Humble Independent School District by jolinmilioncherie


									 TAKS REVIEW

U.S. History – 11th Grade
  Analyzing Multiple-Choice Questions

 Steps for analyzing a multiple-choice
  1. Carefully read the question.
  2. Attempt to answer it before you look at the answer
  3. Read all the answer choices.
  4. Reread the question, and circle key words.
  5. Underline under any absolutes, such as no, not,
     none, except, never, always, only, and all.
  6. Circle any qualifiers that appear obviously wrong.
  7. Eliminate answers that appear obviously wrong.
  8. Select the most correct answer.
                Sample Questions
1.   Which of the following is least likely to be a symbol of the Jazz Age, which began
     in America in the aftermath of World War I and became a symbol of freedom and
        a.   Musicians who combined western harmonies with African rhythms
        b.   Young adults who rejected moral values and rules of the Victorian Age
        c.   Flappers, who shocked their elders by bobbing their hair and wearing short skirts
        d.   Depressed economic conditions and widespread persecution of immorality
2.   The President is a member of the _____ branch of government.
        a.   Judicial
        b.   Legislative
        c.   Executive
        d.   Congressional
3.   The Fourth of July marks the anniversary of
        a.   The approval of the Declaration of Independence.
        b.   The beginning of the American Revolution.
        c.   The landing of Pilgrims at Plymouth Rock.
        d.   The discovery of America.
4.   Which of the following is not a symbol of the United States?
        a.   An eagle
        b.   The American flag
        c.   A globe
        d.   “Uncle Sam”
             Analyzing Images
 5 W’s
     Who? – Who is pictured in the image?
     What? – What objects and scenes appear in the image?
     When? – When is the action taking place?
     Where? – Where does the action take place?
     Why? – Why is the action happening?
     Observe – Overview
     Parts
     Title
     Inference
     Conclusion
 Drawing Conclusions & Inferences
1.   Read the selection carefully.
2.   Determine the main idea of the passage or quote.
3.   Identify the stated facts.
4.   Identify unstated ideas. Distinguish between what is
     implied by the facts and what is suggested by the
     perception of the author.
5.   Verify that the facts in the passage support your
     conclusion in Step 2.
6.   Read the question.
7.   Review the passage.
8.   Select or write an answer that uses facts that you have
     concluded are present in the selection.
My dad said to us kids: “all of you get in the car. I want to take you and show you
   something.” On the way over there, he’d talk about how life had been rough for us,
   and he said: “If you think it’s been rough for us, I want you to see people that really
   had it rough”…He took us to one of the Hoovervilles…

Here were all these people living in old, rusted-out car bodies. I mean that was their
   home. There were people living in shacks made of orange crates. One family with a
   whole lot of kids was living in a piano box. This wasn’t just a little section; this was
   maybe ten miles wide and ten miles long. People were livng in whatever they could
   junk together.

And when I read Grapes of Wrath…that was like reliving my life, particularly the part
   where they lived in this Government camp. Because when we were picking fruit in
   Texas, we lived in a Government place like that…And when I was reading Grapes of
   Wrath this was just like my life. I was never so proud of poor people before, as I was
   after I read that book.

1. What can you infer about the people who live in the Hooverville?
     a.   They found happiness.
     b.   They are content.
     c.   They lost their homes.
     d.   They are lazy.
2. What can you infer about how the narrator feels about living as she did during the
    Great Depression?
     a.   She feels proud.
     b.   She feels ashamed.
     c.   She feels happy.
     d.   She feels longing.
     Interpreting Graphs, Charts, & Tables

1.  Read the title.
2.  Determine the purpose and what is being compared or
3. Read the question, but not the answer choices.
4. Study the key.
5. Identify any symbols or labels.
6. Identify the main idea.
7. Answer the question in your own words.
8. Read the answer choices.
9. Eliminate the obviously wrong answers.
10. Select the best answer.
       Unemployment, 1928-1938
1. Between what years        80
   did the percentages       60
                             50                                       Germ any

   of people in the work     40
                                                                      Great Britain
                                                                      United States

   force in the United       20

   States, Great Britain,     0











   and Germany all
  a.   1929 and 1932
  b.   1937 and 1938
  c.   1932 and 1937
  d.   1933 and 1937
      Analyzing Reading Passages & Quotations

