Historians lawyers and journalists have debated for several decades

Document Sample
Historians lawyers and journalists have debated for several decades Powered By Docstoc
					                  "Fighting For Freedom of the Screen: The Legal Battle
                         over State Film Censorship, 1930-1965."

Laura Wittern-Keller
University at Albany (SUNY)


        Historians, lawyers, and journalists have debated for several decades whether the

United States has had a “legacy of suppression” (a phrase first used by Leonard W. Levy

in 1960),1 or whether America has fostered freedom of expression. The arguments have

gone back and forth for forty years.2 But, whether America suffered from Levy’s legacy

of suppression or whether the nation nurtured free speech, when movies burst onto the

cultural scene at the beginning of the twentieth century, the scales tipped decidedly

toward suppression. Those concerned about the nation’s moral tenor found the new

medium of moving pictures a menace to traditional values, and America’s urge to censor

(only at a simmer during the Victorian era) came to a full rolling boil in the era of the

nickelodeon. These moral reformers, who were just beginning to turn to state and local

governments for regulatory aid, demanded an unprecedented statutory prior restraint on

the new medium of film.

  Leonard W. Levy, Freedom of Speech and Press in Early America: Legacy of Suppression (New York:
Harper & Row, 1963).Leonard W. Levy, Freedom of Speech and Press in Early America: Legacy of
Suppression (1960).
  Some who have argued in favor of the libertarian position in the controversy include David M. Rabban,
Free Speech in its Forgotten Years (Cambridge University Press, 1997).David M Rabban, Free Speech in
Its Forgotten Years (Cambridge University Press, 1997). and Zechariah Chafee, Free Speech in the United
States (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1941).Those who argue the repressive side of
the controversy include Leonard W. Levy, Legacy of Suppression: Freedom of Speech and Press in Early
American History (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1960).Levy, Freedom of Speech
and Press in Early America: Legacy of Suppression. and Mark A. Graber, Transforming Free Speech: The
Ambiguous Legacy of Civil Libertarianism (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press,
1991).Mark A. Graber, Transforming Free Speech: The Ambiguous Legacy of Civil Libertarianism
(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991). For more on this issue, see Margaret A.
Blanchard, "The American Urge to Censor: Freedom of Expression Versus the Desire to Sanitize Society -
From Anthony Comstock to 2 Live Crew," William and Mary Law Review 33 (1992).According to
        The first governmental film censorship came in 1907 when Chicago empowered

its police to pass upon the suitability of films for the young and impressionable. In 1911,

Pennsylvania became the first state to authorize a censor board, an example followed

over the next ten years by Ohio, Kansas, Maryland, New York, and Virginia. All the

censorship statutes were remarkably similar: they authorized politically appointed

censors to restrict any films that might tend to tempt to criminal activity or immorality as

well as those deemed immoral, inhuman, sacrilegious, obscene, indecent.3 Eventually,

ninety to one-hundred local and state censorship boards would operate (some diligently,

some haphazardly), interfering with the profitability, intellectual freedom, and artistic

output of America’s most highly visible industry.4

        In the progressive era, motion picture censorship was widely perceived as an

asset: something of benefit to the people, like meat inspection. And the urge to censor

films proved quite tenacious, hanging on into the 1960s. Moreover, it was different from

other forms of censorship practiced in the United States because it was prior restraint.

Unlike other censorious urges, like the attempts to control salacious literature,

photography, or theater (subject to control only after release to the public), prior restraint

of movies placed the burden of proof on the person who wished to communicate,

effectively reversing the usual legal process. In other words, if Mr. X had a book that

was considered dangerously obscene in mid-century America, no governmental body

Blanchard, Levy’s 1960 book received so much criticism that he released another version in 1985 in which
he argued that there had been some degree of a tradition of press and speech freedom.
  Ohio and Kansas followed Pennsylvania’s lead in 1913, Maryland in 1916, New York in 1921, and
Virginia in 1922. In 1921, thirty-seven bills were introduced proposing state film censorship but Virginia
was the last to set up a working board. A Massachusetts referendum went down to defeat in 1922.
Louisiana adopted film censorship but never implemented the act.
  Leonard Leff and Jerold Simmons estimate that by the early 1930s, 60 per cent of film revenue was under
some form of local censorship control. Leonard J. Leff, The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship,

could have kept him from publishing it. He might have become candidate for an

obscenity prosecution after the book’s publication, but he could not have been stopped

before his book had become part of the “marketplace of ideas.” Then, if he were

prosecuted for obscenity, the state would have to prove the charge. However, if Mr. X

produced the same content as a motion picture, it would never see the inside of a movie

theater. It would not become part of the “marketplace of ideas” and no one would even

know much about it. Nothing like the publicity surrounding The Passion of the Christ

took place over banned films before the 1950s. Moreover, X’s only recourse would be to

bring suit against the censors and prove to a series of judges that his film was not

objectionable under the terms of the statute or regulation. Take this scenario and add to it

the prevailing judicial climate prior to World War II that considered the legislatively

empowered experts of most bureaucratic agencies to be virtually infallible, and the

picture of what the motion picture industry was up against becomes apparent.

        As progressivism died out, the pro-censorship mantle was handed off to other

groups: in the 1930s censorship was championed by Catholics, in the 1940s by wartime

patriots, and in the 1950s by anti-Communists. It faded away only when the impetus to

the greater good lost out to the impetus for individual liberty in the rights revolution of

the 1960s. But the paper I present today is not about the urge to censor: it is about the

urge to fight against censorship. This is the story of a small and unorganized bunch of

independent film distributors, who, with very little funding or backing, chose to dispute

state film censorship. As small businessmen with few financial resources and no political

and the Production Code from the 1920s to the 1960s (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1990).Leff, The
Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code from the 1920s to the 1960s, 8.

clout, they were unable to turn to legislative repeal, so they fought against censorship in

the only arena available to them: the courts.

        These independent film distributors made their living in a risky business, gambled

whatever they had on a few movies, and were severely affected if those movies were

snubbed by censors. But, unlike their Hollywood brethren, the independents did not

knuckle under to the dictates of the censor bureaucrats. They hired lawyers, planned

strategy and legal arguments, and they challenged the censor boards, hoping to overturn

the statutes, some of them going as far as the United States Supreme Court.5 While

certainly not free speech ideologues, they and their lawyers became some of the most

effective crusaders for the expansion of free speech rights in the middle part of the

twentieth century. In their fight against prior restraint of films, these distributors

combined principled opposition to government intrusion into individual rights with a

healthy dose of profit motivation. Without their film distribution businesses, it is unlikely

that any of these men (and they were all men) would have become First Amendment

warriors; however, motivated as they were by a governmental mechanism that interfered

with their pursuit of profits, they adopted an idealistic anti-censorship position and their

fight helped to carry the legal interpretation of First Amendment rights to new levels.

  This was, by no means, however, an organized litigation campaign. Unlike the school segregation
litigation campaign that culminated in Brown v. Board of Education, this was both unorganized and
unplanned. For more on litigation campaigns, see Richard Kluger, Simple Justice: The History of Brown v.
Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality (New York: Vintage Books, 1975), Mark V.
Tushnet, The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925-1950 (Chapel Hill: University
of North Carolina Press, 1987), Stephen L. Wasby, Race Relations Litigation in an Age of Complexity
(Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995).}Richard Kluger, Simple Justice: The History of
Brown V. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality (New York: Vintage Books,
1975), Mark V. Tushnet, The Naacp's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925-1950 (Chapel
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987), Stephen L. Wasby, Race Relations Litigation in an Age of
Complexity (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995).

        Their counterparts—the major Hollywood studios—not only acquiesced in the

state censorship efforts, they also accepted self-censorship, adopting a set of “do’s and

don’ts” called the Production Code in 1930 that remained in effect until 1968. Hollywood

studios did not fight against censorship because they found it easier and less expensive to

do what the censors wanted. Theater owners, on the front line of any public disapproval,

actually welcomed censorship because it protected them from the assault of moral

reformers and pressure groups like the Catholic Legion of Decency, which launched its

assault on dirty films in the 1930s.6 Not one challenge case in any of the states came from

a Hollywood production.7 In contrast, the independent producers and distributors

challenged the restrictions of state and local censorship boards repeatedly, starting in

1915 and slacking off only during the rampant patriotism of the World War II years, then

ramping up again in 1947. Only in the 1950s did the Hollywood studios begin to fight

against censorship, and even then, the Motion Picture Association’s efforts consisted only

of press releases and a few amicus (friend of the court) appearances. Similarly, the

American Civil Liberties Union, which had announced its opposition to film censorship

in 1929, did little to aid the independent distributors in their fights against censorship. In

only four of the nine prior restraint cases that went before the U.S. Supreme Court was

the ACLU present even as an amicus.8

  Estimates of the size of the Legion range from seven to eleven million. Paul Facey, W., The Legion of
Decency: A Sociological Analysis of the Emergence and Development of a Social Pressure Group (New
York: Arno Press, 1974), Garth Jowett, "Moral Responsibility and Commercial Entertainment: Social
Control in the U.S. Film Industry, 1907-1968," Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television 10, no. 1
  Two of the better-known censored film cases, The Outlaw and The Moon is Blue, were American-made,
but they were independent productions, independently distributed.
  The four were Burstyn v. Wilson (1952), Superior Films v. Ohio (1954), Times Film v. Chicago (1961)
and Freedman v. Maryland (1965). A fifth case, Jacobellis v. Ohio (1964) was also joined by the ACLU
but this involved an obscenity prosecution rather than a prior restraint statute.

        Whoever mounted the attack, the fight against film censorship involved the tricky

proposition of convincing judges that the film medium was no different from other

methods of communication and thus deserved the same First Amendment protections.

But film freedom faced considerable barriers: it was widely believed, first, that film had a

special capacity for negative effect, especially on children; and, second, that legislatively

empowered bureaucrats could best determine which movies were fit to be seen and which

were harmful.9 So powerful was the appeal of censorship as protection for innocents in

the early and mid-twentieth century that no state legislature ever voluntarily repealed its

censorship law. Moreover, the U.S. Supreme Court never ruled film censorship

unconstitutional. Only an increasingly onerous set of judicially mandated restrictions on

the mechanism of film censorship forced the states to give up.

Censor Boards Attacked

        Just as quickly as moral reformers moved to clamp down on films, distributors

turned to the courts for relief. However, their legal challenges were doomed to defeat for

more than four decades because of the prevailing legal culture of judicial restraint. Judges

in this era refused to question the work of legislatively empowered bureaucracies such as

censor boards, and so the censors went on demanding cuts, excising dialogue, and

sometimes throwing out entire films with little judicial oversight. Yet, despite a decidedly

hostile bench and the complicity of the Hollywood studios, independent distributors

continually questioned how the censors worked.

