as least attention
  was paid on agri. Investment, availability of inputs, credit and
  intervention in agri. Markets. The role of support prices
  remained limited and it failed to benefit the small farmers as it is
  furnished with official formalities and corruption. In the
  presence of higher outputs the farmers get lower prices, while
  the advantage is taken away by commission agents and brokers.
  This means that the agri. Environment in the country is hardly
  been beneficial for the small farmers and govt. policies never
  supported the interests of small farmers.
• Lack of agricultural credit:
  The availability of financial resources plays an important role in
  the promotion of agriculture. The farmer is in need of funds
  starting from preparation of land to purchase of inputs and finally
  to sale of outputs. The banks always hesitate to advance loans to
  farmers as because of lack of securities to pledge. It remained too
  difficult for the banks to recover the loans.


• Natural Calamities:
  It is a bitter reality that the role of natural disasters and calamities
  is far more in agriculture as compared with other sectors of the
  economy. The floods, insects, shortage of water often affect out
  cultivated land.
• Lack of infrastructure facilities:
  High agricultural productivity requires infrastructural facilities like
  roads and communication. If there are roads from the farm to the
  market, the farmers will bring the produce to the market otherwise
  the farm produce will be consumed at the village. Thus the farmer
  will not get good reward for his labour. Next time he will reduce
  his effort to produce only for himself.

  Again, If there are well communication facilities in the rural areas,
  the farmers will be able to talk to big traders. They will have access
  to the terminal markets where they will get fair reward for their
  produce. If they receive fair reward for their agri. produce, they
  will be encouraged to work hard next time.

  Unfortunately, in almost all of the LDCs, the infrastructure
  facilities are very low in the rural areas which directly contributes
  to the low productivity of the agri. sector.
• Lack of Agriculture Markets:
  The major share of agriculture is based upon traditional and
  subsistence farming. The farmers, especially the small farmers
  fail to transport their agri. Produce in the big agri. markets of the
  country. The poor farmers have shortage of financial resources
  and they had borrowed from big landlords and commission
  agents, they are bound to sell their produce to these people.
  Because of shortage of means of transportation the agri. Goods
  are sold in the local agri. Markets which benefits the
  commission agents and brokers at the cost of farmers. It means
  that our agri. markets are imperfect they have benefited the
  stockiest instead farmers.
• Lack of Agricultural research:
  it is the time of research & development and every country of
  world both poor and rich are making research in every field of life.
  The new techniques, new seeds and high yielding seeds are being
  invented and made popular but we lack agri. research facilities.
  The agri. universities and colleges do not make research to the
  desire extent. There is a big brain-drain of agri. Scientists. The
  agri. Institutions are prey to shortage of funds. This is the reasons
  the agri. scientists and institution have not been helpful in attaining
  self-sufficiency in agri. Sector.
• Farmer’s Illiteracy:
  Our farmer is not only backward but illiterate also. He practices
  the traditional ways of farming. The modern farming is made by
  big land lords etc. all such may be attributed to non-availability
  of modern technology to farmers especially small farmers.
  Moreover, the farmers are reluctant to accept new changes. If,
  on the one side govt. has ignored them, then on the other side,
  they too are least interested to accept modern way of farming.
• Sub-Division and Fragmentation of land:
  By Sub-Division we mean the division of land of forefathers
  amongst their heirs. Sometimes, it also happens when owners
  sell some part of their lands or may gift some part of their lands
  to their friends, relatives and charitable institutions. Thus the
  division of land in smaller parts is called sub-division.

  Fragmentation represents the situation where the land of an
  owner or the undivided family does not occur at the same place.
  As if 3 acres of land of any persons is situated at 20 different
  places, this would represent fragmentation of holdings.

  When the lands are subdivided and fragmented, the cultivators
  fail to cultivate the land diligently, can not introduce modern
  technology etc which has a sever negative impact on the
  agricultural production.
• Inadequate irrigation facilities:-
  Water is an important input for agricultural production. The
  good agri. production is attained through giving a reasonable
  amount of water. In most of the LDCs water supply to the farms
  is mostly provided through canals. Such system of irrigation has
  worstly affected the health of soil. A greater seepage of water is
  observed resulting in water-logging as well as in salinity.

  In addition to canal system of irrigation, a fairly large number
  of lands have to depend upon “Rains” for water. The rains are
  uncertain. Sometimes they are in short, creating a lot of
  problems for the farmers – thus affecting the production. On the
  other occasions, there is an abundance of rains leading to the
  floods and affecting the production.