1.     Read the title.
2.     Determine the answers to these questions:
         a.   Who is the author?
         b.   What is his or her purpose?
         c.   Who is the intended audience?
3.     Determine when the passage or quotation was written. Look for
4.     Carefully read the passage or quotation.
5.     Read the test question, but not the answer choices.
6.     Reread the passage or quotation, circling key words.
7.     Underline main ideas in the passage or quote.
8.     Reread the question, and predict the answer.
9.     Read the answer choices.
10.     Select the best or correct answer.
I will build a motor car for the great multitude. It will be large enough for
    the family but small enough for the individual to run and care for. It
    will be constructed of the best materials, by the best men to be
    hired, after the simplest designs that modern engineering can
    devise. But it will be so low in price that no man making a good
    salary will be unable to own one— and enjoy with his family the
    blessing of hours of pleasure in God’s great open spaces.
                                                      — Henry Ford, 1909

1. Which action is most closely associated with Henry Ford’s attempt
   to realize this vision?
    a.   Providing cars in a variety of models
    b.   Creating a business monopoly
    c.   Downsizing the labor force
    d.   Using the assembly line
   Analyzing Cause-Effect Relationships
By 1763, the British were among the most heavily taxed people in the
   world. The costs of governing and defending Britain’s vast empire
   had skyrocketed during the French and Indian War. Because of
   this, Britain’s Prime Minister Grenville asked whether these colonies
   shouldn’t begin to pay some of the costs of their own government
   and defense.

Therefore, in March 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act.
  This law placed a tax on newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents,
  and most other printed materials. It required that an official
  government stamp be printed on or attached to these materials to
  show that the tax had been paid. The Stamp Act marked the first
  time that the British government had taxed the colonists for the clear
  purpose of raising money.

In response, delegates from seven colonies held a meeting that
    became known as the Stamp Act Congress. James Otis of
    Massachusetts claimed that Britain had no right to force laws on the
    colonies because the colonists had no representatives in the British
    Parliament. As a result, “no taxation without representation”
    became the colonists’ rallying cry.
1.    What was the result of the Stamp
     a.   Colonial delegates met to form the Stamp
          Act Congress.
     b.   Grenville agreed to have representation
          of the colonists in Parliament.
     c.   The British Parliament placed a tax on
          most printed materials.
     d.   The colonists became the most heavily
          taxed people in the world.
2.    What was the result of the Stamp
     a.   Colonial delegates met to form the Stamp
          Act Congress.
     b.   Grenville agreed to have representation
          of the colonists in Parliament.
     c.   The British Parliament placed a tax on
          most printed materials.
     d.   The colonists became the most heavily
          taxed people in the world.
   Colonial Period, 1700-1776
 Magna Carta: guaranteed certain civil liberties to the
  English – foundation for democracy
 Mayflower Compact: Pilgrims made an agreement to
  obey all of their governments laws and govern
 Most people came to the Americas seeking religious
 1607: 1st Colonial Settlement, Jamestown
 House of Burgesses: representative government
 3 Regions:
    New England: subsistence farming – almost no slavery
    Middle: 50/50, Agriculture/Shipping – some slavery
    Southern: Plantation farming – slave labor
American Revolution, 1776-1783
Sugar, Stamp & Tea Acts: British colonial
“No taxation without representation”: Boston
 Massacre & Boston Tea Party
Declaration of Independence: listed colonial
 grievances against King George III; Primary
 writer: Thomas Jefferson
1st Battles: Lexington & Concord
Major Battles: Saratoga, Yorktown (turning
 point b/c colonists started winning)
Treaty of Paris: ended the war
     New Republic, 1783-1790
 Articles of Confederation: 1st government of the
  United States; very weak b/c it gave too much power to
  the states and not enough to the federal government
 Federalist Papers: written by Alexander Hamilton, John
  Jay & James Madison; written to persuade others to
  ratify the Constitution
 U.S. Constitution: blue print for the national
    Bill of Rights: 1st 10 Amendments; guarantee civil liberties
    7 Principles of Government: Separation of Powers, Checks &
     Balances, Republicanism, Federalism, Popular Sovereignty,
     Limited Government, Individual Rights
          Civil War, 1861-1865
 Missouri Compromise: maintained balance between #
  of Free/Slave states
 Dred Scott Decision: declared slaves were not citizens
 Election of 1860: Lincoln is elected and the south talks
  about secession over the issue of states’ rights
 Fort Sumter: started the war
 Emancipation Proclamation: Freed the slaves only in
  the South
 Appomattox Courthouse: Lee (South) surrendered to
  Grant (North)
 Advantages
    North: Industrialized, transportation, & large population
    South: Best generals & fighting a defensive war
13th, 14th, & 15th Amendments: “Free,
 Citizens, Vote.”
Freedmen’s Bureau: helped freed slaves
 find work, food, shelter & schooling
Military districts insured “new”
 governments were following the law
Overall, Radical Reconstruction gave
 the federal government more power
Economic Developments, 1877-1898

