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THE GOSPEL OF LUKE

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THE GOSPEL OF LUKE Powered By Docstoc
					THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
• JESUS IS THE PERFECT SON OF MAN
  WHO IS THE SAVIOR OF THE WORLD

  As God’s perfect Son of Man before the
Gentiles, Jesus states His primary purpose in
                    19:10:
“For the Son of Man is come to seek and to save
              that which is lost.”
      THE GOSPEL OF LUKE
I.    Preparation for the Son of Man (1:1-4:13).
II.   Beginning of the Ministry of the Son of Man Among
      Men (4:14-9:50).
III. Rejection of the Son of Man by Men (9:51-19:27).
IV. Suffering of the Son of Man for Men (19:28-23:56).
V.    Authentication of the Son of Man before Men
      (24:1-53).
•“This is the Gospel of the Humanity of Jesus. The writer presents
 the Messiah, not at Sovereign or Servant--though He rules and
 toils--but as our Fellow and Friend. There is evidence of this at
 the beginning, where His genealogy is traced back to Adam the
 father of the race. Luke emphasizes the universality of the Gospel,
 and has much to say about sinners and the Saviour. The record
 overflows with sympathy, and is pre-eminently the Gospel of
 forgiveness. Much is said about prayer because that is a necessity,
 and a natural function of man. Women and children figure
 largely in this Gospel of Christ’s humanity. Miracles peculiar to
 Luke reflect the compassion of Jesus: the widow’s son raised; a
 woman’s infirmity cured; ten lepers healed, and other acts of
 mercy. Also the parables peculiar to this Gospel are in keeping
 with the presentation of Jesus’ humanity: for example, the Two
 Debtors; the Good Samaritan; the Friend at Midnight; the Great
 Supper; the Prodigal Son, and fourteen other parables.”

•~ Dr. Scroggie, The Unfolding Drama of Redemption, 2: 107.
  “This Gospel presents Jesus as the ideal
 and perfect man and as the Saviour of all
   classes of men. This Gospel presents
Christ as passing through all the stages of a
 normal human life, from infancy through
      boyhood to mature manhood.”

 ~ Dr. Harold Hoehner’s Analysis of New
            Testament Books.
            GENTILE FOCUS:

Luke wrote this historical narrative primarily for the
  Gentiles. Below are the following evidences:
1) Luke frequently explained Jewish localities (4:31;
   8:26; 21:37; 23:51; 24:13). This would be
   unnecessary if he was writing to Jews.

2) Luke traces Jesus’ genealogy all the way back to
   Adam (rather than to Abraham as seen in
   Matthew’s Gospel). The implication is that Jesus
   was representing all humanity rather than just
   Israel.
          GENTILE FOCUS:

3) Luke refers to Roman emperors in designating the
   dates of Jesus’ birth (2:1) & of John the Baptist’s
   preaching (3:1).

4) Luke uses a number of words which would be more
   familiar to Gentile readers than the comparable
   Jewish terms found in Matthew’s Gospel (e.g.,
   Luke’s use of the Greek word “didaskalos” rather
   than “rabbi” for “teacher.”
           GENTILE FOCUS:
5) Luke uses the Septuagint when quoting from the
   O.T. He has relatively few direction quotations,
   though the book is filled with allusions. The
   quotations & references are in 2:23-24; 3:4-6; 4:4,
   8; 10-12; 18-19; 7:27; 10:27; 18:20; 19:46; 20:17, 28,
   37, 42-43; 22:37.

6) Little is said about Jesus prophecies because they
   were not nearly so important to Gentile readers as
   they were to Jewish readers. In fact, Luke has only
   5 direct references to fulfillment of prophecy and
   all but one (3:4) are found in the teaching of Jesus
   to Israel.
         INTERESTING FACTS:
1)   Luke emphasizes the universal message of gospel more than
     the other Gospel writers.

2)   Luke often wrote about sinners, the poor, & outcasts from
     Jewish society.

