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									               SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




                                                                       PROJECT PROPOSAL &
                                                                       DOCUMENTATION FOR
                                                                       SOLID WASTE
                                                                       MANAGEMENT (SWM) &
                                                                       PRODUCE THE ORGANIC
                                                                       COMPOST FROM
                                                                       MUNICIPAL AND
                                                                       HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN
                                                                       MANNAR DISTRICT –
                                                                       SRILANKA.




Author:           G.Ragavan




                                                                       Prepared and Submitted by
                                                                       G.Ragavan.
                                                                       DIsOUSL, AMIIESL
                                                                       (Agriculture Engineer)
                                                                       grahavan@yahoo.com




  07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                          SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




  PROJECT PROPOSAL & DOCUMENTATION FOR SOLID WASTE
  MANAGEMENT (SWM) & PRODUCE THE ORGANIC COMPOST
   FROM MUNICIPAL AND HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN MANNAR
                       DISTRICT.

                                             Sri-Lanka.



Name and Postal Address                     :           Prof.A. Navaratnarajah
                                                        (Consultant/Director)
                                                        SEWALANKA FOUNDATION
                                                        2ND Floor, No 432 A, Colombo Road,
                                                        Borelesgamuwa, Sri-Lanka


Name and Complete Address of
Officer –in-Charge who will Deal
With this Project                :                      Prof.A. Navaratnarajah
                                                        (Consultant/Director)
                                                        SEWALANKA FOUNDATION
                                                        2ND Floor, No 432 A, Colombo Road,
                                                        Borelesgamuwa, Sri-Lanka


Name and Address of the Actual
Location of the Proposed                    :           Mannar Urban Council

                                                        Sri-Lanka.

Phone/ Fax Number of the Officer- in-
Charge referred at above         :                      Tel: +94-602166335/4
                                                        Mobile: +94-777739261
                                                        www.sewalanka.org




             07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                              SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




                                   PROJECT DOCUMENT


Project title:                                                          Project Proposal &
                                                                        Documentation for Solid Waste
                                                                        Management
Project Number:

Project Location:                                                       Mannar - SriLanka

Sector:                                                                 Environmental

Executing Agency:

Implementing Partner:

Estimated Starting Date:

Estimated Ending Date:

Duration:                                                               One Year

Total Budget:                                                           Rs.9578110.00

Donor Contribution:                                                     Rs.8998110.00

Local Contribution:                                                     Rs.580000.00




                 07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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              SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




                      SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
                       IN MANNAR - SRILANKA
 CONTENTS

 Background of project area

1.        Problem statement and justification for this project.
 1.1 Brief Description of Problem Statement
 1.2 Problem Justifications


2.        Project objectives
 2.1      Instant Objectives, Outputs and Movements
 2.2      Establishment of Compost Unit
 2.3      To Introduce the Wormy Composting
 2.4      To Establish the Marketing Unit

3.        Project Beneficiaries
 3.1      Common Benefits of SWM
 3.2      Direct & Indirect Beneficiaries
 3.3      Survey Information to Show Current Situation
 3.4      Beneficiary of Participants


4.        Methodology
 4.1      The plan
 4.2      To conducting Interviews
 4.3      To Collection Survey
 4.4      To Visit Dumpsite Survey
 4.5      Compositing plant survey
 4.6      To Measurement of Waste Production
 4.7      With the help of the survey results a study is made regarding the
          solid waste management
 4.8      Establish the Participatory Program for Waste collection
 4.9      To Improve Public awareness and attitude
 4.10     To Waste collection
 4.11     Public instructions & legal actions
 4.12     To Removal and Transportation of wastes
 4.13     To Recycling

5.        Source of Waste Generation and Action to be taken

6.        Life cycles

 07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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              SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




7.        Implementation – Mannar District
 7.1          Descriptions of Implementing Partners
 7.2          Roles and Responsibilities of Project Partners
 7.3          Project Management Bodies
 7.4          Exit Plan and Sustainability
 7.5          Public Awareness and Attitude


8.        Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
 8.1          M&E Plan
 8.2          Reporting Requirements


9.        Project Inputs
 9.1          Local Counter participation and Contribution
 9.1          Donor Contribution
 9.2          Resource, Capacity and Equipment Needs

10.       Preparation of the Preliminary Design Matrix by the
          Study Team

11.       Work Plan

12.       Project Budget




 07/07/2007          Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                    SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




                           Background of project area
The Mannar District is situated Northern Srilanka, geographically bulk of the
areas on the mainland of Vanni region and other parts in Thalai Mannar. About
28% of population settled in the urban areas. The district rainfalls in the dry-zone
area and the climate is characterized by high temperatures that vary from 260C to
330C and the highest temperature is normally during the month of May, June, July
and August. Annual precipitation is about between 70 to 80 rainy days. The land
is relatively flat and is of low slope elevation, therefore runoff also low. The
interior of the land is gently undulating thus favoring the storage of rain water in
several small & big tanks. While saline soil and marsh are more common along
the coastal areas. The areas consist of dark clay soils (Grumosols), suitable for
paddy cultivation, Sandy soils which are towards the interior are the well drained
deep red Yellow Latosols and the Reddish Brown Earth, which is good for the
cultivation of perennial crops.