        The defiant distributors learned early on just how difficult their legal disputes

would be when one of the first challenges found its way to the United States Supreme

  As late as 1964, a legal commentator in the Villanova Law Review wrote that “motion pictures are of such
a different nature from books that…the Roth test should not be extended to them.” (Summer 1964, 132.).

Court. Hope of aid from the nation’s highest court in 1915 was dashed when the opinion

rendered in Mutual Film v. Ohio specifically denied to motion pictures the free-press and

free-speech protections of the First Amendment; declaring that, like circuses and freak

shows, movies were nothing more than any other business and deserved no greater

freedom.10 Indeed, at this time, even newspapers were not specifically protected by the

First Amendment.11 For films, this was no minor setback: the precedent stood, guiding

the decisions of state courts, for thirty-seven years. In the shorter term, the Mutual

decision paved the way for the growth of a “patchwork” of state and local censorship

boards throughout the United States.12 Understandable in the social and legal climate of

1915, the Mutual Film decision turned back any attempt at constitutional protection and

gave to prior censorship bodies “an aura of judicial approval” that lasted far beyond the

early twentieth century.13 Motion pictures would be subjected to an unprecedented,

judicially sanctioned prior restraint by states and municipalities until another film

distributor could convince the Supreme Court to hear another case—and that did not

happen for thirty-seven more years.

New York State: The Most Influential Censor Board

[be sure to see this article in Trans-Lux file before finishing intro]
   Mutual Film v. Ohio, 236 U.S. 230; 35 S. Ct. 387; 59 L. Ed. 552 (1915).
   Not until the 1931 Supreme Court decision in Near v. Minnesota were newspapers specifically protected
by the First Amendment from state interference.
   The word “patchwork” is used by Stephen Skowronek to describe the state-building efforts of the late
nineteenth century. While later state-building efforts reflected a growing struggle between the federal
government and the state governments, film censorship remained a strictly local governing activity,
recognized as a sacrosanct part of the state’s police power. Stephen Skowronek, Building a New American
State: The Expansion of National Adminstrative Capacities, 1877-1920 (Cambridge University Press,
1982).}Stephen Skowronek, Building a New American State (Cambridge University Press, 1982).
   See David Post, "Understanding the Techno Evolution," The American Lawyer (1996): 104.}David Post,
"Understanding the Techno Evolution," The American Lawyer (1996): 104. Post argues that Mutual was
perfectly understandable because the courts do not know how to handle new technology, of which Mutual
is a prime example.

         With its large, multi-ethnic population, the New York market was crucial to any

film’s success. Films that could not be shown in New York because of censor troubles

would have difficulty being seen anywhere. Moreover, without reviews from the

influential New York film critics, a distributor’s chances of getting a movie into other

states’ theaters diminished greatly. The New York censor board was the most powerful

and influential of all the censor boards, not only because of the importance of the New

York market, but because other state censor boards looked to New York’s action on

particular films as guidance. Florida took the New York censors’ word as gospel,

refusing to allow any movie to be shown that had not been passed by the New York

censors or by the National Board of Review.14 So, most of the court challenges to state

film censorship came in New York and the majority of the major precedent-setting cases

came through the New York court system.15

        Of thousands of films denied licenses in the crucial New York market in the years

after the Mutual decision and before World War II, only ten challenged in court.16 All ten

cases concerned either independent productions or foreign films. And they all lost. These

cases questioned the censors’ opinions (repeatedly), the secrecy in which they made their

decisions, the vagueness of the statute, the lack of accountability, and the censors’

disregard for public opinion. Yet none questioned the qualifications of the people

empowered to act as society’s guardians, none attacked the issue of prior restraint, and

none attacked on the grounds of the free speech provisions of the New York State

   Ira H. Carmen, Movies, Censorship and the Law (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1966), 127.}
State censor archives (Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania) contain bulletins published by the New
York Motion Picture Division (the official name of the censor board) for distribution to the other states.
   The only major Supreme Court cases not to come from New York after the Mutual Film case in 1915
were Times Film v. Chicago in 1961 and Freedman v. Maryland in 1965.
   Motion Picture Division Archives Special Cases Files, “Supreme Court Cases,” box #2553-2556.

Constitution or of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. The

Mutual Film precedent set back in 1915 stood unquestioned and invincible. Even after the

U.S. Supreme Court invalidated prior restraint on newspapers in 1931,17 no film

distributor questioned the state’s seizure of the constitutional rights to free speech. And

even after the U.S. Supreme Court Justices began to venture into the area of preferred

freedoms—one of which was freedom of speech—distributors still failed to base their

cases on freedom for movie content.

        So the courts, understandably and predictably, sided with the legislatively

empowered bureaucrats. In at least one New York case – that of a semi-documentary

about childbirth produced and sanctioned by the American Medical Association—the

censors clearly overreacted, yet once they had made their ruling, they never reversed

themselves nor were they overruled by the courts in these pre-war years.18

        And so the courts of the 1930s, with all their judicial restraint and faith in

legislatively empowered bureaucrats, repeatedly upheld censor determinations.19

Constitutional challenges, based on the right to free speech, freedom of the press, and due

process of law would not come until after World War II.

Post-war Challenges:

        While the courts were busy deferring to the legislatures, the issue of free speech

was becoming the subject of much legal debate, assuming “the proportions of a national

   Near v. Minnesota, 238 U.S. 697; 51 S. Ct 625 (1931).
   The childbirth film, intended to educate women about the importance of pre-natal care, was The Birth of
a Baby. It had been sanctioned by several medical associations but probably suffered from the association
of its subject matter with the growing genre of exploitation films. These were shoddy movies about
venereal disease, nudism, and drug use that purported to be educational but were nothing more than
attempts at a fast buck. For more on exploitation films, see [Miller, 1994 #508@80-81]
   Only in the Pennsylvania case of Spain in Flames did a state court determine that the censors had gone
beyond their authority.

cause” in the 1930s.20 Businessmen, newspaper publishers, and radio broadcasters

seeking redress from New Deal controls, requested First Amendment protections.21 Yet,

because of the enduring belief that movies carried the potential for evil effect, attacks on

censor decisions were still futile.22 Only when the film distributors realized that the time

was ripe to retry appeal to the First Amendment’s protections of speech and press, did

they began to realize some success.

         After decades of neglect by film distributors, the First Amendment was again

called into service in 1947 and again in 1951.23 For opponents of censorship like the

ACLU, the first film, Howard Hughes’s The Outlaw, was a bad test of New York’s

censorship statute. The other, The Miracle, was a good case. The Outlaw used a variation

on the Billy the Kid legend as a thin excuse to showcase the considerable endowments of

Hughes’s most recent discovery, Jane Russell. The Miracle, on the other hand, was an

artistic effort by respected director Roberto Rossellini. While almost diametric opposite

as films (one domestic, the other foreign; one pure entertainment; the other artistic), the

two films shared two unusual traits. Each attracted the ire of the New York City

Commissioner of Licenses after being passed by the New York State censors, and each

had been condemned by the Catholic Church.24 Priests across the country outlawed the

two films, censors insisted refused approval, and the two independent distributors

decided to retaliate.

   Richard W. Steele, Free Speech in the Good War (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999), 11.
   "So thoroughly have the Judges, with very few exceptions, been imbued with the liberal spirit. . . that the
danger at present does not seem to lie in a reluctance of the Court to bow to the Legislative will, but rather
in a too facile readiness to confirm to whatever the Legislature may temporarily have chosen to decree."
Charles Warren, The Supreme Court in U.S. History, v. II, 1947: as quoted by Skowronek, Building a New
American State, 285.Skowronek, Building a New American State, 285.
   Not since 1923 had a film claimed First Amendment protection. The case involved newsreel censorship
in New York: Pathe v. Cobb, 236 N.Y. 539; 142 N.E. 274 (1923).

        Although they relied upon First Amendment arguments in their cases against film

censorship, neither distributor had much assistance from the American Civil Liberties

Union. While opposed in principle to film censorship since 1929,25 more than two

decades passed before the Union made any headway against prior restraint on films.

Partially at least, this was due to internal debates within the ACLU. Before 1962, most

members of the ACLU adhered to legal scholar Alexander Meikeljohn’s distinction

between political speech (which he believed should be absolutely protected) and

entertainment speech (which could be restricted for obscenity). A few of the more radical

members like Morris Ernst, argued early and often that the Union should adopt the

absolutist position on free speech issues, but this idea did not prevail in the organization

until changing societal norms after World War II and the sexual revolution of the 1950s

and '60s made literature and entertainment dealing with sex socially acceptable.26

        So, dDuring the 1940s and 1950s, the ACLU’s involvement in fighting film

censorship was sporadic. Local affiliates of the ACLU might have sympathized with the

plight of censored film distributors, but with the Union’s limited resources, they were

waiting for a worthy test case. In this they were the opponents of censorship not alone in

questing for a test case to judicially advance their cause. The proponents of censorship,

the largest and most vocal of which was the Catholic Church, were also looking for a

test—a test that would solidify the Church’s considerable control over domestic films and

extend that control to imported films. These middle decades of the twentieth centuryyears

   When the Legion of Decency condemned a film, attendance became “an occasion of sin.”
   Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the ACLU , 84. Leff, The Dame in the
Kimono, 8.Leff, The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code from the
1920s to the 1960s, 8.
   Samuel Walker, In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the ACLU (New York: Oxford
University Press, 1990), 232-35.Walker, In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the Aclu.

saw nothing less than a showdown between the American Civil Liberties Union and the

Catholic Church on several issues, with the dissident distributors somewhere between.

       The ensuing furor over The Outlaw and The Miracle was not the first time the

Catholic Church had involved itself in matters of American entertainment. The Church’s

Legion of Decency had been active in film censorship matters since the early 1930s.

Working with the MPAA, Catholics had written the industry’s Production Code in 1930.

Four years later, a threatened national boycott by Catholics convinced Hollywood to

begin rigorous enforcement of this Code. Once the Production Code Administration

began policing scripts and final versions of MPAA-member studio films, Hollywood

productions rarely faced censorship problems with state and local boards. Independent

productions and foreign films, however, were another matter. And in the early years of

the Cold War, New York State became the legal combat zone for one of each: The

Outlaw was an independent production and The Miracle was foreign.

       Trying to get The Outlaw into New York State theaters, Howard Hughes made a

big mistake: the speech that he sought to protect under the First Amendment was not true.