3)   Luke often refers to Gentiles who shared in the blessings of
     the Messiah.

4)   Samaritans were presented as coming to faith in the
     Messiah.

5)   Luke frequently wrote about women & children and their
     faith.
         INTERESTING FACTS:

6)   Luke’s gospel gives a reader a more comprehensive grasp of
     the history of the period than the other Gospels.

7)   Luke presents more facts about the earthly life of Jesus than
     did Matthew, Mark, or John.

8)   Luke emphasizes forgiveness (3:3; 5:18-26; 7:36-50; 11:4;
     12:10; 17:3-4; 23:34; 24:47).

9)   Luke emphasizes prayer at many points in His ministry
     Jesus prayed (3:21; 5:16; 6:12; 29; 22:32; 40-41).
         INTERESTING FACTS:
10) Luke notes the individual’s place in coming to repentance.
    He stresses the action which must come from each
    individual who follows Jesus (e.g., Zechariah, Elizabeth,
    Mary, Simeon, Anna, Martha, Mary, Simon, Levi, the
    centurion, the widow of Nain, Zacchaeus, & Joseph of
    Arimathea).
11) Luke says more about money and material things than did
    any other author in N.T. He did not always present the poor
    as being self-righteous, but he did say that the self-sufficient
    rich, who regarded riches more highly than Jesus, were
    unable to enter into the salvation Jesus offered.
12) Luke often spoke of joy that accompanies faith & salvation
    (1:14; 8:13; 10:17; 13:17; 15:5, 9, 32; 19:6, 37).
13) Luke tends to use a particular term or word in one or more
    passages and then rarely or never after that. This makes a
    word stand out and calls attention to it wherever it occurs.
      I.       Preparation for the Son of
                 Man (Luke 1:4-4:13):
This section records the incarnation & presentation of the Son of
  Man.
• Luke emphasizes Jesus’ and John’s birth, demonstrating that
  Jesus was born from a woman like any other man (except it was
  a virgin birth).
• Luke then presents the ministry of the forerunner which is
  ended when he is put in prison.
• After Jesus had been baptized, Luke gives His genealogy to
  prove that He was genuine man and that Adam was his father
  just as he was every person’s father.
• After the genealogy, Luke presents His temptation showing that
  He was tempted like all people.
     I.      Preparation for the Son of
               Man (Luke 1:4-4:13):
•After Luke’s introductory explanation as to the
purpose for writing, the author begins to explain the
advent of the Son of Man among men (1:5-2:52).

•Angel Gabriel announces the coming birth of John to
Zacharias & Elizabeth (vv. 5-25) and the birth of Jesus
to Mary (vv. 26-56).

•Both are born forecast (1:57-2:24), & the Son of Man
is recognized as the fulfiller of Israel’s hope by Simeon
& Anna (2:25-38).
   I.       Preparation for the Son of
              Man (Luke 1:4-4:13):
Luke tells of the boyhood of Jesus, emphasizing his normal
human development (2:39-52).

John begins his preaching& introduces the Son of Man to men
(3:1-20).

Then the qualifications of the Son of Man are traced (3:21-
4:13).

The Father authenticates Him by sending the Spirit and
speaking words of approval. His bloodline authenticates Him.
And in His battle with Satan He demonstrates His moral
qualification to perform the ministry as the perfect Man among
sinful men.
     II.      Ministry of the Son of Man
               among Men (4:14-9:50)
• Luke tells of the boyhood of Jesus, emphasizing his normal
  human development (2:39-52).

• Beginning His work in the power of the Spirit, as the ideal
  man totally dependent by God, the Son of Man immediately
  identifies Himself as Messiah (4:14-44).