       The Mannar town total generates of solid waste about 20m3 (15 Tons) per
day, and monthly solid waste generates 600 m3 450 (Tons) per month, which
amounts monthly solid wastage from about 850 houses, 400 shops, Cooperative
buildings, Government Departments, Government & Private bus stand and
Markets. In Mannar town about 12 to 12.6 Metric tons organic solid wastes are
generated per day from various sectors.

       The Mannar Island total solid waste about 47m3 (35 Tons) per day. The
generation of wastes in Mannar Island of the sources of waste by tonnage and
percentage are as listed.

Commercial Sectors - 10 Tons/day (28.56%)
Domestic Wastes    - 20 Tons/day (57.14%)
Other Wastes       - 05 Tons/day (14.28%)




       07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                             SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



     In Mannar Island about 28 MT (52m3) to 30 MT (56m3) organic solid wastes are
     generated per day from various sectors.

            Approximately 80-85 % of municipal & domestic wastes produced in
     Mannar consist of organic waste including food and garden waste. The balance
     15-20% waste of paper, plastics, glass, metals, and other inorganic materials. The
     above figures are approximate value in urban areas.




1.              Problem statement and justification for this project.

     1.1.       Brief Description of Problem Statement

             The organic solid waste has to be produced from Mannar Town in about
              12 M.T per day.
             The higher amount of inorganic fertilizer using in Mannar District and the
              demand of fertilizer also is high. Our production of organic fertilizer can
              replace the inorganic fertilizer and we believe the positive environmental
              impact is expected and may increase the demand of organic fertilizer by
              awareness and workshops programs will attract the consumers.
                 The Mannar district has to produce a lot of fishing wastes daily; it is
              useful for the produce of animal food. It has idea in planning level in
              future. This is an economical advantage in the system of integrated solid
              waste management.
             In future our organization is expecting to the increase the organic fertilizer
              up to 25 MT per day.
             The purpose of project is to introduce and improve the SWM System in
              Mannar District currently lacks basic collecting materials and equipments
              and people are not properly informed or aware of proper methods of
              SWM.
             Different enterprises discharge various kinds of materials as solid waste.
              Mannar Urban area is where most non-biodegradable waste such as plastic
              and polythene materials, end up. The restaurants, hotels, and households
              generate mostly biodegradable solid waste.
             The average generation of solid waste in Mannar Town is around 15 tons
              per day.
             To maintain a high standard of living the high rates of consumption of
              resources make a negative impact on the environment. So the generations


                07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                       SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



          of wastes are far beyond handling. The wastes are burnt, disposed or
          thrown on the road side and elsewhere.
         There is a need for a complete rethinking of SWM.
         There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is
          focused on SEWALANKA and uses high energy and high technology, to
          move more towards waste processing and waste recycling.
         This process would involve public private partnerships, driven at the
          community level and using low energy low technology resources, aiming
          for eventual waste minimization.
         Our organization (SEWALANKA) is defining the criteria for waste
          minimization would include deeper community participation,
          understanding economic benefits and recovery of waste, producing the
          organic fertilizer from waste composting materials, focusing of life cycles,
          decentralized administration of waste, minimizing environmental impacts,
          reconciling investment costs with long term goals.

1.2       Problem Justification

         The people in Mannar have not much knowledge in terms of the
          environmental sector, particularly about the solid waste management.
         The technical skills as well as the technical infrastructure are also
          inadequate. Therefore adequate knowledge will have contributions to high
          technology for the solid waste management. The SEWALANKA can carry
          out the solid waste management efficiently.
         We propose the project to be started at the first step with about 3M.T
          organic Solid Waste which can be handled per day.
         Organic fertilizer can be produced within duration of 3 months.
         In future maximum solid waste can be managed efficiently, by the way of
          successive efforts in our proposed project.
         A days produce may be about 2.5 M.T organic fertilizer can be sold for
          about 2500 Rupees.
         The grading of organic fertilizer by using 3 various applications which
          are;
               1. Grade one fertilizer that can be used for floriculture and vegetable
                  cultivation. This grade of fertilizer can be improved in cultivation
                  of sandy soils around the coastal areas of Mannar.
               2. The second grade of organic fertilizer as well used to paddy lands.
                  This is very suitable in Murunkan and Nanattan areas. This type of
                  fertilizer applicable for clay soils.
               3. The third grade of organic fertilizers as well used to paddy lands
                  and land filling.
          In order to keep up the standard of living, the resources are misused as
          such there is a negative impact on the urban environment. For example the
          people do not like to consume locally cultivated nutritious fruits which are
          discarded and go waste. The SEWALANKA can promote the inhabitants
          of Mannar to consume the available resources efficiently.