After passing the New York State censors, The Outlaw’s advertising campaign attracted

the ire of New York City License Commissioner. Taking advantage of an earlier bout

with New York’s censors in 1941, Hughes’s publicity campaign claimed that the film

was “Exactly as Filmed: Not a Scene Cut.” But Hughes had made plenty of cuts in order

to get his 1946 exhibition license. The New York State Supreme Court upheld the

License Commissioner’s power to interfere with a state-sanctioned film and Hughes

lost.27 Next, Hughes sued the MPAA, claiming that it had interfered with free speech,

withholding “from the public a large body of information, knowledge and understanding

of controversial topics against the wishes of individual producers, distributors and

exhibitors and to the great detriment of the public…” But Federal District Court Judge

John Bright showedhad little patience with Hughes’s contentions, agreeing with the

MPAA that their Production Code restricted films to uphold high moral standards and

had no relation to the First Amendment.28 Hughes had the right idea: appeal by using the

First Amendment, but he had chosen the wrong vehicle, imprudently promoted. In the

end, the publicity surrounding Hughes’s battle actually set back the cause of the anti-


Death by Slow Litigation: 1952-1965

         Four years later, a short Italian film about a demented peasant girl caused a social

uproar in New York City that pitted religious sect against sect, set the ACLU against the

Catholic Church, opened a new arena in church/state adjudication, and initiated the next

big round in the censorship struggle. The Miracle arrived into an increasingly

impassioned atmosphere of anti-Communist rhetoric. Yet it also arrived just as

Americans were beginning to discover and enjoy the grittier realism of foreign films.

These two divergent forces would clash over The Miracle, a film that some Catholics

considered a mockery of the virgin birth (although its maker, Roberto Rossellini, claimed

that it portrayed only the miracle of birth).

   Hughes Tool v. Fielding, 188 Misc. 947; 73 N.Y.S.2d 98 (1947).
   Hughes Tool v. MPAA, 66 F. Supp. 1006 (1946). Dismissing the worthiness of Hughes’s case, Bright
concluded “that the whole matter is a trivial one, a tempest in a teapot. In fact, it seems more an effort on
the part of the plaintiff to add this case and its peregrinations through the courts as additional publicity and
advertising in promotion of the picture.”
   The New York Legislature passed a bill that tightened the provisions of its censorship statute’s
provisions on advertising in response to the flap over The Outlaw. Moreover, Hughes’s litigation against
the New York City License Commissioner led to a judicial affirmation of his power over films even if they
had been passed by the state’s censors.

       Independent film distributor Joseph Burstyn brought suit against the State of New

York when its censors, responding to political and religious pressure about the film’s

supposed blasphemy, revoked The Miracle’s exhibition license in early 1951. Burstyn’s

attorney, Ephraim London, argued that the state’s censoring of The Miracle for sacrilege

violated not only free speech rights, but also the separation of church and state. Losing

twice in New York State courts, Burstyn refused to give up and sought review by the

U.S. Supreme Court. When the Justices agreed to hear Burstyn’s case, the anti-censorites

were delighted: it was the first time that the Court had agreed to consider a state film

censorship case since the crippling 1915 Mutual decision. Following the war, the

Supreme Court had begun to scrutinize state laws infringing on individual liberties, so

there seemed some cause for optimism. The ACLU, which had been waiting for a good

test case, eagerly jumped in. So did Archbiship Cardinal Spellman, who denounced the

film from the pulpit and commanded all right-thinking Americans to boycott The

Miracle. But Spellman was not alone: many prominent Protestant and Jewish leaders also

spoke out, defending the film’s exhibition rights. Pickets surrounded the theater for

weeks denouncing the film as Communist subversion, bomb threats harassed the theater’s

management, and newspaper editorials continued for weeks. Here, finally, was a good

test case for the ACLU. The Miracle was a fine foreign film, imported by a reputable

company, with a distributor willing to stand on principle, coupled with a highly

publicized scenario, and with a healthy dose of church/state separation controversy

thrown in for good measure. As a test case, The Miracle was everything The Outlaw was


         Burstyn’s motives in taking his movie all the way to the Supreme Court appear

those of a committed civil libertarian.30 He had, of course, a financial stake in The

Miracle, but he was clearly motivated by more than economic interests. A Polish

immigrant, Burstyn’s life story reads like the American entrepreneurial dream. Starting a

career in New York City in 1921 as a diamond polisher, he moved on to publicity work

for a Yiddish theater, getting a big break when he paid $500 to rent the theater and sold

$2,500 in tickets.31 That seed money led him to the film importation and distribution

business where he developed a solid reputation for artistic selection. His long-term

partner, Arthur Mayer, also well respected in the film business both as an exhibitor and a

distributor, described Burstyn as “a wonderful associate, and a very courageous little

man.”32 Through this final round in the Supreme Court, Burstyn consistently maintained

his commitment to a free screen. When local censors in Oregon attempted to close

another Burstyn prize-winning import, The Bicycle Thief, he announced his intention to

do battle in that state.33 He also battled the MPAA, hoping to get a Code seal for this

Vittoria de Sica film which is still highly regarded by film critics and film scholars today.

Although he failed to move Breen and the Production Code Adminstration, the

controversy damaged the PCA’s credibility when Burstyn released the film to critical

   It is difficult to state with certainty because Burstyn died soon after the decision and his corporate papers
are in private hands. He gave only a few interviews on the subject so I can only speculate based on his
public statements in newspapers and prepared remarks in the New York Motion Picture Division files.
   Andrew James Driggs, "The Miracle:The Controversy and the Constitution" (Masters, Brigham Young
University, 1986), 62-63.
   Arthur Loeb Mayer oral history, Columbia University Oral History Project, 26-27.
   ACLU file #757-24 contains a newspaper clipping dated 7 June 1950 detailing Burstyn’s willingness to
take the case to court in order to keep the film from having any scenes cut (the film’s director, Vittoria de
Sica had actually refused to allow any scenes to be removed from his film). Like The Miracle, The Bicycle
Thief had won awards as best foreign film of the year.

applause.34 On the eve of the Supreme Court’s acceptance of The Miracle, Burstyn

maintained his idealism, calling this next move “a step forward in the long struggle to

free the American screen…”35

        At the Supreme Court, Burstyn and London argued that New York’s censorship

statute violated the First Amendment and that “sacrilege” as a censoring standard was

unconstitutionally vague. This was Ephraim London’s first appearance at the Supreme

Court but before he finished his long and distinguished legal career, he became a

champion of artistic freedom and a noted civil liberties attorney. Several of the

independent distributors turned to London for representation, and while he often lost in

the lower courts, he never failed to win in nine appearances before the U.S. Supreme


        On May 26, 1952, the Supreme Court handed down a unanimous decision that

turned the tide of film censorship litigation. The Court’s opinion seemed unequivocal: it

had taken thirty-seven years to overturn the stranglehold of the Mutual decision, but the

majority opinion brought motion pictures squarely under the umbrella of the First

Amendment. But, this was not the clear-cut, knock-out blow of film censorship that the

anti-censorites desired. The Court stopped short of any such declaration, cautioning that

while films were a significant medium of expression, the Constitution did not require

   Frank Miller, Censored Hollywood: Sex, Sin & Violence in Hollywood (Turner Publishing, 1994), 141-
42.Miller, Censored Hollywood: Sex, Sin & Violence in Hollywood, 141-42. Miller writes that “The Bicycle
Thief dealt Breen and the Code a swell black eye.”
   The New York Times, 5 February 1952.
   Obituary, The New York Times, 14 June 1990. London’s many film censorship cases included Burstyn v.
Wilson, Superior Films v. Department of Education of Ohio, Capitol Enterprises v. Regents, Kingsley
International v. New York, The Connection Company v. Regents, Jacobellis v. Ohio, and United States v.
One Carton Positive Motion Picture Film. While he was a long-term member of the New York Civil
Liberties Union (the state affiliate of the ACLU), when London argued film censorship cases, he did so as a
private attorney and without ACLU backing except for the Burstyn, Superior, and Jacobellis cases, and in

“absolute freedom to exhibit every motion picture of every kind. . . .”37 This statement, in

its frustrating ambiguity, left both the pro- and the anti-censorship forces guessing. They

would continue in a sort of legal limbo and ambiguity for another thirteen years—until

the Supreme Court offered a more definitive pronouncement. In the interim, more film

distributors faced the legal uncertainties of film censorship, bringing case after case to the

state courts and the U.S. Supreme Court, hoping for a more definitive pronouncement.

And, each time, they would find some comfort, and some frustration. In each case, the

individual film would be released for viewing, but the constitutional reasons for doing so

were left undefined. The Supreme Court never definitively ruled prior restraint of motion

pictures an unconstitutional exercise of a state’s power, although they continually

whittled away at the scope of the censoring authority.

        But the process of dismantling state censorship statutes had begun. The Burstyn

decision proved to be the first in a five-round knockout of many long standing film

censorship statutes.38 Even within the same Supreme Court term, a case that the MPAA

had chosen as a test, Gelling v. Texas, succeeded in overturning a local censorship

ordinance, with the Justices citing the recent Burstyn ruling as precedent. Within five

years, four more slivers fell from the edifice of censorship statutes. A month after the The

Miracle decision, the International Motion Picture Organization honored Burstyn,

extolling his “courage and pertinacity [in fighting] suppression of the film. . .” In

response, Burstyn explained why he had worked so hard against New York’s censorship:

“every time I had to submit a film for censorship,” he said, “I felt that I was in an

each of these cases, the ACLU’s participation seems confined to the filing of amicus briefs. "American
Civil Liberties Union files," (Princeton, New Jersey).
   Opinion, Burstyn v. Wilson, 343 U.S. 495; 72 S. Ct. 777 (1952).

illegitimate business and that being in this business was a crime. . . . It was about time to

try to restore a little dignity. . . .” Speaking for the ACLU, Arthur Garfield Hays

applauded Burstyn, calling the Union’s involvement that of “back-seat drivers,” and he

noted that “the motion picture industry with all its money couldn’t accomplish what

Burstyn and London did.”39 The litigation’s total cost to Burstyn was considerable—

almost $60,000,40 the equivalent of $385,000 in today’s dollars. Although he had been

offered financial help from “major figures in and out of the business,” none agreed to

lend their names to the fight. “I could use their money,” Burstyn said in an interview,

“but if they would not stand up with me, I would rather be without it.” 41

        Sadly, Joseph Burstyn did not live to see film censorship ended in his home state.

He died of coronary thrombosis on a trans-Atlantic flight the year after his Supreme

Court victory. He was on his way to purchase the following season’s films.

        In a last tribute to Joseph Burstyn on December 13, 1953, when censorship’s grip

was still strong but loosening with each court challenge, film critic Bosley Crowther

headed his New York Times column, “The Fight on Film Censorship Goes on, in an

Honorable Name,” and wrote, “though Mr. Burstyn is no longer here to see it done, the

case he singly and bravely carried. . . may yet spearhead full freedom for the screen.”42

Crowther was right.