• At Nazareth He makes the specific claim to be the fulfiller of
  Isaiah 61, but the people reject Him. Then, at Capernaum,
  Jesus offers His credentials: authoritative words (vv. 31-32)&
  authoritative works (vv. 33-34).
  II.      Ministry of the Son of Man
            among men (4:14-9:50):
Luke records events which demonstrate evidence of
His Person for all to consider:
– Miraculous catch of fish (5:1-11) is primarily for the
  disciples to teach them His authority as the God-man and
  to prepare them to catch men by that same authority.
– In the healing of the leper (5:15-16), Jesus is presenting
  evidence of His Person for the religious authorities of Israel
  (cf. v. 14).

There is a succession of authentications of His Messiahship &
  at the same time an ever-growing opposition to and rejection
  of His Person by the Jewish leaders.
   II.     Ministry of the Son of Man
            among Men (4:14-9:50):

Jesus begins a concentration upon training the
 disciples and preparing them for a ministry (9:1-50),
 & this includes a pictorial authentication of His
 Person by the glory of His Transfiguration, which
 they would never forget (2 Peter 1).

 Jesus also makes direct predictions of His coming
 death, which is the topic of discussion on the
 mountain of Transfiguration (9:31; 9:22; 9:44-45).
   III. The Rejection of the Son of
        Man by Men (9:51-19:27):

This section develops the rejection by the official
 leaders of Israel (9:51-11:54) & His instructions in
 view of the rejection (12:1-19:27). He continues to
 seek & to save the lost, ever striving by careful
 instructions to probe beneath the pretense & sham of
 the Jews & to point out their deep need of reality
 with God.
    III. The Rejection of the Son of
         Man by Men (9:51-19:27):

- In the parable of the prodigal son He seeks to contrast
  the attitude of the Pharisees toward publicans &
  sinners with His own attitude which seeks them that
  they might be saved (15:1-32). The same emphasis is
  presented in the conversion of Zacchaeus (19:1-10).

- In light of the rejection by the official Jewish leaders,
  Jesus teaches a period of postponement of the earthly
  Messianic kingdom before it shall finally be instituted
  immediately following His Second Coming (19:11-
  27).
  IV. The Suffering of the Son of
      Man for Men (19:28-23:56)
In the last week before the cross, the Son of Man
makes His official presentation of Himself as
Messiah in Jerusalem on the very day predicted by
Daniel (9:24-27 cf. Luke 19:42):
- He possesses the Temple in a Messianic
  demonstration on Monday.
- He has a series of interviews with groups of His
  enemies who seek to tramp Him in His words &
  disprove His authority (20:1-47).
    IV. The Suffering of the Son of
        Man for men (19:28-23:56)

- Jesus unfolds prophecies of the future
  tribulation period & His own return (21:5-38).
- Judas promises the religious leaders that he
  will betray Jesus (22:1-6).
- Jesus observes the Passover, institutes the
  memorial of the bread & the cup & prays in
  Gethsemane (22:7-46).
    IV. The Suffering of the Son of
        Man for men (19:28-23:56):

- Jesus unfolds prophecies of the future
  tribulation period & his own return (21:5-38).
- Judas promises the religious leaders that he
  will betray Jesus (22:1-6).
- Jesus observes the Passover, institutes the
  memorial of the bread & the cup & prays in
  Gethsemane (22:7-46).
   IV. The Suffering of the Son of
       Man for Men (19:28-23:56):

- Jesus is arrested, tried by both Jewish &
  Roman authorities, denied by Peter, declared
  of innocent of charges & then turned over for
  crucifixion by Pilate (22:47-23:26).
- Jesus is crucified and laid in the new tomb of
  Joseph (23:27-56).
    V.     The Authentication of the
            Son of Man Before Men
                   (24:1-53):
Luke finishes part 1 (Luke) of his history by giving a
record of the resurrection of the Son of Man & His
appearances to His own before the ascension into
heaven (Part 2 is Book of Acts):

- The Opened Grave (24:1-12).
- The Opened Scripture (24:13-32).
- The Opened Understanding (24:33-49).
- The Opened Heaven (24:50-53).

				
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