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Introduction to Forensic Psychology CC

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					1
     Forensic Sciences (A-Z)
Anthropology
  Victim identification from bones
  Facial reconstruction
Biology
  Botany
  Entomology
Chemistry
  Analysis of substances
                                     2
   Forensic Sciences (A-Z)
Engineering
  Accident reconstruction
  Fire & explosion analysis
Medicine
  Pathology
  Odontology
  Toxicology
Meteorology
Accounting                    3
                       Forensic Sciences Timeline
1575        French surgeon Ambroise Pareé publishes
          “Reports in Court”, first text on legal medicine.

1250     Chinese text describes how to distinguish death
            by drowning from death by strangulation.

1000
         Roman attorney Quintilian argues that bloody
            palm prints are attempt to frame him.


         First forensic autopsy conducted on Julius Caesar
                   by Roman physician Antistius
44 BCE                                                        4
                     Forensic Sciences Timeline
            Christian Schonbein discovers the first
       presumptive test for blood (hydrogen peroxide).

1863
        Ambroise Tardieu notes petechial
          hemorrhages in asphyxia.
1855
         Sir Robert Christison publishes “Treatise on
         Poisons”. English standard for many years.
1829
         Mathieu Orfila, ‘father of modern toxicology’,
       publishes first toxicology text: “Traite de Poisons”.
1813                                                      5
                    Forensic Sciences Timeline
         Alexandre Lacassagne first uses lands and
         grooves to match bullet with gun barrel.

1889
       Cesare Lombroso uses changes in blood
            volume to detect deception.
1885
        Thomas Taylor, in the U.S, suggests the use of
           fingerprints in criminal identification.
1877
       Taylor & Wilkes’ classic paper on determining time
               since death by body temperature.
1863                                                     6
                    Forensic Sciences Timeline
       Under Sir Edward R. Henry, Scotland Yard replaces
        anthropometrics with fingerprint identification.

1901
          Sir Edward Richard Henry of Scotland Yard
         develops modern print classification system,
              based on work of Sir Francis Galton.
1896
       Argentine Juan Vucetich makes first criminal
                   ID using fingerprints.
         Austrian Hans Gross publishes “Criminal
        Investigation”; coins word ‘criminalistics’.

1891                                                    7
                     Forensic Sciences Timeline
       F.B.I. established by U.S. President
               Theodore Roosevelt.




         French criminalist Edmond Locard publishes
        “Criminal Investigation & Scientific Methods”.
1905            (‘Every contact leaves a trace”)
        First use of forensic geology by German Georg
                              Popp
1904
       First systematic use of fingerprint ID in the U.S., by
                  New York state prison system.
1903                                                       8
                    Forensic Sciences Timeline

         German Georg Popp develops
              forensic botany.


1922   Californian John Larsen develops
            first practical polygraph.

1921     In U.S. development of comparison
         microscope for bullet comparisons.
1920
          Italian Leone Lattes develops and uses first
             antibody test for human blood groups.
1915                                                     9
                     Forensic Sciences Timeline

        In Denmark, Frank Lundquist develops
         the acid phosphatase test for semen.


1945   Murray Hill of Bell Labs in the U.S.
       pioneers voiceprint identification.

1941   German Walter Specht develops
         the luminol test for blood.
1937
       Los Angeles, California, Establishes first
               U.S. crime laboratory.
1924                                                10
                       Forensic Sciences Timeline
         In Japan, Masato Soba uses Superglue
             fuming to develop latent prints.
             -------------------------------------------
             FBI introduces AFIS (Automated
            Fingerprint Identification System)

1977
       First use of scanning electron microscope
            to detect gunshot residue (GSR).
1974

        In Ontario, Douglas Lucas describes the use of gas
         chromatography to identify petroleum products.
1960                                                       11
                    Forensic Sciences Timeline
         In U.S., first use of DNA to
          overturn rape conviction


         In U.K., first use of DNA to clear suspect of
        crime; first convictions for sexual assault on
1989      the basis of DNA evidence (U.K. and U.S.)


       Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for
1987       DNA replication developed

1986      In England, Sir Alec Jeffries develops
       restriction fragment length polymorphism
                 for ‘DNA fingerprinting’
1984                                                     12
                         Forensic Psych Timeline

           In U.S., James McKeen Cattell conducts
               research on memory accuracy.


           Dr. Thomas Bond provides first offender
1895    profile in London’s Whitechapel murders case


1888   Sherlock Holmes story “A Study in Scarlet” appears.

1887
          Edgar Allen Poe’s “Murders in the Rue
           Morgue” feature M. Auguste Dupin
1842                                                   13
                         Forensic Psych Timeline
        Lewis Terman’s Stanford-Binet IQ test used to
          assess police/fire applicants in California


1916    Hugo Munsterberg publishes
          “On the Witness Stand”


1908   William Stern conducts research on eyewitness
              testimony and leading questions

1901
          Albert von Schrenk-Notzing testifies about
         effects of pretrial publicity on witness recall
1896                                                       14
                        Forensic Psych Timeline
           American Psychological Association
           recognizes forensic psychology as a
2001        specialization within psychology


        In Jenkins vs United States, court recognizes
        testimony of psychologists re mental illness
1962
           U.S. Psychologists testify re affects of
1954    segregation in Brown vs Board of Education


       In Frye vs United States, W. Marston provides
           expert testimony re polygraph results
1923                                                    15
      Forensic Psych Journals
American Journal of Forensic Psychology
Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Criminal Justice & Behavior
Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice
Law & Psychology Review
Psychology, Crime, & Law
Psychology, Public Policy, & Law
                                      16
What Do Forensic Psychologists Do?
Civil Cases
  Child custody assessments
  Civil competence assessments
  Expert testimony in damage and
  workman’s compensation cases


                                   17
What Do Forensic Psychologists Do?
Criminal Cases
   Offender profiling
   Competence to stand trial
   Assessment of mental illness
   Assist in jury selection (in U.S.)
   Expertise re witness testimony, etc.
   Testimony re chances of
   rehabilitation, risk of violence, etc.
                                        18
What Do Forensic Psychologists Do?
As academics, researchers
 Conduct research on forensic issues
     Detecting truth and deception
     Memory & eyewitness testimony
     Jury psychology
     Offender characteristics
 Provide expert testimony on the above


                                       19
 Where Do Forensic Psychologists
            Work?
Private clinical practice
Private consultant to attorneys
Hospital/mental health unit clinician
University academic researcher
Law enforcement agency
                                   20
    Clinical-Forensic Psychology

Assess and treat mental Illness
Expert testimony re mental states
in civil and criminal cases
Research on clinical-forensic issues
  In Ontario, requires Ph.D. plus
  clinical internship
                                       21
     Developmental Psychology
More about policy than treatment
Testify re child competence, preferences, etc.
Testify re juvenile competence, sentencing
options, etc.
Testify re effects of abuse
Testify re competence of elderly

  Typically an academic with Ph.D.
                                             22
          Social Psychology
Mostly about jury psychology and
decision-making
Research social influences on witness
memory, credibility, jury decision-making
Provide expert testimony re above


 Typically an academic with Ph.D.     23
        Cognitive Psychology
Similar to social psychology in relation to
forensic issues
Research on cognitive processes in
memory, decision-making
Provide expert testimony re above


 Typically an academic with Ph.D.       24
 Criminal Investigative Psychology
Study and consult on police
psychology, assessment
Criminal profiling
Counselling for police and victims

M.A. or Ph.D. with assessment and/or
clinical expertise                   25

				
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