State Censorship at the Supreme Court: Five Cases in Five Years

   Other non-film cases also helped: Bantam Books, Inc. v. Sullivan, Marcus v. Search Warrant, 367 U.S.
717, Speiser v. Randall, 357 U.S. 513.
   Luncheon program in MPD file #55250-2561.
   Alan Westin, The Miracle Case: The Supreme Court and the Movies, The Inter-University Case Program
(1961), 33.
   as quoted by Alton Cook, unnamed newspaper, 25 January 1952, Joseph Burstyn file, Billy Rose
Collection, New York Public Library.
   Ibid., 13 December 1953.

         The next year, the U.S. Supreme Court took on another New York case State’.

The film was La Ronde, a saucy, satirical, slightly cynical comedy about love and casual

sex. La Ronde carried an all-star cast and was directed by the internationally renowned

Max Ophuls. By the time Robert and Raymond Hakim of Commercial Pictures Company

brought La Ronde to the United States in late 1951, it had played for two years to

favorable reviews in Paris and for ten months in London (where it had been passed by the

usually stringent British censors with no cuts).43 New York was the only state to ban the

French import.44

        While all six of New York’s censors enjoyed the film, they felt that it contradicted

the “standards of normal family life” and mocked the “accepted moral structure.”45

Pronounced “immoral,” and “would tend to corrupt morals,” La Ronde was denied an

exhibition license. The distributors filed appeals with the New York appellate courts, and

losing there, convinced the Supreme Court to hear the case. Basing their case on the

recent Miracle decision, the Hakim brothers of Commercial Pictures and other anti-

censorites were confident that in accepting their case, the Supreme Court was signaling

its readiness to make a more definitive statement about the unconstitutionality of state

film censorship. Undoubtedly pleased with the pre-trial publicity courtesy of New York

State’s ban, the Hakims empowered their attorney, Florence Perlow Shientag, to argue

forcefully that the censoring of this fine French film violated the First Amendment.46

Meanwhile, the ACLU and the MPAA were both helping a concurrent case from Ohio,

   Mathews, Censored, 127. Mathews notes that while censoring in Britain in the 1950s was “heavy
handed,” the board had started to make allowances for artistic license. Mathews uses La Ronde as an
example of this new British accommodation for artistic considerations. New York made no such
   Dissenting Opinion, Commercial Pictures v New York, 305 N.Y. 336; 113 N.E.2d 502 (1953).
   Hollis Alpert, "Talk with a Movie Censor," Saturday Review, November 22 1952.Ibid.
   Florence Perlow Shientag interview by author, tape recording, personal interview, 12 April 2001.

but they failed to offer any support to La Ronde and its First Amendment claims. Both

the MPAA and the ACLU undoubtedly felt more comfortable backing the Ohio case

since it involved an American-made film, distributed by an MPAA-member studio.47

           So, the Hakim brothers and Shientag argued before the Supreme Court unaided.

Their case and the Ohio case were heard together, to be decided with one opinion. And

they won. It was a great victory for the films La Ronde and M, but a hollow victory for

the anti-censorship cause as the Justices delivered yet another ambiguous per curiam

decision, the second abstruse opinion since Burstyn. Important questions went

unanswered: was all New York censoring on the grounds of immorality unconstitutional

or just the censoring of this one film? Was New York’s censorship statute

unconstitutional or just this one censoring standard of immorality? Was Ohio’s statute

unconstitutional or just its use of the term “harmful?” No one knew for sure and the

Justices were not about to take a definitive stand.

           While unclear to legal commentators and filmmakers alike, the La Ronde and M

decision did have a major effect: it influenced justices of the lower courts to begin

overturning state censorship statutes (an attribute of this case that has gone largely

overlooked by film historians and legal scholars). After the censors had their wrists

slapped for censoring for immorality, New York’s intermediate appeals court, which had

only overruled its state censors once since 1921, began to look more closely at challenge

films. With the next challenge film, a narcotics film called Teenage Menace, the

Appellate Division began overruling its state censors and never stopped. In fact, just two

years later, after two more cases brought in state court by independent distributors, the

Appellate Division ordered the censors to cease cutting films for any reason other than

     The film was M (1951), a Columbia Pictures remake of the 1931 German film by the same name.

obscenity. In this demand, however, this intermediate court was ahead of both New

York’s highest court48 and the nation’s highest court.

         Justices of the U.S. Supreme Court are usually reluctant to tamper with the right

of a state legislature to exercise its authority to protect its citizens. But, once the Supreme

Court Justices began to accept in principle that the state police power had been used as an

excuse for the unconstitutional restriction of individual freedoms like street corner

speech, picketing, or parading, the Court began to rethink its attitude toward state

interference with the movies. As the Supreme Court moved in this direction, so too did

the state courts and 1955 became a particularly tough year for the pro-censorship forces.

That year alone, two state film censorship statutes fell before their own state supreme

courts and a third statute fell before the U.S. Supreme Court. Barely into 1956, a fourth

state’s censoring was cut short. In quick succession, then, the Ohio,49 Massachusetts,50

Kansas51, and Pennsylvania52 censoring bureaucracies were struck down, largely because

of the U.S. Supreme Court’s series of per curiam decisions against film censorship cases.

         The Court’s exact meaning may have been unclear, but its direction was not. It

was manifestly moving toward enhanced scrutiny of any statute infringing on freedom of

speech. The Court’s path toward the speech protective zenith of the Warren Court years

has been well documented. But legal scholars have overlooked the significant role played

by independent film distributors in this movement. In none of the 1955-1956 cases that

   In New York State, there are two appellate courts whereas most states have only one. New York has an
intermediate appellate court called the Appellate Division and a superior appellate court called the Court of
Appeals. Film distributors who chose to challenge New York’s censorship of film had to file suit in both
New York state courts and carry all the concomitant legal fees of two suits before seeking certiorari from
the U.S. Supreme Court.
   RKO Radio Pictures v. Department of Education, 162 Ohio St. 263; 122 N.E.2d 769 (1954).
   Brattle Films v. Commissioner of Public Safety, 333 Mass. 58; 127 N.E.2d 891 (1955).
   Holmby Productions v. Vaughn, 350 U.S. 870; 76 S. Ct. 117; 100 L. Ed. 770 (1955).
   Hallmark Productions v. Carroll, 384 Pa. 348; 121 A.2d 584 (1956).

overturned censorship statutes was the plaintiff a Hollywood studio or producer. All four

cases were brought by, and won by, independent distributors.

       1957 was another bad year for pro-censorites. In that year, the Supreme Court

began its attempt to define obscenity. With the two greatest foundations of film

censorship deteriorating—the progressive-era’s faith in legislatively empowered experts

and the long-held tenet of judicial restraint, censorship would meet its greatest


Film Censorship In Legal Trouble

       In the six years following the 1952 landmark Burstyn decision, the U.S. Supreme

Court decided six more film censorship cases.53 One by one, the Court struck down the           Comment [LWK1]: It would be very interesting
                                                                                                to find out how many film censorship cases applied
                                                                                                for certiorari but were denied in the long dry spell
wording of previously sacrosanct censoring standards: “sacrilegious” was the first to fall,     between 1915 and 1952.

followed shortly by “prejudicial to the best interests of the people,” “harmful,”

“immoral,” and tending to “debase or corrupt morals.” After such repudiation by the

nation’s highest court, it would seem that the censors were becoming constrained as to

what they could censor and what they were forced to allow. However, since all five of the

post-Burstyn decisions were decided per curiam, they offered little legal traction as

precedents for either side of the censorship debate. Much speculation filled the pages of

law journals. Not only were the per curias frustratingly unrevealing in their reticence,

they were also inconsistent, based on different precedents. As much as lower courts feel

feel compelled to abide by the precedents of the Supreme Court—and such that is

acompliance is highly variable situation—in the area of obscenity and censorship in the

mid-1950s, the Supreme Court had given them precious little to abide by. So, when the

case of Lady Chatterley's Lover arrived in the New York courts in 1958, predictions

about its legal chances were murky, at best. However, while legal certainty may have

been impossible, signs were scattered throughout the judicial landscape that film

censorship would continue to face increasingly robust judicial scrutiny.

        The New York’s censors had made clear to Edward Kingsley, distributor of Lady

Chatterley's Lover, that his film had been banned because it advocated an idea: that

adultery could be acceptable behavior. But the U.S. Supreme Court was showing signs

that it was uncomfortable with the censoring of ideas: the Justices had recently narrowed

the definition of speech that presented a clear and present danger to that which advocated

the overthrow the government.54 Now with Earl Warren as its Chief Justice, the Court

began even closer scrutiny of speech-restrictive activity, like censorship. Moreover, the

Court had also decided that reading material could no longer be kept from everyone

because it might be harmful to children. Justice Felix Frankfurter suggested that doing so

was like “burning the house to roast the pig.”55

        Hopefully, Edward Kingsley, a fierce opponent of censorship, brought Lady

Chatterley's Lover to the New York courts but they dismissed his First Amendment

claims. When Kingsley and his attorney, Ephraim London (the same attorney who had

won The Miracle case six years earlier) convinced the U.S. Supreme Court to hear the

   Gelling v. Texas (Pinky), Commercial Pictures v. New York (La Ronde), Superior Films v. Ohio (M),
Holmby v. Vaughn (Kansas - The Moon is Blue), Times Film v. Chicago (The Game of Love), and Kingsley
International Pictures v. New York (Lady Chatterley’s Lover).
   Henry J. Abraham, Freedom and the Court (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), 196. This
decision came in the case of Yates v. United States, 354 U.S. 298 (1957).Abraham, Freedom and the
Court.Henry J. Abraham, Freedom and the Court (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994).
   Butler v. Michigan, 352 U.S. 380; 77 S. Ct. 524; 1 L. Ed. 2d 412 (1957).

case, censorship opponents hoped that the Justices would finally hand down a clear and

comprehensible ruling on prior restraint. Yet again, they were disappointed. Although the

Supreme Court agreed with Kingsley that his film was not immoral, five of the Justices

felt compelled to arrive at that conclusion via different routes. Six opinions meant that

any clarity was impossible. Potter Stewart wrote for the majority that censoring an

‘immoral’ idea clearly violated the First Amendment, Clark and Harlan merely found the

statute’s language too vague, Douglas and Black found all prior restraint unconstitutional,

and Frankfurter suggested that the Supreme Court should adopt the role of super-censor.

The Court had again sidestepped the issue of the constitutionality of New York’s film

censorship. Its only definitive position was that censoring for immoral ideas was

impermissible. Overall, then, the majority of the Court had found New York’s statute

banning any film that presented immoral ideas unconstitutional, while Frankfurter,

Harlan, and Whittaker had found the statute itself constitutional but incorrectly applied to

this specific film. Most observers and censors agreed, though, that the Court’s ruling left

only “obscenity” as an acceptable censoring standard.