          07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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            As the waste generations are beyond handling by the Mannar Urban
             council have resulted in Mannar town grappling with the problems of high
             volumes of wastes. The high volumes of wastes can be tackled by
             manufacturing manures. A suitable site should be found to put up a
             composting plant to produce the manure which can be distributed among
             the farmers.
            Thus creating a better and more environment friendly manner of solid
             waste management in the area.
            This project aims to provide better technology of solid waste management
             systems to Mannar.
            Through these our successive efforts can be covered by planning up
             recycled and reused to not only organic wastes but also to inorganic
             wastes.

2.             Project Objectives
              To establish the urban and household SWM in Mannar District.
              To keep the clean environment and reduce the hazards.
               To improve better disposal technologies, methodologies and provide
               better management technology systems in Mannar District.
              To improve the public awareness.
              To establish the public awareness unit.
              To encourage the public participation. /Community participation.
              To establish/Construct waste compost plant to make the organic fertilizer
               and Bio-gas (CH4).
              To Introduce the Wormy Compost.
              To Establish the Marketing Unit.
              To establish in the sustainable organic farming.
              To create more job opportunities for most vulnerable    youths.
              To reduce the poverty alleviation.
              To improve the environment.
              To develop the sustainable resources usage.

     2.1       Immediate Objectives, Outputs and movements of the SWM project

           1. To strengthen the capacity of SEWALANKA,
              To strengthen the capacity of SEWALANKA, to implement the project in
              the systematic and sustainable manner.

               Outputs
               The capacity of SEWALANKA to provide services to dispose the solid
               wastages by adapting the new technologies and methods and strengthened
               through provision of necessary equipments and machinery to dispose the
               solid wastages.


               07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



    Movements

    Purchase four wheeler tractor and trailer as per specification, Delivery of
    tractor and trailer to SEWALANKA, Procure wheelbarrows, Waste
    collection Plastic bins, Purchase special Gunny bags and plastic buckets
    for distribution, these to collect the solid waste form in household shops
    and all Government and NGOs, Provide special uniforms for cleaning &
    collecting Services, Purchase sets of hand gloves. To print the
    publications like notices, handouts, CD & video films etc., make
    advertisement boards placed in a suitable places. Disbursement of
    wheelbarrows, special gunny bags, overcoat uniform hand gloves
    Publications like notices, handouts etc and advertisement boards to
    SEWALANKA.


2. To improve the capacity of the SEWALANKA.

    To improve the capacity of the SEWALANKA. To provide extension
    services to Mannar District.
    Eg;- Workers, vehicles(4 wheel tractor) and necessary equipments to
    provide SEWALANKA and to be purchased the land to construct the
    compost plant.

    Outputs
     To improve support services will help to monitoring and supervising the
    areas & staffs works.

    Movements
    Procure resources from funding agent.

3. To provide awareness programs
   To provide awareness programmes at school levels, village level
   organizations, Traders, Householders, Environment conservation
   committees and public advertisements to achieve following things.

    Outputs
   To understand the problems fully and to seek practical workable solutions.
   To train and prepare the community members with the knowledge,
    attitudes, skills to anticipate problems.
   To make people realize the importance of scientific knowledge and to
    integrate it with community wisdom.
   To relate awareness of the environment to economic factors.
   To stimulate timely action with sustainable inputs.
   To increase the environmental & scientific knowledge of the school
    students and develop their skills.


    07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                       SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



          Movements

         Providing awareness training or workshops for all members of the
          community, (particularly, women, youth, farmers, students, disabled,
          amongst others).All level societies like WRDS, RDS, Fishermen
          cooperatives, sports clubs, Traders society, and Mannar UC health
          workers.
         Providing publicity by way of distributing the handouts, notices, display
          advertisement boards and local media advertisements.
         Providing awareness “Veethy Naatiyam” (Street Dramas) programmes by
          school children and the public sponsored by SEWALANKA.




      4. To facilitate and taking care of environmental protection measures

          The facilitate and taking care of environmental protection measures in
          dumping place.

          Output
         To enhance the waste disposal to open area and develop the innovative
          new technical environmental protection in Mannar District.

          Movements
         Providing the proper security and fencing facilities for around the
          dumping place. To protect from various animals, birds, and wind.
         To facilitate the proper drainage system. This leads to avoid the water
          pollution in adjoining lagoon or channel or surrounding area.

2.2       Establishment of compost unit

          Two methods are to be used in the solid waste separation purpose. Those
          methods are;-

      a. Separation is to be done from field level/waste generation places.

      b. Separation is to be done in final disposal level.