Technology: Telephone, Bessemer Process,
 electricity, automobile
Growth of Railroads: Completion of the
 transcontinental railroad, unfair railroad rates
Growth of Labor Unions: Strikes, Knights of
 Labor, A.F.L.
Rise of Big Business: Corporations, Andrew
 Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller
Farm Issues: Settling the Great Plains, greater
 food production, drop in food prices
    Social Issues, 1877-1898
Child Labor: In mines and factories; state
 legislation to limit the practice
Growth of Cities: Rapid population growth,
 crowded tenements, political corruption,
 inadequate services
Problems of Immigration: “Push” and “Pull”
 factors brought immigrants to America; an influx
 of “New Immigrants,” who spoke no English, and
 often settled in ethnic ghettos; nativists opposed
     Treatment of Minorities
African Americans
   Loss of voting rights in the South as a result of poll
    taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
   Jim Crow Laws
Native Americans: Constantly pushed
 westward, and confined to reservations; Dawes
 Act (1887)
Asian Americans: Chinese Exclusion Act
Mexican Americans: Loss of land in former
 Mexican territories
           WEB DuBois
Called on African Americans to
 immediately work for full social &
 political equality
Helped to form N.A.A.C.P. in 1909
Opposed Booker T. Washington’s
 emphasis on learning job skills
Believed in leadership of the “Talented
Middle-class reformers who sought to end
 political corruption and social abuses caused by
 rise of big business
Muckrakers: writers and reporters such as
 Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
Progressive Amendments:
   16th Amendment: Created a graduated income tax
   17th Amendment: Provided for the direct election of
    US Senators
 Impact of Progressive Reforms
Americans looked to the federal government
 for protection from big business abuses
Protected consumers, children, small
 businesses, and natural resources from the
 abuses of big business
Progressive reforms made government more
 responsive to the people: primaries, direct
 election of Senators, referendums, initiatives
Introduced a graduated income tax to help
 finance government
       Progressive Presidents
Theodore Roosevelt: Square Deal:
   Protected consumers with passage of the Pure Food
    & Drug Act
   Combated “bad” trusts; sought to conserve nation’s
    natural resources
William Taft: 16th & 17th Amendments
Woodrow Wilson:
     Income Tax
     Clayton Antitrust Act
     Federal Reserve Act
     Child Labor Law
  Susan B. Anthony/Women’s Suffrage

After Civil War, focus of women’s movement
 was on achieving the right to vote
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady
 Stanton formed an organization to work for
 women’s suffrage
During World War I women replaced men in
 factories and other work places. After the
 war, the 19th Amendment guaranteed women
 the right to vote (1920).
  Rise of America as a Great Power