         But, while the realm of permissible censoring was narrowing, the film censorship

situation was becoming ever more complicated. On top of all the disagreement from the

high court, films were becoming more explicit and daring than ever. After years of

quiescence, members of the MPAA were starting to question its self-regulation56 and a

growing number of independent producers brought adult themes like marital relations,

drug addiction, alcoholism, and bigotry to the screen. Films like The Man with the

   Hollywood’s control via the Production Code Administration is usually called self-censorship. Jon
Lewis, however, calls it content regulation, a phrase that I find far more descriptive. Jon Lewis, Hollywood
v. Hard Core: How the Strugglen over Censorship Saved the Modern Film Industry (New York: New York
University Press, 2000).

Golden Arm, Lost Weekend, and Gentleman’s Agreement stretched the boundaries of

permissible content under the Production Code. But no films stretched the limits more

than the foreign films of the post-War years. The Italian neo-realists’ surprising

popularity with American audiences emboldened more independent distributors to fight

back against state censorship. But many more court cases would be argued before the

anti-censorship forces could claim victory. Always in the vanguard of this fight were the


         By 1961, four states still censored films: Maryland, Kansas,57 Virginia, and New

York.58 The only thing that censors could legally ban was obscenity, but since the

Supreme Court had still not defined obscenity to anyone’s satisfaction, the censor battles

raged on.59 And lest anyone thought that the Supreme Court was slowly but inexorably

moving toward outlawing all film censorship at the dawn of the new decade, the Justices

reversed direction, handing down a pro-censorship decision—its first since 1915.

         In 1961, Times Film Corporation, another independent distributor bent on

destroying prior restraint on films, took on the municipal censors in Chicago, considered

one of the nation’s most stringent censor boards. When Times Film decided to bring a

case that would test the very basis of prior restraint, industry observers held their breath.

Times Film’s Jean Goldwurm was well known in the independent distribution world,

largely for his adamant opposition to censorship. In the words of Michael Mayer, The

   Kansas’s statute had been repealed by its legislature after the Holmby v. Kansas Supreme Court decision
in 1954, but due to a legislative mistake, the statute continued in force and its censor board remained active
until 1965. For details, see Linda K. Warner, "Movie Censorship in Kansas: the Kansas State Board of
Review" (Masters, Emporia State University, 1988), 70-71.
   Pennsylvania’s statute had been declared unconstitutional by its state supreme court, but its legislature
reinstated film censorship in 1959, only to have it declared unconstitutional again in 1961.
   The Supreme Court had begun its attempt to define obscenity with the 1957 case of Roth v. United
States. It would continue to labor on this elusive definition through the 1960s and early '70s. The bulk of
the challenge cases in the ensuing five years came in New York and Maryland.

Executive Director of the Independent Film Importers and Distributors Association

(IFIDA), Michael Mayer, reports that Goldwurm had “no hesitation in taking on the

censor anywhere—he was anxious to.took on the censors at every point.”60 As a test of

the Chicago censor ordinance, Goldwurm refused to submit Don Juan, a film version of

the Mozart opera Don Giovanni.61 Here was a new twist: an anti-censorship case had

been brought that questioned only the foundation of the statute, not the details of its

application. By refusing to submit the film for review, Times Film denied the court a

narrow route on which to base a decision. All previous censorship cases had asked the

courts for broad constitutional interpretations, while offering more narrow grounds on

which to reverse state determinations, and their requests for constitutional overturn had

gone unanswered. Goldwurm and Times Film Corporation decided that it was time to test

the issue of First Amendment constitutionality without any complicating issues like

statutory vagueness or denial of due process. The Illinois Civil Liberties Union

recognized the value of this test case and joined in. It was a bold move, and it backfired.

Questions from the Justices during oral argument foreshadowed the majority opinion:

both Frankfurter and Clark told the Times Film attorneys, Felix Bilgrey and Abner

Mikva, that they should have exhibited the film without permit and then have accepted

prosecution. This, the Justices suggested, would have made a better test case. With no

narrow issue on which to rule, the majority refused to deny that prior restraint of motion

pictures contravened protected speech and Times Film lost.62 Anti-censorites worried that

the case could significanly re-enliven state censorship activities.

   Michael F. Mayer, interview by author, tape recording, 9 June 2003.
   The New York Times, 24 January 1961, 1:3.
   Times Film v. Chicago, 365 U.S. 43 (1961).

           But two new and significant factors were now thrown into the mix. First, the

ACLU was moving closer toward adoption of an absolutist position on free speech, even

the speech of pornographers. Second, Chief Justice Earl Warren, who had been silent on

earlier film censorship cases, had come down squarely in the anti-censorship court in the

Times Film case. Warren wrote an impassioned dissent, questioning the inevitable delay

inherent in film censorship litigation. That the film industry could avail itself of judicial

recourse was no help, Warren wrote. “The delays in adjudication may well result in

irreparable damage, both to the litigants and to the public.” It had taken Times Film three

years to get to the Supreme Court. “This is the delay occasioned by the censor; this is the

injury done to the free communication of ideas.”63 And this was the issue that would

bring film censorship to its knees four years later.

           In the meantime, though, film distributors went back to questioning the censors’

determinations of individual films. In 1962, even New York’s use of “obscenity” as a

censoring term was clipped. When the New York censors banned an avant-garde film

about drug addicts because it used the word “shit” as slang for dope, its owner/distributor

appealed and the censors again faced Ephraim London as their legal adversary. New

York’s Appellate Division agreed with London that use of the word “shit” did not

constitute obscenity, and the New York censors found their range of motion restricted


           But, as had been shown in 1961, there was no straight-line march toward film

censorship’s demise. One year later, New York’s highest court displayed a more

conservative inclination when it surprisingly found motion pictures to be conduct rather

     Dissenting opinion, Ibid.

than speech and therefore not protected under the First Amendment. One of the judges

even suggested that motion pictures were nothing more than exactly that: moving

photography—and therefore not protected. Years of litigation pounding away on the

unconstitutionality of prior restraint on film went ignored and New York’s highest court

pushed the film art back to the level of photographic pornography.65 Where a book had to

be considered as a whole, thanks to the 1957 Roth decision, a film’s scenes could still be

considered separately, according to New York’s highest court. If this decision—coming

from one of the most powerful courts in the nation—were to stand, the cause of the anti-

censorites would take a staggering blow since they could no longer look to the Roth test

for relief. An individual scene could be enough to ban an entire film, no matter how

artistically worthy. Not surprisingly, the film’s distributor, Richard Brandt, appealed to

the Supreme Court. Even though Brandt was a good test-case litigant (a reputable and

respected film importer, distributor, and theater-chain owner) and the film itself was a

good subject for censorship litigation (a well-reviewed artistic Danish film called A

Stranger Knocks), and the Trans-Lux decision would have been a devastating decision if

let stand, Brandt went on to the Supreme Court without help from either the MPAA or

the ACLU. Before the Supreme Court could hear arguments in the Trans-Lux case,

though, it decided another film case from Ohio, ruling that Roth did apply to films, in

effect overruling the New York court. In addition, the case also made it clear that to be

obscene, a film had to be without artistic value and exceed the customary limits of

   The film was The Connection, directed by Shirley Clark. The case was The Connection Company v.
Regents, 17 A.D.2d 671; 230 N.Y.S.2d 103 (1962).
   Concurring opinions, Trans-Lux v. Regents, 14 N.Y.2d 88; 198 N.E.2d 242 (1964). The film involved
was the Danish import, A Stranger Knocks, which contained a scene of simulated intercourse. The
distributor, Richard Brandt, argued that the scene was necessary to the plot (which it was) and was
therefore not prurient or obscene.

candor, and must have as its major theme the appeal to an average person’s prurient

interest, when viewed as a whole by standards of the national community.66 But before

Brandt could get his case considered by the Supreme Court, a case rising through the

Maryland courts would make the whole issue moot. [need to check NYCLU papers when

they arrive for any discussion of involvement in Trans-Lux].

Ronald Freedman and the Censors of Maryland

        On March 1, 1965, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down a unanimous decision in

Freedman v. Maryland, transforming the course of governmental film censorship.

Independent exhibitor Ronald Freedman of Baltimore, a foe of censorship for years, had

been listening carefully when the Supreme Court Justices told the Times Film attorneys

in 1961 that their case would have been strengthened had they exhibited an unlicensed

film to secure prosecution. That is exactly what Freedman did. The day that Freedman

was carted off in handcuffs for showing the unlicensed, yet innocuous Revenge at

Daybreak, he instructed his theater staff to re-sign his marquee: “Fight for Freedom of

the Screen.”67 Freedman then carried on, using funding from the Baltimore Film Society

(a group he had founded for just such a purpose), litigating his way through the Maryland

courts, on to the U.S. Supreme Court. Like so many other anti-censor activists, he had

requested assistance from the MPAA and the ACLU, but he was told by the latter group,

“that they had bigger fish to fry.”68 The ACLU took no further notice of Freedman until

his case came before the Supreme Court. Then the Maryland chapter offered an amicus

   Jacobellis v. Ohio, 378 U.S. 184; 84 S. Ct. 1676; 12 L. Ed. 2d 793 (1964).O'Mara, "Obscenity: Roth
Goes to the Movies."
   Ronald Freedman, telephone interview by author, tape recording, 11 September 2002.

participation. Freedman did, however, have assistance from another independent, the

Times Film Corporation and its doggedly anti-censorship owner, Jean Goldwurm.