          First method is very suitable, and easy to handle and low cost also.




          07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                   SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




         Establish the public awareness and public participation program for
          waste dispose.
         Establish the separation unit.
              Urban & household wastes are separate at its final destination point
              could facilitate its consideration.
              Eg; - Recyclable, Non Recyclable
         Establish the composting unit.
              Facilitate its consideration to produce bio-fertilizer.

2.3   To Introduce the Wormy Composting

      Earthworms are used to breakdown organic wastes (vegetables & food
      wastes, sludge, and animal manures etc.). The most of earth worms are
      destroyed by chemical application in agriculture lands. This environmental
      defect specially is seen around Northern part of Sri-lanka. The above
      problem has made the soil infertile. The above problem can be mitigating
      by application of wormicomposting.

      The awareness program on the adverse economic and environmental
      impacts of agrochemical in crop production has stimulated greater interest
      in the utilization of organic amendments such as compost for crop
      production.

      The wormicomposting technology environmentally acceptable in around
      the world. Its technology involves short period of composting process in
      mass level with production of better quality compost as compared with
      traditional production methods.

      The wormicomposting is a low cost technology and high valuable &
      efficiency composting system. This is very suitable for the Mannar
      District. Because there is more agriculture land available; as such that it is
      easier to promote the utilization of compost fertilizer among the farmers.
      In Mannar Island about 28 to 30 metric tons organic solid wastes are
      generated per day from various sectors.

      Solid waste management system as utilization of wormicompost , amino
      waste has change in animal food and recycling for reusing of materials an

      07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                             SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



                impact on ecologically sound, economically viable and socially acceptable
                technology.

     2.4        To Establish the Marketing Unit

               Establish some kind of authorized certification for bio-fertilizer.
               Establish the marketing unit. (To promote the bio-fertilizer to farmers &
                home gardeners)
               Accordingly, market studies recommend commercial strategies focusing
                retail commercialization taking in to account not only socio-economic
                attributes but also environmental attributes of the product.




     2.5.       The task of the facilitator for organic farming

               To identify potential market opportunities and interested partners, and
                marketing prospects.
               To raise the awareness and knowledge of the parties (producers, buyers,
                banks & farmers).
               To mobilize and organize the farmers to participate in the program.
               To develop market linkages.
               To follow up on the implementation


3.              Project Beneficiaries
     3.1        Common Benefits of solid waste management
               Many drains are blocked with full of garbage, causing nuisance and health
                problems.
               Establishment of proper discharge and storage is vital. It will help reduce
                waste scattering and the need for street sweeping, reduce waste loading
                time and make the introduction of separate collection easier.
               The farmers can get benefits from compost, because it is much cheaper
                than chemical fertilizer and environmental friendly also.

     3.2        Direct and Indirect Beneficiaries
               The initial direct beneficiaries will be the Householders, Business shops,
                Government departments (RDDA, RDA, NWSB, Hospital, AGA, and DS
                etc.) Non government organization, Cooperative societies, Post office,
                Telecom, Temple, Mosque, Fish markets and main bus stand etc, however
                as more peoples directly day today involving in respective organizations
                there will be additional direct beneficiaries.



                07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                            SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




              Indirect beneficiaries include the families of those members and
               communities, retailers and public consumers and city resident including all
               kind of living things. Which will lead to maintaining the bio – diversity in
               the areas?

              The farmers of Mannar district who are involved in agriculture will be the
               beneficiaries.

     3.3       Survey Information to show current situation
               The current situation has been identified through discussion with Urban
               Councils, Environmental Authority, Local CBOs, the Government Agent,
               DS, Resource Development Centre and house holders.




     3.4       Beneficiary Participation
               All beneficiaries (All village level CBOs, Government & NGOs,
               Environment Authority, UC, SEWALANKA and other private institutions
               etc) have been involved in developing the proposal.

4.             Methodology.
     4.1       The plan

              A recycling element that identifies types and quantities of recyclable
               materials, evaluates and quantifies current levels of recycling efforts in
               Mannar
              A waste characterization element that identifies the constituent materials,
               including but not limited to type, quantity and source, that compose solid
               waste generated.
              Rate structures for collection and disposal economic incentives, and a
               program implementation schedule to meet the goal stated.
              Describes, evaluates and identifies the current and future market structure
               for recycling, including procurement preferences for recycled materials.
              A composting element that identifies both the types and quantities of solid
               waste.
              A description of the methods and facilities needed to implement the
               composting element and a program implementation schedule to meet the
               goal. (environmental conservation and better economical yields)


     4.2       To Conducting Interviews

               The interviews must be essential for appropriate data’s from previous
               project implementation. To get more insight into the workings and

               07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                      SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



         organization of solid waste management, interviews are conducted with
         national and local government agencies, "town-cleaning" firms, waste
         resellers and local residents. The reliability and completeness of the
         information obtained through these interviews might in some cases be
         questionable, so care should be taken in its interpretation.