Spanish-American War (1898): War
 began over Spanish atrocities in Cuba and
 the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana.
U.S. Expansionism:
     Hawaii
     Philippines
     Puerto Rico
     Panama Canal Zone
     Cuba becomes an American protectorate
                World War I
 Start of War: Begins in Europe in 1914 with the
  assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
 Causes: Nationalism, Economic rivalries, Alliance
  system in Europe, & Militarism
 U.S. Entry: U.S. entered war in 1917 over issue of
  freedom of seas and German policy of unrestricted
  submarine warfare
 Wilson issues Fourteen Points (program for peace &
  set up League of Nations)
 U.S. entry into war breaks deadlock. Germany
  surrenders in November, 1918
 Treaty of Versailles
Reasons for 1920’s Prosperity
• Pro-Business Government Policies: Less
  regulation by government, lower taxes, high
• Rise of Auto & Other Industries: Henry Ford
  increased car ownership; improvements in
  production with assembly line; electrical
• More Consumption of Goods: Advertising,
  buying on credit
• Speculation Boom: Investment in stocks and
  real estate became widespread
       Values of the 1920’s
Red Scare (1919-1920): Fear of Communism
Women Get the Right to Vote: 19th
 Amendment, allowing women to gain greater
Traditional Values: Scopes “Monkey” Trial
 pitted William Jennings Bryan (creationism)
 against Clarence Darrow (evolution)
Harlem Renaissance: flourishing of African-
 American culture centered in Harlem
New Heroes: Charles Lindbergh flies first
 transatlantic crossing
Reasons for the Great Depression,
Overproduction of Goods
Uneven Distribution of Income
Shaky Banking and Rising Debts
Stock Market Crash of 1929
Worldwide Decline in Trade
Bank Failures
        New Deal, 1933-1940
FDR’s Plan to Fight Depression: Put as many
 Americans as possible back to work
Relief, Recovery, Reform
New Deal Programs:
   CCC: Get male youths back to work
   WPA: Created jobs by hiring artists and writers
   FDIC: Insured bank deposits
   Social Security: Provided a “safety net” for
    Americans; unemployment insurance
   SEC: Regulated the Stock Exchange
                   World War II
 Dictators: Hitler, Mussolini, & Stalin
 Neutrality Acts: Kept U.S. out of war but, still able to
  help allies
 Pearl Harbor: Dec. 7, 1941; pushed U.S. into war
 Multiple Fronts:
    Midway (Pacific), Normandy (Europe), N. Africa, and Stalingrad
     (E. Europe)
 Japanese Internment Camps
 A-Bomb: Truman made decision to drop on Nagasaki &
 Holocaust: genocide of the European Jewish population
 Home-Front: Women worked in factories; U.S. practiced
  rationing & price controls
 War production pulled the U.S. out of the Great
 Cold War/Korean War/1950’s
Truman Doctrine: containment
Marshall Plan: economic support for any
 country to fight against the spread of
NATO/Warsaw Pact
Berlin Airlift: U.S. dropped supplies to West
 Berlin in response to the Soviet blockade
McCarthyism: red scare because of Joseph
 McCarthy’s list of “communists”
Sputnik: Increased Defense Spending
T.V./Polio Vaccine/Computers
      Civil Rights Movement
Martin Luther King Jr.: non-violent protest
Malcolm X: separation
Black Power/Black Panthers
Freedom Rides/Selma March – voting rights
Brown v. Board of Education: decided
 “separate but, equal,” was unconstitutional in
 public education
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Voting Rights Act of 1965
           1960’s Activism
Sex, Drugs & Rock n’ Roll: Less-traditional
 living arrangements (communal), increased use
 of LSD and Marijuana, & Woodstock
Feminism: Equality for women; used the Civil
 Rights Movement as inspiration
Earth & Consumer Awareness: Made people
 aware of pollution and consumer safety;
 Government created regulatory agency (EPA)
Minorities: César Chávez led Mexican
 American migratory workers to gain collective
 bargaining rights (better working conditions)
      Vietnam War, 1956-1975
     Eisenhower: sent financial aid
     Kennedy: sent financial aid and “military advisors”
     Johnson: sent the most troops; period of escalation
     Nixon: reduced the # of troops
Escalation: increasing the # of troops and the
 events in the war
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: stated that the
 President could make decisions w/o approval
 (increased executive powers)
Student Activism: protesting against the war
   Kent State Shootings
   Democratic national Convention
          Important Events
1607: Jamestown
1776: Declaration of Independence; American
1787: Constitution
1803: Louisiana Purchase; Lewis & Clark
1861-1865: American Civil War
1898: Spanish-American War
1914-1918: World War I
1929: Stock Market Crash
1941-1945: World War II
1957: Sputnik
            Important People
 Thomas Jefferson: primary writer of the Dec. of
  Independence; Louisiana Purchase
 Thomas Paine: Common Sense (urged Americans to
  fight for independence)
 George Washington: Revolutionary leader; 1st
 Susan B. Anthony: women’s suffrage
 W.E.B. DuBois: must be actively involved to gain
 Theodore Roosevelt: Trust-buster; Panama Canal;
  Square Deal
 Woodrow Wilson: WWI; Fourteen Points; League of
 Clarence Darrow: Scopes “Monkey” Trial (Evolution v.
            Important People
 Henry Ford: automobile, assembly line
 Andrew Carnegie: Steel, monopoly
 John D. Rockefeller: Oil, monopoly
 Charles A. Lindbergh: Air transportation
 Franklin D. Roosevelt: New Deal, World War II
 Joseph McCarthy: red scare, “McCarthyism”
 Dwight D. Eisenhower: WWII (Europe); President;
  enforced integration
 Douglas Macarthur: WWII (Pacific)
 Richard Nixon: End Vietnam; Watergate
 John F. Kennedy: space race; Bay of Pigs Invasion &
  Cuban Missile Crisis
 Lyndon B. Johnson: Voting Rights Act; Vietnam
  7 Principles of Government
 Separation of Powers: Legislation, Executive & Judicial
 Checks & Balances: where each branch can impose
  restraints on the others to maintain a balance of power
 Republicanism: government of the people
 Federalism: when power is divided between federal &
  state governments
 Popular Sovereignty: political power presides with the
 Limited Government: restricts state and Congress
 Individual Rights: Personal freedoms protected by the
  Constitution & Bill of Rights
 Note-worthy Amendments & Cases
 13, 14 & 15: Free, Citizens, Vote
 16: Income Tax
 17: Direct election of senators
 19: Woman suffrage (right to vote)
 24: No poll tax
 26: 18, legal voting age
 Brown v. Board of Education: stated “separate, but
  equal,” is unconstitutional in public education
 Miranda v. Arizona: accused must be read their rights
 U.S. v. Nixon: limited executive privileges
 Marbury v. Madison: judicial review
 Plessy v. Ferguson: established “separate, but equal

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