           At the Supreme Court, Freedman argued that Maryland was violating the First

Amendment as well as the due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Ducking the

First Amendment issue, the Justices did agreed that the entire censorship edifice, built

upon a reversed burden of proof and inevitable delay, justified overturn of the Maryland

statute. Bosley Crowther later called the decision “a left hook and right upper cut.”69 But,

he pointedly refrained from calling it a knockout because the case did not rule prior

restraint on film to be unconstitutional. It did, though, finally make good on the promise

dangled before the film industry in the Burstyn case thirteen years earlier that the censors

must bear a “heavy burden” of proving a film unworthy of exhibition rather than the

distributor proving it worthy. The Freedman decision set up procedural safeguards that

kept state and municipal film censorship bodies from delaying exhibition licenses. Never

again could a censor board ban a film without judicial approval. Basically, the Freedman

decision came in three parts: first, the burden of proof that a film was obscene shifted to

the censors; second, prompt legal action had to be instituted by the censors to prove any

determination that a film should not be licensed; and third, the censors had no

enforcement power until a decision has been made in their favor by a court (which meant

that lengthy delays waiting for court decisions would be a thing of the past).70 The

decades-long presumption that constitutionality existed so long as the banned film had

recourse to judicial review—no matter how long that review took—had been recognized

     The New York Times, 20 June 1965, II, 1:8.
     Freedman v. Maryland, 380 U.S. 51; 85 S. Ct. 734 (1965).

as innately unfair.71 Stunned, Maryland’s Attorney General Thomas J. Finan called the

case “the Armageddon of motion picture censorship.”72 In Maryland, jubilant exhibitor

Robert Marhenke sent his enemies at the censor board a telegram reading: “Good

Riddance. The unemployment line is just two blocks away. You may join it.”73

         And so, Maryland, New York, Virginia, and Kansas, as well as the cities of

Chicago, Ft. Worth, Providence, and Detroit all had their censorship statutes

overturned—but not because prior restraint on motion pictures was unconstitutional, only

because the statutes did not set up adequate and fair procedure.74 As Ernest Giglio

pointed out at the time, although the Supreme Court had refused to acknowledge that

prior restraint violated the First Amendment, several state and lower federal courts had

done so. Ohio, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania had each invalidated statutes based on

the federal Constitution while Oregon and Georgia had done so based on their state

   Ernest David Giglio, "Prior Restraint of Motion Pictures," Dickinson Law Review 69 (1965): 384.Giglio,
"Prior Restraint of Motion Pictures."
   Baltimore Sun, 2 March 1965. Enoch Pratt Free Library collection. He had also used that term in his brief
before the Supreme Court. “The present controversy is a fabrication…with which appellant hopes to
destroy the criminal sanction of Maryland’s motion picture censorship law…This is the Armageddon of
motion picture censorship. . . a Trojan Horse.” Brief for Appellee, Freedman v. Maryland.
   Maryland State Archives, Department of Licensing and Regulation, Board of Censors, box #11, Minutes
of 4 March 1965. Marhenke was one of the more colorful anti-censorites and had been quite a bother to the
Maryland censors. In 1963, he brought a $250,000 lawsuit against the censors charging that they were
accepting state money illegally. The case was thrown out since the censors were protected in their capacity
as state employees. Also in 1963, he sued the board chairman, charging that he was improperly using his
state expense account. Four days after the Freedman decision, he filed yet another lawsuit “as to why the
Board members and personnel thereof were entitled to receive pay from the State, wherein the U.S.
Supreme Court had ruled the Board invalid.” Board minutes refer to him as “the everlasting Board’s
habitual agitator.” (Minutes of 4 March 1965). In the late 1960s, he stepped up his activities, frequently
printing and publishing cartoons that mocked the censors and inserting titles into movies, saying “this scene
deleted by the Maryland State Board of Censors.” He also apparently created a 45-second film that
published the chief censors’ home phone number. She received twenty-nine calls after 11 p.m. the first
night. He also hired a sound truck to drive through her neighborhood making disparaging remarks about her
stewardship of the censor board. He routinely came by to read their minutes. (Minutes of 1 December
   The statutes of these states and cities were specifically mentioned in the ACLU amicus as well as in
Brennan’s majority opinion. Virginia’s prior restraint statute was under constitutional attack at the time.

constitutions.75 Perhaps the Supreme Court believedfelt that as long as obscenity

remained outside the First Amendment, movies, with their potential for obscenity, needed

to be reviewed prior to being seen by the public76 while state courts, closer to political

currents, may have realized that censorship’s time was running out.

         Either way, any governmental unit that wanted to continue to censor motion

pictures needed to begin redrafting its legislation. Into this volatile atmosphere, came the

decision of the Supreme Court in New York’s Trans-Lux case. After reading the

Freedman decision, both sides knew that the case would be a foregone conclusion.

Indeed, two weeks later, the opinion came down: citing only Freedman, the per curiam

decision reversed the New York Court of Appeals.77 By basing the decision on only

Freedman, the Court made clear that it had invalidated the method of New York’s

censoring apparatus, but by leaving out any mention of Roth, it had refused to rule on the

obscenity issue presented by A Stranger Knocks. The Court also ignored the New York

Court of Appeals’ determination that film scenes were conduct and not speech. Thus,

both Freedman and Trans-Lux had struck down what the Court saw as invalid prior

restraints rather than striking down all prior restraint.78

         But this was 1965 and the U.S. was entering a period of rapid social and cultural

change. The '60s were a true dividing line between a culture based on saving and sacrifice

and the post-war culture based on consumerism and abundance. “The defining battle of

the sixties,” David Steigerwald tells us, “was a cultural civil war that pitted a traditional

   Giglio, "Prior Restraint of Motion Pictures," 388-89.Giglio, "Prior Restraint of Motion Pictures," 388-89.
   John R. Verani, "Motion Picture Censorship and the Doctrine of Prior Restraint," Houston Law Review 3
(1965): 40.Verani, "Motion Picture Censorship and the Doctrine of Prior Restraint," 40.
   Trans-Lux v. Regents, 380 U.S. 259; 85 S. Ct. 952; 13 L. Ed. 2d 959 (1965). The Court returned the case
to the state courts for “further proceedings not inconsistent with this ruling,” according to The New York
Times, 11 June 1965, 33:6.

culture born in an age of scarcity against a new culture that was more appropriate to the

age of affluence.”79 The traditional culture, under which censorship had been born, was

based on self-denial, devotion to work, and faith in technological progress. Its ethos was

“authoritarian” and “puritanical.” The new culture was based on pacifism, egalitarianism,

and open sexuality.80 Born in the societal upheaval of the progressive era, film censorship

would die in the cultural upheaval and social unrest of the rights revolution.

        To conform to Freedman, Maryland drew up a new statute that assured

distributors no more than thirteen days for final judicial determination.81 This new

Maryland procedure passed judicial scrutiny when immediatley challenged by Trans-

Lux.82 However, along with social transformation, the legal climate was also changing. A

far cry from the earlier days of film censorship litigation when courts refused to consider

the testimony of experts, the Maryland high court now insisted upon it: In a 1965 case,

the court warned that:“Save in the case of the exceptional motion picture which not only

speaks for itself but screams for all to hear that it is obscene, the Board under the statute

of 1965 will need more than the film to support its opinion in court.”83 Three more cases

challenged the new Maryland procedures in rapid succession and in each one, the board

failed to supply the requisite expert assessment of the film’s obscenity and in each case,

   Verani, "Motion Picture Censorship and the Doctrine of Prior Restraint," 49.Verani, "Motion Picture
Censorship and the Doctrine of Prior Restraint," 49.
   David Steigerwald, The Sixties and the End of Modern America (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995),
154.David Steigerwald, The Sixties and the End of Modern America (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995),
154. See also Allen J. Matusow, The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s (New
York: Harper Torchbooks, 1984), xiii.Allen J. Matusow, The Unraveling of America: A History of
Liberalism in the 1960s (New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1984), xiii. Matusow sees the increase in
discretionary income between 1950 and 1970 as the single most significant influence on the developing
American society because it blurred class lines and undermined the tradition of self-denial.
   Steigerwald, The Sixties and the End of Modern America, 154.Steigerwald, The Sixties and the End of
Modern America, 154.
   Trans-Lux v. Maryland State Board of Censors, 240 Md. 98; 213 A.2d 235 (1965).
   Trans-Lux v. Maryland State Board of Censors, 240 Md. 98; 213 A.2d 235 (1965).
   Dunn v. Maryland State Board of Censors, 240 Md. 249; 213 A.2d 751 (1965).

the board lost. Finding experts to testify to obscenity proved far more difficult than

finding experts to testify to a film’s redeeming value.

        New York had also instituted new procedures after the Freedman decision and,

like Maryland, they were immediately challenged by Trans-Lux. However, while

Maryland’s statute had passed judicial scrutiny, New York’s new mechanism failed its

legal test and the legislature gave up, ending the state censoring apparatus in September


        Like Maryland and New York, Kansas changed its rules after Freedman and

continued censoring.84 But within a few months, the board had been notified that most

major film distributors had no intention of complying with its new rules. To test the

constitutionality, Columbia Pictures, an MPAA member, began exhibiting two

unobjectionable yet unlicensed films. In July 1966, The Kansas Supreme Court, like the

New York Court of Appeals, struck down its state’s entire statute.85 In Virginia, an

independent distributor successfully relied on the Freedman decision to seek an end to

Virginia’s censor board.86 The General Assembly repealed its forty-four year old statute

in April 1965.87

“Still Stubbornly Censoring”

   The new rules were adopted on 26 April 1965 to take effect on 1 January 1966. It required the board to
approve a film within two days or to notify the distributor that the film would not be approved within one
day. Within two days of receiving a non-approved film, the Board had to institute legal proceedings, unless
the film were withdrawn by the distributor. After filing, the board could request a temporary restraint on
distribution but only for four days. The State of Kansas, ex rel. Robert C. Londerholm v. Columbia Pictures
Corporation, 197 Kan. 448; 417 P.2d 255 (1966).
   The State of Kansas, ex rel. Robert C. Londerholm v. Columbia Pictures Corporation, 197 Kan. 448;
417 P.2d 255 (1966).
   The case was Victoria Films v. Division of Motion Picture Censorship, Division of Motion Picture
Censorship Records, Virginia State Archives, Attorney General correspondence, Box 53, file 54.
   Virginia Division of Motion Picture Censorship Records, Virginia State Library and Archives, box 53,
file 54.John N. Salmon, "A Guide to State Records in the Archives Branch of the Virginia State Library,"
(Virginia State Library, 1985).

        Now, all that was left was Maryland. The Maryland censors did not intend to

fade away, nor did the Maryland legislature show any great enthusiasm for repealing the

censors’ authority. In the end, Maryland’s decades of film censorship were not terminated

by a state court or a Supreme Court decision: it succumbed only to a state sunset law in

1981. Indeed, no legislature ever voluntarily repealed its film censorship. Those

lawmakers who ended their state censoring did so either because their attorneys general

advised them to or because a court had forced them to. Even in Maryland, censorship was

neither overturned nor repealed. It just faded to black.

       Sadly, though, Ronald Freedman, who had done so much to fight for freedom of

the screen, feels little sense of accomplishment for his troubles. While he realizes that the

decision caused the other censoring states to disband their censor boards, he was

frustrated with both Maryland’s reaction and the lower courts’ implementation. “We were

disappointed because the Court did not abolish censorship,” Freedman said thirty-seven

years later. “The problem with the Supreme Court’s decision was that they assumed that

the lower courts would be as knowledgeable of the laws of obscenity as the Supreme

Court was but they weren’t. It was useless going to the lower courts. . . . Freedman versus

Maryland turned out to be a waste of time.”88 Perhaps it seems that way to Ronald

Freedman now, but his was the case that turned the tide on film censorship’s acceptance

by the courts. It took some time to filter down to the lower courts’ level, and it was never

used to overturn Maryland’s censorship by its highest court. Eventually, though, the post-

Freedman cases benefited from the Supreme Court’s procedural requirements that had

come from a case brought by this single exhibitor with the backing of a single

independent film company and a small film society.

