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TEACHING THINKING

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					TEACHING THINKING

Macgregor SHS
Overview
   Why bother to try to teach thinking?
   What is a thinking skill?
   Which thinking skills will we teach?
   Basic Thinking Skills
   Higher Order Thinking Skills
   Teaching Thinking
   Thinking and Literacy
Why bother?

Thinking skills unlock the keys for
learning
MacGregor’s Strategic Directions
  Since 1995 placed increasing emphasis
   on the skills/attitudes/processes
   underlying subject disciplines
    Thinking Skills
    Literacy and Numeracy
    Communication skills
    Accessing, processing and presenting
     information
Premises
• All subjects require students to think
• There are some generic strategies that guide
  thinking no matter what the subject
• There are some specific strategies in all
  subjects to implement thinking skills
• All students will benefit from explicit help
  in the application of generic strategies and
  specific tasks requiring structured thought
Premises
• There is a need for students to explicitly develop
  the capacity to transfer their ability to think to
  other subjects,to employment, to leisure and to
  non subject specific tasks

• The identification and explicit practice of generic
  thinking strategies and specific thinking skills will
  help students develop their ability to think in a
  structured way in unfamiliar situations
ED QLD 2010 Directions
 Framework project
   New Basics
   Productive Pedagogies
 Literate Futures
 Information, communication technologies
  (ICT)
Why bother?
•   Research
•   Mayer
•   ROSBA, CCEs and KLAs
•   2010 Directions
    •   New Basics
    •   Productive Pedagogies
    •   ICTs
    •   Literate Futures
Research
• “Several large scale classroom evaluation
  studies have successfully linked teaching
  thinking methodologies with learning
  outcomes both in the short term and in the
  longer term, although not all are equally
  successful” McGuiness 1999
Research
 Can thinking skills be taught? A paper for
  discussion. Valerie Wilson
 http://www.scre.ac.uk/scot-
  research/thinking/index.html
 Scottish Council for Research in Education
  (May 2000)
Research
 Towards Developing and Implementing A
  Thinking Curriculum. Robert J. Swartz
  (June 2003)
 http://www.nctt.net/hongkongaddress.html
Mayer
FROM ROSBA TO KLAs
• ROSBA 1978, Content, Process, Skill and
  Affective Directives
• Viviani Report - CCEs are processed based
• KLAs – Outcomes based
Common Curriculum Elements
 Identification of processes
 Definitions of thinking skills
   For Example: Classifying is systemically
    distributing information/data into categories
    which may be presented to, or created by, the
    student.
KLA’s
 Outcomes Based
   HPE Select and use information and apply problem
    solving and decision making strategies to: make
    informed decisions… evaluate their own actions…
   Science Working scientifically
        Analysing
        Applying ideas and concepts
        Assessing and reassessing
        Creating analogies
        Inferring from data
        Interpreting data
        Judging credibility
        Synthesising
        …
KLA’s
 SOSE
   Students evaluate evidence
   Students develop criteria – based judgements
   Students analyse patterns of spatial variations
 Technology
   Analyse alternate structures, logic methods of control
   Students process, transform, present and transmit
    information using appropriate forms, …
   Students devise detailed production proposals…
   Students develop suitable alternatives …
New Basics
Productive Pedagogies
  • Higher order thinking
  • Critical Analysis
  • Problem based curriculum
Valued Performance under the
New Basics
   Researching and consulting
   Analysing, synthesising, relating and selecting
   Negotiating and personalizing
   Planning, designing and creating
   Judging and deciding
   Operating and making and acting
   Evaluating and revising
   Presenting, performing, explaining and
    communicating
Literate Futures
4 Resource Model
  •   Code breaker
  •   Meaning maker
  •   Text User
  •   Text Analyst
Conclusion
• Underpinning all initiatives is the need for
  students to be able to think effectively and
  reflect upon their learning
• In 21st Century students must be smart
  thinkers
• Need to explicitly teach students how to
  think
What is a thinking skill?
Which will we teach?
Taxonomy
• Foundation Skills- Recall & Perception
• Basic Thinking Skills -Analysis, Comparison,
  Classification, Evaluation, Prediction, Interpretation and
  Inference.