4.3      To Collection survey
         We accompany a group of town cleaners on their morning shift, to gain
         familiarity with their methods, to get an idea of the composition and
         amounts of collected waste and to see which materials are kept apart by
         the cleaners for reselling.

4.4      To Visit Dumpsite survey
         The dumpsites (Ja-Ela DS areas or main urban & municipal dumpsites)
         must be visited and detailed observations will make Quantitative
         measurements of any kind of prove difficult. The size of the sites must
         estimated.

4.5      To Compositing plant survey
         The site of composting areas must be visited and detailed observations
         will make Quantitative measurements of any kind prove difficult. The size
         of the sites must estimate.

4.6      To Measurement of waste production
         Waste production and composition must be measured in 100 households,
         half of which are located in a more "rural" area and half in an "urbanized"
         area. The households will further divide into two or three income groups.
         Waste is collected four times over three weeks, sorted into several material
         types and measure weight. Waste from some retail-shops and eating-
         houses should also be collected and analyzed. The results obtained are
         mostly indicative, as precision and representation of the measurements
         leave something to be desired.

4.7      With the help of the survey results a study is made regarding the solid
         waste management.

      1. To take reliable survey results
      2. Waste production must be analyzed and measured in various ways. those
         are,
              I.      To measure Quantity of solid waste as per household and
                      departments.
              II.     To      identify   the  properties   of    solid   waste.
                      (Organic/glass/metals).
              III.    To measure, Waste production must be measured in
                      community, Religious and cultural level. (Muslims/Tamils/
                      Christians)


         07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                       SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



                 IV.       To measure, Waste production must be measured in rural
                           urban level.

4.8       Establish the Participatory Program for Waste collection

              The various local authorities- Government
              Privatized in Cleaning (roads and markets)
              Public participants




4.9       To improve Public awareness and attitude

          1.   School education or media must be essential extent and depth of solid
                  waste management knowledge is to be established.
          2.      People seem aware of the (potential) environmental problems
                  caused by disposal of solid waste.
          3.      People appear to know about health problems (especially
                  mosquitoes) relating to garbage.
          4.      People appear to know about economical value of organic
                  composting SWM.
          5.      The awareness program must be covered techniques of usage bins,
                  collection method, benefits of SWM.

4.10      To Waste collection




         There seems to be an increasing tendency, especially among shop and
          households on the town-edges, to use bags or bins, instead of just dumping
          the garbage along the roadside.



          07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                    SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




      Centrally placed garbage bins, which are provide are also effective,
       although many waste bins get stolen.

      The SEWALANKA will collect the waste from the dumpsite to produce
       the compost.

4.11   To Public instructions

       The public must be instructed through the awareness program.
       Public should be instructed that the waste should not burnt.
       Stray animals shall not be allowed to move around wastes storage areas or
       at any other placed in the Mannar town council areas.




4.12   To Removal and Transportation of wastes




      Normally the removal and transportation of wastes is by done Municipal
       labour and vehicles from solid waste generations areas.

      Vehicles are close body vehicles with hydraulic tipping type it’s better for
       waste transportation.

      For removal and transportation of garbage, laborers are standing on each
       refuse vehicle. The laborer uses 2 of baskets and 2 of iron rakes per
       vehicle. Due to inadequate manpower it difficult to keep the streets and
       roads in the core areas of the urban town clean.

      It has realized that the civil society and its local organization must be
       engaged in maintaining the aesthetics of the road sides. Collecting garbage
       heaped up in a systematic manner in one place is not difficult.


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     4.13     To Recycling

              Especially households in more rural areas re-use organic waste as animal-feed
              and/or for composting. Here to be built-up composting plant for organic fertilizer
              in house hold level and urban level.

5.            To be identified Source of Waste Generation and Action to
              be Taken.

              The sources of waste generations are identified in Mannar District. Those
              details are given below.




     A.       Household:

          1. To control throw any solid waste in the neighborhood, on the streets, open
             spaces, and vacant lands, into the drains or water bodies. The above action can be
             control by continuity social mobilizing action.
          2. The public manners/careless or tedious mind must be changing by the public
             awareness programme.
          3. Keep food waste/biodegradable waste in a non corrosive container with a cover
             (lid). Keep domestic hazardous waste if and when generated separately for
             disposal at specially notified locations.
          4. The awareness programme must be covered techniques of bins usage, collection
             method and benefits of SWM (Environmental and Economical).
          5. In identified some house holders generate more wastes; therefore they have risk
             for waste management. In this cases can be handled two ways, one of more bins
             can be used or own composting plant can be built up in house premises.
          6. Keep dry, recyclable waste in a bin or bag or a sack.

     B.       Multi-storied buildings commercial complexes private societies:

             Provide separate community bin or bins large enough to hold food/biodegradable
              waste and recyclable waste generated in the building or society.