  Again, the water can also be obtained through tube-wells and
  water pumps but the poor peasants are unable to purchase them.
• Soil Erosion:-
  Soil erosion is the loss of soil due to water movement. erosion
  occurs when excess rainfall move the top fertile soil of the land.
  Runoff occurs when rain falls faster than it can be absorbed into
  the soil. Runoff water carries soil particles into streams and
  rivers and cause the land barren for agri. Productivity.



• Water logging and salinity:
  Land is like a producing unit. Every year a large area of land is
  affected by Water-logging and salinity. This is not only a
  national wastage but it also affects the productivity of land.
• Non-agricultural use of cultivated land:
  in the recent years, investment in the real estate is considered
  very profitable. The agricultural lands are becoming the prey of
  the different housing schemes and colonies which is reducing
  the amount of the cultivatable land for agri. purpose.


• Under utilization of cultivatable land:
  in almost all of the LDCs the cultivatable land is under-utilized
  or un-utilized. For example, Afghanistan has an area of 64.5
  million hectares of extremely steep and mountainous land.
  Despite the fact that only 12% of its total area is cultivatable
  only 6% is currently cultivated and the remain 6% is not utilized
  for agri. purposes.
• Inadequate supply of modern inputs:
  in agri. Development, the agri. Inputs like fertilizers, implements
  and insecticides play an important role. But in our country, the
  phosphorus type of fertilizers is not available on proper time.
  Rather, there is a big adulteration in fertilizers. The multi-national
  companies have monopolies over the sale of insecticide. They
  charge the prices whatsoever they like.

  In addition to fertilizers and pesticides, the availability of modern
  seeds and especially the High Yielding Variety (HYV) Seeds are
  very important for green revolution. the farmers fail to get fair
  amount of superior seeds.
• Lack of Cold-Storages and Warehouses:
  Because of weak financial position the farmers are unable to
  construct the warehouses and cold-storages. They have to store
  their crops in their houses where they are at the mercy of rats and
  other insects – thus reducing their value. This situation rises
  particularly because of perishable nature of agricultural goods. If
  they sell their produce just after harvesting, they will not be able to
  get handful amounts against the products sold.

  The official Cold-Stores and warehouses are fore official stocks of
  wheat, rice, fruits etc. the private cold-storages facilities are very
  expensive and are beyond the range of small and poor peasants. In
  such situation, the incomes of the farmers remain low.
• Lack of farm mechanization:
  Farm mechanization implies the use of mechanical technology in
  the varied farming operations like sewing, harvesting, thrashing,
  leveling, watering, spraying etc. farm mechanization bring more
  area under cultivation, save the farmer’s time for off-the-farm
  business like beekeeping, fisheries, livestock, timely water and
  spray etc which result in bumper crops. Unfortunately, in almost all
  of the LDCs the farmers are not in the position to mechanize the
  farm.

• Lack of Health facilities in Rural areas:
  Most of the rural areas do not have any health facility therefore,
  when the farmers fell ill or their child or wife get ill they bring
  their patients to the cities where they stay for the patient recovery
  and due to which they are unable to pay attention to their field.
  Thus the lack of rural health facilities, the farmer’s productivity
  remains low.
• Racial Disputes:
 The rural farmers are often found to be involved in racial
 disputes. Due to racial disputes they are often involved in
 criminal activities like blazing the crops of the rival farmers etc
 furthermore, they are unable to pay due attention to the farm
 productivity due to criminal suits they face in the courts.

 Furthermore, the amount of money they have and they can utilize
 for the farm mechanization or purchasing modern inputs is spent
 out in facing the criminal suits.
Measures to Solve Agri-Problems
 The following measures if implemented can greatly help in
 increase the Per Acre Yield of farm productivity.
 •   Consolidation of holdings:
 •   Improved quality of seeds
 •   Credit facilities
 •   Efficient marketing system
 •   Supply of irrigation water
 •   Modern methods of cultivation
 •   Control on water logging and salinity
 •   Farmer’s Education
 •   Provision of transportation and communication
 •   Research Facilities
• Control of diseases
• Govt. compensation in case of natural calamities
• Govt. should provide subsidies on agricultural inputs.
• Socio-Economic Change in the Rural Life:
  Most of the villages lack even basic amenities of life. This results
  in migration from villages to cities. If the same talented people had
  retained themselves in the villages, their contribution to
  agriculture would have been far greater. Accordingly, there is big
  need to retain such youth in the villages. For this purpose, the
  social and infrastructure amenities will have to be provided in the
  villages. The status of farming as a profession will have to be
  improved. An improved infrastructure and provision of basic
  education, health, communication and recreation facilities in the
  rural areas will help in preventing them from migration.
Thank You

				
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posted:6/26/2012
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