• Synthesis
• Higher Order Thinking Skills - Problem
  Solving, Decision Making, Creative Thinking and Critical Thinking.
Which thinking skill have we
been predominantly using in this
session?
Analysis
 What are we analysing and why?
 Activate prior knowledge and find more
  information
 Identify components
 Examine components and their relationship
  to one another
 State results
Analysis: Components of a Sport
Rules          Procedures
Equipment      Pitch
Players        etc
Identifying the components of a thinking
skill (Beyer)
                        Thinking Skill




                                              Relationship
Definition and Label       Attributes          to others




 Knowledge      Rules    Procedure

                                  Superordinate   Subordinate
State Results
 What is a thinking skill?
Our use of analysis ..
 What parts were difficult?
 Who controlled the learning?
 Have you learned anything about analysis?
Metacognition
 Talking about the thinking
 Transferring to another context
What is Higher Order Thinking
   Synthesis
   Problem Solving
   Decision Making
   Creative thinking
   Critical Thinking
Higher Order Thinking
 “The students’ success in using the higher
  order thinking skills of critical and creative
  thinking, problem solving and decision
  making is dependent on their mastery of the
  more basic information processing skills”
  Beyer
Teaching Thinking
 “The danger inherent in the teaching of
  thinking is that the discrete skills remain
  single and isolated. There is little value in
  this approach if students are not given the
  opportunities to practise and transfer the
  thinking skills into course content.” Beyer
Premise
 Thinking Skills needed to be taught
  explicitly
 Need for a shift in Pedagogy to create the
  thinking classroom and the thinking student.
Target
    Explicit, Active and Transferable




  EAT
Teaching thinking
 Teaching for thinking

 Teaching of thinking

 Teaching about thinking
The Thinking Classroom
 Explicit teaching of thinking skills
 Active use of the thinking skill (e.g. co-operative
  learning, hands-on exploratory activities, problems
  to be solved, risk taking, discussion)
 Reflection upon the nature of the thinking
  undertaken
 Transference of thinking skills across curriculum
  areas
 Thinking skills applied independently by students
Designing an Infusion Lesson
 What thinking skill should be the focus?
 Plan the lesson
 Remember:
     Introduction to the content and the thinking process (E)
     Thinking actively involving verbal prompts and graphic
      outlines (A)
     Thinking about thinking (E)
     Applying thinking to other situations (T)
Robert J. Swartz Teaching Thinking: Issues and Approaches
Where is the thinking in literacy?
 Literacy is the flexible and sustainable mastery of a
  repertoire of practices with the texts of traditional and new
  communications technologies via spoken language, print
  and multimedia.
 By ‘flexible’, we mean that students are able to adjust and
  modify their performance to better meet contextual
  demands and varying situations. By ‘sustainable’, we
  emphasise maintenance and achievement over time.
  ‘Mastery’ involves performance characterised by high
  achievement. A ‘repertoire’ involves sets of options for
  complex performance of literacy practices.

Literate Futures – Report of the Literacy Review for Queensland State Schools 2000
Inference and Interpretation
 Inference and Interpretation hard to
  disentangle.

 Both are integral to reading and
  comprehension

 Both are crucial thinking skills in student
  engagement with the multiple literacies
  (including numeracy)
Rationale
 Current QCS test requires complex
  literacy/numeracy skills

 Student understanding and application of
  the thinking skills Inference and
  Interpretation are keys to success in the
  QCS test.
Rationale
 To understand and apply the thinking skills
  of Inference and Interpretation students
   Need explicit instruction
   Need active involvement in the thinking
   Need to recognise the transference from one
    subject area to another
   Need to reflect upon their use of these thinking
    skills
                     Interpretation
Inference            •State what you want to know the meaning of
•State what you      •Make observations and use prior knowledge
want to guess/know
•Make observations
& use prior
knowledge
                     •If necessary,
•Make guesses        make inferences
•Examine evidence
supporting each
guess
                        •Sort information / inferences and
•Choose the best        identify relationships
guess                   •State meaning
The Teaching Learning Cycle
   Building the context
   Modelling the text
   Joint construction of the text
   Independent construction of the text
   Linking related texts
Synthesis and the teaching learning
cycle
   Synthesis
   Literacy Profile
   Teaching learning cycle
   LOTE
   Thinking skills
Matching the thinking to the literacy
outcome
Synthesis model – one size fits all
 Understand topic and product
     Content:(Develop focus question, search terms,
      etc)
     Genre:
   Locate information
   Evaluate information
   Select and sort information
   Create final product
Unit Planning
 MacGregor SHS - Unit cover sheet
 H:\Thinking WEB site\Unit Cover Sheet Feb
  2002.rtf
 Explanatory notes
 T:\Thinking Skills\Lesson Planning
  Templates\Cover sheet notes 2.doc
Lesson Planning
 Infusing the Teaching of Thinking: Robert J.
  Swartz
 http://www.nctt.net/lessonsarticles.html#LESSONS
 Template adapted from Swartz & Perkins

				
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