             Direct the members of the association to deposit their waste in community bin.

     C.       Slums:

              Use community bins provided by local body for deposition of food and
              biodegradable waste.

     D.       Shops, offices, institutions, etc:

              07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                      SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



         If situated in a commercial complex, deposit the waste in bins provided by the
         association.

E.       Hotels & restaurants:

         The container used should be strong, not more than 100 liter in size of volume,
         should have a handle on the top or handles on the sides and a rim at the bottom
         for easy handling.

F.       Vegetable & Fruit Markets:

        Provide large containers, which match with transportation system of the local
         body.
        Shop keepers not to dispose of the waste in front of their shops or open spaces.
         Deposit the waste as and when generated into the large container placed in the
         market.




G.       Meat & fish markets:

        Not to throw any waste in front of their shops or open spaces around. Keep non-
         corrosive container/containers not exceeding 100-litre capacity with lid handle
         and the rim at the bottom and deposit the waste in the said containers as and
         when generated.
        Transfer the contents of this container into a large container provided by the
         association.

H.       Street food vendors:

        Not to throw any waste on the street, pavement or open spaces. Keep bin or bag
         for the storage of waste that generates during street trade activity.
        Preferably have arrangements to affix the bin or bag with the hand–cart used for
         vending.

I.       Marriage halls (kalyanamandapam), community halls:

        To control throw any solid waste in their neighborhood, on the streets, open
         spaces, and vacant lands, into the drains or water bodies. Provide a large
         container with lid which may match with the transportation system of the local
         body and deposit all the waste generated in the premises in such containers.

J.       Hospitals,                                                                  Nursing Homes, etc




         07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                           SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




             Not to throw any solid waste in their neighborhood, on the streets, open spaces,
              and vacant lands, into the drains or water bodies.
             Not to dispose off the biomedical waste in the municipal dust bins or other waste
              collection or storage site meant for municipal solid waste. (Awareness
              programme must be essential for manage this wastages because in Srilanka has
              most of complains from public.)
             Store the waste as per the directions contained in the government of Srilanaka
              Management & Handling Rules.




     K.       Construction/ demolition waste:

             Not to deposit construction waste or debris on the streets, footpaths, pavements,
              open spaces, water bodies etc.
             Store the waste within the premises or with permission of the authorities just
              outside the premises without obstructing the traffic preferably in a container if
              available through the local body or private contractors.

     L.       Garden waste:

             Compost the waste within the garden; if possible trim the garden waste once in a
              week on the days notified by the local body.
             Store the waste into large bags or bins for handing over to the municipal
              authorities appointed for the purpose on the day of collection notified.

     M.       Pulp and paper:

              Lignin – (very easiest for recycling.)

              Lignins wastages are to be producing from more much in cultivation areas and
              more domestic organic waste have content lignin.

6.            To be Identified Life Cycles from Various Waste Resources.
             Organic waste consists of materials that will naturally degrade within a
              reasonable time period. It can be composted or converted into methane
              (biogas), and some of it can be fed to animals. The composting waste


              07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                            SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



               resources of Sources identified from various sector. The organic fertilizers
               can be product from those composting Wastes.

              Paper and cardboard waste are essentially also a form of organic waste.
               When to too dirty, they can be recycled or re-used (e.g. for wrapping, as
               bags or envelopes, and for writing on the unused side). When dirty, they
               could be composed, but caution may be needed because of the printing
               ink.

              Lot of waste papers are generate in to the environment from various sector, those
               waste papers affect the environment. Therefore those papers can be used for
               remaking the papers. It can be making in small industries.

              Glass can be recycled, and glass bottles can be re-used. Other silicate
               (stony) materials can be used in things like road construction, but might
               first need to be grinded.

              Most metals can be recycled. Care should be taken with dumping, as
               heavy metals can cause serious pollution.
               Plastics will degrade naturally, but only very slowly. Addition of certain
               materials during production can speed up this process. Some types of
               plastic waste (mostly PET, PE and PP) can be recycled mechanically, but
               will have to be sorted and cleaned. Tertiary (chemical) recycling of
               plastics is also possible, and can often handle more contaminated waste,
               but these techniques are not yet widely.

7.             Implementation – Mannar District
     7.1      Description of Implementing Partners
           1. The SEWALANKA is having gained much experience, Knowledge in the
              solid waste management & fertilizer production from composting solid
              waste.
           2. The SEWALANKA can be promote and share the knowledge with
              implementing partners is engaging through involving the community and
              the private sector (local CBOs), involving innovative technologies,
              composting and disposal methods, and involving behaviour changes and
              awareness rising about SWM in Mannar Island.
           3. The SEWALANKA is to be covered in city of Mannar District to up to
              Thalai Mannar. Through this SWM project will also to be create more job
              opportunities for most vulnerable youths in Mannar.