           Freedman seems typical of the other independent film distributors who had come

before him: Burstyn, Kingsley, Brandt, and other earlier opponents of state film

censorship. These men were willing to fight against the state censors, alone if necessary,

with the help of others if possible. The ACLU, which had publicly denounced censorship

three decades earlier, had been able to assist only a few cases. Both the national office

and its state affiliates needed promising litigants (i.e., clean-cut and upstanding) and local

attorneys willing to take on the state censors. With its resources strained by many civil

liberties issues in the mid-twentieth century (separation of church and state, public

speech, loyalty oaths, civil rights, defendants’ rights), the ACLU can hardly be faulted for

playing a minor role against motion picture censors. The MPAA also had other issues. As

a member organization, it had to run its affairs by committee. Fighting the censorship of a

foreign or independent production was not likely to appeal to its dues-payers. And so,

those who chose to fight the censors were largely on their own.


           Each time a new mass medium has appeared, it has been welcomed with calls for

its restriction. When moving picture technology allowed the mass dissemination of

lifelike moving images for the first time at the turn of the century, the result was moral

panic. Arriving just at the height of the progressive era, motion pictures bore the full

brunt of the progressive notion that an educated, bureaucratized elite could best choose

what its nation’s children should watch on their neighborhood movie screens. Appeals to

the First Amendment rights of motion picture producers were denied by the U.S.

     Telephone interview with Ronald Freedman, 11 September 2002.

Supreme Court, and motion pictures continued to be reviewed by unqualified patronage

appointees throughout the 1920s, '30s, and '40s. During this period, motion picture

distributors challenged the determinations of film censors in state and federal courts, but

only after World War II, did the independent film distributors who fought back make any

headway in their continuing quest to overturn censorship through the states’ and the

federal courts.

        As these appeals began to chip away at the state censors’ authority, the range of

censorable items began to shrink. By 1959, the only permissible standard was obscenity.

Even though many court watchers envisaged the fall of this last censoring standard, they

were mistaken. No state or federal court ever held the prior restraint practiced by

governmental agencies on film unconstitutional. So powerful was the appeal of

censorship as protection for innocents that no state legislature felt compelled to end its

censoring. Despite massive cultural change between film censorship’s creation and its

lingering death, it managed to hold on. In the end, it was terminated by increasingly

constricting procedural requirements demanded by the Supreme Court combined with

state legislatures that cared little about film content.

        But the remarkable part of the story of this death-by-slow-litigation is its cast of

characters. An unorganized group of small businessmen took on the censorship

bureaucracies starting in the 1920s, continuing until 1965, fighting the authority of the

seven censoring states to examine all movies before exhibition. Some of the group were

immigrants with a passionate belief in the American Constitution and its protection of

free speech rights. Some were exhibitors who had problems with authority figures. Some

were nearly bankrupted by the precarious business of independent film distribution. Some

were moderately successful importers. But all of them were unwilling to accept

restrictions on their ability to disseminate films they thought worthy. So, they opposed

the censors in the only legal way possible: through litigation.

       The turning point came in 1952 when the Supreme Court applied the First

Amendment to films in Burstyn v. Wilson, but there was still much litigation left to be

done. As society changed rapidly in the late 1950s and '60s, moving from the scarcity-

based culture of thrift to the consumption-based culture of abundance and individual

freedom, film censorship began to look less honorable. The distributors began to win and

the censors gradually lost authority. All but one of the major cases brought after Burstyn

was decided in favor of the film men. And each win knocked a bit off the censors’ ability

to control the content of the American screen.

       Then in 1965 came a second turning point: Ronald Freedman challenged the

Maryland censor board and the Supreme Court set down such rigid procedural

requirements for governmental film censorship that all of the remaining states gave up,

except Maryland. Beginning with the Burstyn decision and increasing with the Freedman

decision, states realized, one-by-one, that film censorship was no longer worth the effort.

As the state censors retired, a rush of erotic films like Behind the Green Door and Deep

Throat hit movie theaters across the country. The pro-censorite predictions of increasing

tides of smut without governmental restriction had proven true. However, along with the

sometimes unwelcome vulgarity came mature treatments of adult themes. Society got not

only Debbie Does Dallas but also Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, Last Tango in Paris,

Bonnie & Clyde, and Fight Club. The Burstyns and Freedmans who fought censorship

individually probably did not spend their time and money to pave the way for hardcore

pornography, but their struggle brought film viewers across the world more mature, more

thoughtful, and more independent voices.

        Today, governmental film censorship is gone, thanks to the independent film

distributors who refused to accept interference with free speech and free press guarantees.

Yet, the work of those who would fight film censorship continues. Instead of bowing to

the dictates of censor boards or the Catholic Church, filmmakers answer to the MPAA’s

ratings board and pressure groups. The situation has changed, but film artistry remains

subject to outside interference.

                                         Archival Sources:

Billy Rose Collection, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center,
       New York City.
Columbia University Oral History Project
Columbia University Special Collections, Papers of Stanley H. Fuld
Library of Virginia, Department of Motion Picture Censorship Records.
Maryland State Archives, Department of Licensing and Regulation, Board of Censors.
New York State Archives, Motion Picture Division files, series A1418-77, License
       Application Case Files, 1921-1965.
Ohio Historical Society, Ohio Division of Film Censorship collection.
Pennsylvania State Archives, State Board of Motion Picture Censors, RG-22.
Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library, Princeton University, American Civil Liberties
       Union Collection.

Abraham, Henry J. Freedom and the Court. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Alpert, Hollis. "Talk with a Movie Censor." Saturday Review, November 22 1952, 21, 50-54.
Alter, Maria P. "From Der Reigen to La Ronde: transposition of a stageplay to the cinema." Literature Film
Quarterly 1996, 52-57.
Altschuler, Glenn C. All Shook Up: How Rock 'n' Roll Changed America. New York: Oxford University
Press, 2003.
Anderson, Mark Lynn. "Regulating Racism: Americanism, Identity Politics, and the Battle for Film
Censorship in New York State." Paper presented at the Researching New York, Albany, New York 2002.
Andress, Richard. "Film Censorship in New York State." NAHO 1982.
B.P.W. "Constitutional Law - Motion Picture Licensing Statute - Validity Of." Albany Law Review,
January 1960, 205-08.
Baker, Paula. "The Domestication of Politics: Women and American Political Society, 1780-1920." The
American Historical Review 89, no. 3 (1984): 620-47.

Balio, Tino. Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise 1930-1939, History of the
American Cinema. Vol. 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1993.
Barrett, Wilton A. "The National Board of Review of Motion Pictures--How It Works." The Journal of
Educational Sociology 10, no. 3, The Motion Picture in its Educational and Social Aspects (1936): 177-88.
Batten, Mary. "An Interview with Ephraim London."
Beaver, Frank Eugene. Bosley Crowther: Social Critic of the Film, 1940-1967. New York: Arno Press,
Beckoff, Samuel. "An Inquiry into the Operative Principles Applicable to the Licensing of Motion Pictures
in New York State." Ph.D. dissertation, New York University, 1958.
Belton, John. American Cinema/American Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
Bergan, Francis. The History of the New York Court of Appeals, 1847-1932. New York: Columbia
University Press, 1985.
Black, Gregory D. The Catholic Crusade Against the Movies 1940-1975: Cambridge University Press,
———. Hollywood Censored: Morality Codes, Catholics and the Movies: Cambridge University Press,
Blanchard, Margaret A. "The American Urge to Censor: Freedom of Expression Versus the Desire to
Sanitize Society - From Anthony Comstock to 2 Live Crew." William and Mary Law Review 33 (1992).
Boyer, Paul S. Purity in Print: The Vice-Society Movement and Book Censorship in America. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968.
Brinkley, Alan. The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War. New York: Vintage
Books, 1996.
Broun, Heywood. "Where Does Censorship Start?" Collier's, 14 May 1921, 14-15.
Brownlow, Kevin. Behind the Mask of Innocence: Sex, Violence, Prejudice, Crime: Films of Social
Conscience in the Silent Era. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1990.
Brychta, Ivan. "The Ohio Film Censorship Law." Ohio State Law Journal 13 (1952): 350-411.
Cadegan, Una M. "Guardians of Democracy or Cultural Storm Troopers? American Catholics and the
Control of Popular Media, 1934-1966." The Catholic Historical Review 87, no. 2 (2001): 252-82.
Carmen, Ira H. Movies, Censorship and the Law. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1966.
Carr, Steven Alan. Hollywood and Anti-Semitism: A Cultural History up to World War II: Cambridge
University Press, 2001.
"Catholic Censorship." The New Republic, January 29 1951, 7.
"Censorship of Motion Pictures." The Yale Law Journal, November 1939, 87-113.
Chafee, Zechariah. Free Speech in the United States. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press,
Clardy, Bert L. "Constitutional Law - Obscenity - Film Censorship - In Roland [sic] L. Freeman [sic] v.
State of Maryland." Baylor Law Review 17 (1965): 119-21.
Cohen, Charles. "Porn Free." Baltimore City Paper Online, October 11-17 2000.
Cohen, Stanley , and Stuart Hall. Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972.
"Comments on Action Taken by the License Commissioner with respect to "The Miracle"." 8. New York
City, 1950.
"Constitutional Law - Freedom of Expression - Permissive Bounds of Prior Restraint of Movies." De Paul
Law Review, Summer 1968, 597-603.
"Constitutional Law - Freedom of the Press- Validity of Motion Picture Licensing Statute." Michigan Law
Review, November 1959, 134-37.
"Constitutional Law - Freedom of the Press- Validity of Motion Picture Licensing Statute." Michigan Law
Review, November 1959, 134-37.
Cooney, John. The American Pope: The Life and Times of Francis Cardinal Spellman. New York: Times
Books, 1984.
Corliss, Richard. "The Legion of Decency." Film Comment, Summer 1968, 24-61.
Couvares, Francis G. "Hollywood, Main Street, and the Church: Trying to Censor the Movies Before the
Production Code." In Movie Censorship and American Culture, edited by Francis G. Couvares.
Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992.
Crowther, Bosley. "The Strange Case of The Miracle." The Atlantic, April 1951, 35-39.