     7.2       Roles and responsibilities of project partners
               The SEWALANKA will be responsible for the implementing the
               proposed project and ensure a proper management of the staff and
               equipments to improve the quality of the sustainable SWM in the future.
               Funding agent will be responsible for ensuring that the project is executed
               according to Government and Donor Regulations.
               07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
                                                                                               - 21 -
                        SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




     7.3   Project Management Bodies
           SEWALANKA will be responsible for monitoring, supervising and
           supporting the project and Government Bodies such as Environmental
           Authorities, Mannar UC and The ACLG, Local CBOs, Piradesa Saba, and
           Divisional Secretary Office will meet monthly to assess project
           implementation and incorporate lessons learned. And The District Review
           Board will monitor the progress to review meetings and reporting.

     7.4   Exit Plan and Sustainability
           The funding agent will be provide the initial capital to purchase a Tractor
           with trailer and necessary equipment to be supplied to our organization in
           Mannar, for implement the Project sustainable ways. This SWM is a
           rolling program and will be transfer to the dispose or dumping or recycling
           in monthly.




     7.5   Public and Staff Environmental Awareness and Attitude
           We need to think about staff awareness program. The public must be
           instructed through the awareness program. Establish the resources unit for
           the program of Environmental Awareness.

8.         Monitoring and Evaluation
     8.1   M&E Plan
           The SEWALANKA will be responsible for monitoring, reporting on a
           monthly basis to funding agent on the progress of the SWM in
           sustainability of the inputs and progress. The Environmental Authority
           will provide advice and support as appropriate to ensure its sustainability.

     8.2   Reporting requirements
           The SEWALANKA will be required to submit monthly reports on the
           projects and impact to the GA and donor agent, Pradesasabas/ UCs,
           Environmental authority and demonstrating the impact of the project on
           the community. The SEWALANKA will be report to the funding agent as
           per their requirement.

9.         Project inputs
     9.1   Local counterpart participation and contribution
           The SEWALANKA will also be responsible for sustainability of the
           project. The public participation as well as use to in efficiently manner by
           SEWALANKA.

           07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                             SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




        9.2     To Donor contribution
                Donor agent will provide the capital required for the purchase of tractor &
                trailer, gunny bags, tree plants, wheel barrow, waste collection bins, tree
                protection cages, providing training and advertisements, awareness
                program for public, to be built up composting plant, compost packing
                materials and machines.

        9.3     Establish Resource, Capacity and Equipment Needs.
                Suitable equipments must be purchasing for solid waste and composting
                processing works. SEWALANAKA has in planning level of staffs but it
                has insufficient of the project therefore more employees must be attaching
                for the project.




10.     Preparation of the preliminary design matrix by the study team
OBJECTIVE                    KEY                              MONITORING &                       CRITICAL
                             PERFORMANCE                      EVALUATION                         ASSUMPTIONS
                             INDICATORS
Goal                         Indicators                       Monitoring &                       . Goal to donor
                                                              Evaluation
Recreate confidence          Acceptance of                    Socio economic and                 Socio awareness
in the minds of              environmental                    environmental, base                and environment
Mannar society of            conservation.                    line and project                   secure stable.
realizing high degree        Farmers to cultivate             completion of                      Security situation
of success in SWM            organic farming.                 survey SWM
and enhancement of           Increase of per capita
                                                              records.
living standard.             income.
Project purpose              End of program                   Program reports                    Purpose to Goal
                             indicator
Make available               Extent used of                   The SewaLanka will                 Normal weather
handling maximum             organic fertilizer.              be required to                     pattern and effective
solid waste for              Extent and                       submit monthly                     system management
environment                  improved the public              reports on the                     and its function
cleaning with                awareness.                       projects and impact
produce highest                                               to the donor agent.
organic fertilizer.
Improve the SWM              Operation and       Project committee                               Existence of cordial
in Mannar.                   maintenance         meetings.                                       relationship between
                             activities.                                                         supporting bodies.
Participatory SWM            SewaLanka officer’s Beneficiary surveys.                            Community’s
systems introduced           reports.                                                            acceptance of
and aware with                                                                                   participating

                07/07/2007          Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                             SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA



public.                                                                                          management
                                                                                                 policies.
Project                      Inputs                           Project reports                    Critical
components                                                                                       assumptions
SWM &                        Works completed                  Project supervision                Availability of
composting plant             20 million.                      reports                            workers.
Agronomic                    Indicator                        Project reports                    Critical
measures                                                                                         assumptions
Improve high                 Extension activities             Extensions reports.                Farmer organization
yielding intensive           at the field level               CBO’s statement                    responsive.
crop cultivation.            strengthened.                    reports.                           Active beneficiary
Soil test based              CBO’s meetings.                                                     participation.
organic fertilizer           Soil crop
application.                 recommendation.
Marketing groups             Maps preparation
formed.                      for indicate the
                             organic fertile
                             application areas.

       11.ESTIMATION OF COST FOR SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
     (SWM) & RODUCE THE ORGANIC COMPOST FROM MUNICIPAL
            AND HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN MANNAR DISTRICT.
                                                UNIT                            LOCAL        DONOR
              LINE ITEMS                                         UNIT                                  TOTAL
                                                COST                         CONTRIBUTION CONTRIBUTION



                                FOR COMPOSTING PLANT CONSTRUCTION


 1 Leasing land                                  600000 1 Acre                                              600000 600000
 2 Land clearence                                 19200 1 Acre                                               19200 19200
 3 land levelling                                 19200 1 Acre                                               19200 19200
 4 Drainage system (308 meter)                     2046 308 m                                               630160 630160
              (308x0.5x0.5)

     Construct to store & ware house
 5             (10mx15m)                       2016000 1 W.house                                          2016000 2016000
      Shed for compost plant (10x30)
 6                                               646800                                                     646800 646800
    Concrete stage for compost plant
 7         (10mx30mx150mm)                       120000 6 stage                                            720000 720000
 8          Grinding machine                     760000 1 nos                                              760000 760000
 9 Fuels and Maintenance                                                                    300000         148000 448000
                         Sub total                                                          300000        5559360 5859360




                07/07/2007          Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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                             SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




                                PURCHASE OF EQUIPMENTS AND ITEMS
1        Procure 4 Wheel tracter       1100000      2                                                   1100000 1100000
2        Procure 2 tractor trailer      220000      2                                                    440000 440000
3         Procure Wheel barrow            9500     10                                                     95000 95000
4       Purchase the hand gloves            50    500                                                     25000 25000
5         Purchase the uniform            1500     30                                                     45000 45000
     Waste collection bins uncorodable
6             material (1m3)              6500     70                                                    455000 455000
     Waste collection bins For Plastic
7               Collection                2000     70                                                    140000 140000
      Waste collection bins For Glass
8               Collection                2000     70                                                    140000 140000
      Waste collection bins for Metal
9                collection               2000     70                                                    140000 140000

                Sub total                                                                               2580000 2580000



                                                UNSKILL LABOURS

1 Unskill labours (6Laboursx6 months)            19000 6x6month                            228000        456000 684000



                   Sub Total                                                               228000        456000 684000




                                            AWARENESS PROGRAM

1            Handlets Notices                     3000 6000 nos                                           18000 18000
2            Story Video film                    11000 10prgrm                                           110000 110000
    Hall arrangements & Helpers School
           level Prgm (Rs. 80x50)
3                                                  4000 05 Prgrm                                20000     20000    40000
  Hall arrangements & Helpers School
4           level CBO's Level                      6000 10 Prgrm                                20000     40000    60000
   Advertishments Picture drawings
5            and letter writting                   9050 05 Nos                                            45250    45250
    Board transporting and placing
6            (8'x8'xRs200x5)                         200 64xSq.ftx5                                       64000    64000
7         Supervising Charges                                                                   12000              12000



                07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
                                                                                                          - 25 -
                                 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




      Stationeries (Demy papers,
   Markers, Refreshments for students
 8             Rs50x50)                                  4050 10 Prgrm                                             40500         40500
 9       Resource person fee                             1500 10 Prgrm                                             15000         15000
     Awareness Program in house hold
        level ( about 2000 houses)
10                                                         25 2000 nos                                             50000         50000

                  Sup Total                                                                         52000         402750 454750

              TOTAL COST                                                                       580000            8998110 9578110




        12.       WORK PLAN

        COMPONENTS/ 1                        2       3        4       5        6       7       8        9   10    11        12
          TIME(MONTH)
        1. The Plan     X
        2.To Conducting X                    X
        Interviews
        3.To Collection Survey               X       X
        4.To Visit Dumpsite                  X       X
        Survey
        5.To Compositing Plant               X       X
        Survey
        6.To Measurement of                  X       X        X
        Waste Production
        7. With the Help of the              X       X        X
        Survey Results a Study is
        Made Regarding the Solid
        Waste Management.
        8.Establish the                      X       X        X       X        X       X       X        X   X     X         X
        Participatory Program for
        Waste Collection
        9.To Improve Public                          X        X       X        X       X       X        X   X     X         X
        Awareness and Attitude
        10.Purchasing                                         X       X        X
        11.Public Instructions        X      X
        12.To    Removal      and                                                                           X     X         X
        Transportation of Wastes

        13.To Recycling (construct                            X       X        X       X       X        X
        the compost plant)



                  07/07/2007           Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
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             SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MANNAR - SRILANKA




07/07/2007         Author: G.Ragavan. DIsOUSL, AMIIESL (Agriculture Engineer)
                                                                                - 27 -

								
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