Czitrom, Daniel. "The Politics of Performance: Theater Licensing and the Origins of Movie Censorship in
New York." In Movie Censorship and American Culture, edited by Francis G. Couvares, 16-42.
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
de Grazia, Edward. Girls Lean Back Everywhere: The Law of Obscenity and the Assault on Genius. New
York: Random House, 1992.
de Grazia, Edward and Newman, Roger K. Banned Films: Movies, Censors and the First Amendment. New
York: R.R. Bowker and Company, 1982.
"Decisions - Constitutional Law - Motion Picture Censorship." Brooklyn Law Review, December 1959,
"Decisions - Constitutional Law - Motion Picture Censorship." Brooklyn Law Review, December 1959,
Desmond, Charles. "Censoring the Movies." Notre Dame Lawyer 29 (1953): 27-36.
———. "Legal Problems Involved in Censoring the Media of Mass Communication." Marquette Law
Review 40 (1956): 38-56.
Dickstein, Morris. Gates of Eden: American Culture in the Sixties. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard
University Press, 1997.
Doherty, Thomas. Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, 1930-
1934. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.
Dresser, David and Friedman, Lester D. American-Jewish Filmmakers. Urbana and Chicago: University of
Illinois Press, 1993.
Driggs, Andrew James. "The Miracle: The Controversy and the Constitution." Masters, Brigham Young
University, 1986.
Eardley, David J. "Motion Picture Censorship - A Constitutional Dilemma." Maryland Law Review 14:
———. "Recent Decisions." Notre Dame Lawyer 29: 663-66.
Ernst, Morris Leopold. The Censor Marches On: Recent Milestones in the Administration of the Obscenity
Law in the United States. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1940.
———. Censorship: The Search for the Obscene. Edited by Alan U. Schwartz, Milestones of Law series.
New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964.
Ernst, Morris Leopold, and Pare Lorentz. Censored: The Private Life of the Movie. New York: Jonathan
Cape and Harrison Smith, 1930.
Eulau, Heinz. "Proselytizing in the Catholic Press." Public Opinion Quarterly II, no. 2 (1947): 189-97.
Facey, Paul, W. The Legion of Decency: A Sociological Analysis of the Emergence and Development of a
Social Pressure Group. New York: Arno Press, 1974.
Farber, David. The Age of Great Dreams: America in the 1960s. New York: Hill and Wang, 1994.
Fellman, David. "Constitutional Law in 1951-1952." The American Political Science Review 47, no. 1
(1953): 126-70.
———. "Constitutional Law in 1953-1954." The American Political Science Review 49, no. 1 (1955): 63-
———. "Constitutional Law in 1957-1958." The American Political Science Review 53, no. 1 (1959): 138-
———. "Constitutional Law in 1958-1959: II." The American Political Science Review 54, no. 2 (1960):
Fisher, Robert. "Film Censorship and Progressive Reform: The National Board of Censorship of Motion
Pictures, 1909-1922." Journal of Popular Film 1975, 143-56.
Flick, Hugh M. "Censorship, Logic and the Law." The New York Times 1955, 5:3.
Florence Perlow Shientag interview by author, tape recording. personal interview, 12 April 2001.
Foerstel, Herbert N. Banned in the Media. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998.
Forman, Henry James. Our Movie Made Children. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1934.
Foster, Gaines M. Moral Reconstruction: Christian Lobbyists and the
Federal Legislation of Morality, 1865-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.
Friedman, Andrea. Prurient Interests: Gender, Democracy, and Obscenity in New York City, 1909-1945.
New York: Columbia University, 2000.
Friedman, Leon, ed. Obscenity: The Complete Oral arguments Before the Supreme Court in the Major
Obscenity Cases. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1970.
Friendly, Fred W. Minnesota Rag. New York: Random House, 1981.

Gardiner, Harold C., S.J. Catholic Viewpoint on Censorship. Garden City, NY: Hanover House, 1958.
Gardner, Gerald. The Censorship Papers: Movie Censorship Letters from the Hays Office, 1934-1968. New
York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1987.
Gaume, Thomas Michael. "Suppression of Motion Pictures in Kansas, 1952 to 1975." Masters, University
of Kansas, 1976.
Gerard, Lillian N. ""Ways of Love" or A History of the Ways of Censorship, Part I." 59, 1977.
———. ""Ways of Love" or A History of the Ways of Censorship, Part II." 60, 1977.
Gholson, Hunter M. "Recent Decisions." Mississippi Law Journal, May 1954, 273-74.
Giglio, Ernest David. "The Decade of The Miracle, 1952-1962: A Study in the Censorship of the American
Motion Picture." Syracuse University, 1964.
———. "Prior Restraint of Motion Pictures." Dickinson Law Review 69 (1965): 379-90.
Gomery, Douglas. "Film and Business History: The Development of an American Mass Entertainment
Industry." Journal of Contemporary History, January 1984, 89-101.
Graber, Mark A. Transforming Free Speech: The Ambiguous Legacy of Civil Libertarianism. Berkeley and
Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1991.
Gregory, Donald. "Cinema Censorship and Court Compliance: The Impact of Freedman v. Maryland." 42,
Grenz, Christine. Trans-Lux: Biography of a Corporation. Norwalk, Connecticut: Trans-Lux Corporation,
Haberski, Raymond J., Jr. It's Only a Movie! Films and Critics in American Culture: The University Press
of Kentucky, 2001.
Haimbaugh, George. "Film Censorship Since Roth-Alberts." Kentucky Law Journal 51 (1963): 656-66.
Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York: Fawcett Columbine, 1993.
Hamilton, Dorothy. "Hollywood's Silent Partner: A History of the Motion Picture Association of America
Movie Rating System." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Kansas, 1999.
Hasl, Rudolph G. "Constitutional Law - Procedural Safeguards Necessary for Valid Prior Restraint of
Motion Pictures." Saint Louis University Law Journal 10 (1965): 142-47.
Heins, Marjorie. Not in Front of the Children: 'Indecency,' Censorship, and the Innocence of Youth. New
York: Hill & Wang, 2001.
———. Sex, Sin, and Blasphemy: A Guide to America's Censorship Wars. New York: The New Press,
Hewison, Robert. Too Much: Art and Society in the Sixties: 1960-1975. London: Methuen, 1986.
Hixson, Richard F. Pornography and the Justices: The Supreme Court and the Intractable Obscenity
Problem. Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern Illinois University Press, 1996.
Hodgins, Eric. "A Round Table on the Movies." Life, 27 June 1949, 90-97+.
Horowitz, David A. "An Alliance of Convenience: Independent Exhibitors and Purity Crusaders Battle
Hollywood, 1920-1940." The Historian 59, no. 3 (1997): 553-72.
Inglis, Ruth. Freedom of the Movies: A Report on Self-Regulation from The Commission on Freedom of the
Press. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1947.
Jacobs, Lea. The Wages of Sin, 1928-1942. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1991.
Jarvis, Arthur R., Jr. "The Payne Fund Reports: A Discussion of their Content, Public Reaction, and Affect
on the Motion Picture Industry, 1930-1940." Journal of Popular Culture 25, no. 2 (1991): 127-40.
"Journal of Meetings of the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York." 1964-1965.
"Journal of the Assembly of the State of New York." 1928-1949.
"Journal of the Senate of the State of New York." Albany, New York, 1928-1949.
Jowett, Garth. "A Capacity for Evil: the 1915 Supreme Court Mutual Decision." Historical Journal of Film,
Radio, and Television 9, no. 1 (1989): 59-78.
———. Film: The Democratic Art. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1976.
———. "Moral Responsibility and Commercial Entertainment: Social Control in the U.S. Film Industry,
1907-1968." Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television 10, no. 1 (1990).
———. "A Significant Medium for the Communication of Ideas: The Miracle Decision and the Decline of
Motion Picture Censorship, 1952-1968." In Movie Censorship and American Culture, edited by Francis G.
Couvares, 258-76. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1996.
Kalven, Harry. "The Metaphysics of the Law of Obscenity." The Supreme Court Review (1960): 1-45.
Karger, Arthur. The Powers of the New York Court of Appeals. 3rd ed. Rochester, New York: Lawyers'
Cooperative Publishing, 1997.

Kasson, Constantine M. "Movie Censorship Standards Held Invalid Because of Vagueness." University of
Pennsylvania Law Review 102 (1954): 671-74.
Keller, Morton. Regulating a New Society: Public Policy and Social Change in America, 1900-1933.
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1994.
Kersch, Ken I. Freedom of Speech: Rights and Liberties Under the Law. Santa Barbara, California: ABC
CLIO, Inc., 2003.
Kimball, Roger. The Long March: How the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s Changed America. San
Francisco: Encounter, 2000.
Kindem, Gordon, ed. The American Movie Industry: The Business of Motion Pictures. Carbondale and
Edwardsville: University of Illinois Press, 1982.
Klarman, Michael. "Court Decisions Reflect the Times in Which They Were Made." Chronicle of Higher
Education (2003).
Kolmacic, Joseph. "Prior restraints on Motion Pictures." Catholic University of America Law Review 4, no.
2 (1954): 112-18.
Kramer, Daniel C. "The New York Court of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court, 1960-1976."
Publius 1978, 75-111.
Lasker, Edward. "Censorship of Motion Pictures Pursuant to Recent Supreme Court Decisions." UCLA
Law Review 1 (1954): 582-92.
Leab, Daniel J. "How Red Was My Valley: Hollywood, the Cold War Film, and I Married a Communist."
Journal of Contemporary History 19, no. 1, Historians and Movies: The State of the Art: Part 2 (1984): 59-
Leff, Leonard J. The Dame in the Kimono: Hollywood, Censorship, and the Production Code from the
1920s to the 1960s. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1990.
Levy, Leonard W. Blasphemy: Verbal Offense Against the Sacred, From Moses to Salman Rushdie. New
York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.
———. Freedom of Speech and Press in Early America: Legacy of Suppression. New York: Harper &
Row, 1963.
———. Legacy of Suppression: Freedom of Speech and Press in Early American History. Cambridge,
Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1960.
Lewis, Anthony. "A New Lineup on the Supreme Court." The Reporter, August 17 1961, 42-46.
———. "Sex and the Supreme Court." Esquire, June 1963, 82-3+.
Lewis, Jon. Hollywood v. Hard Core: How the Struggle over Censorship Saved the Modern Film Industry.
New York: New York University Press, 2000.
"list of municipal censorship ordinances." 1950.
London, Ephraim. "The Freedom to See: With or Without Glasses." The Nation, December 19 1953, 544-
Lounsbury, Myron. The Origins of American Film Criticism: 1909-1939. New York: Arno Press, 1973.
Lovell, George I. Legislative Deferrals; Statutory Ambiguity, Judicial Power, and American Democracy.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Lyons, Charles. The New Censors: Movies and the Culture Wars. Philadelphia: Temple University Press,
Lyons, Richard J. "Constitutional Law - Board of Regents May Ban Removal of Obscene Scenes From
Motion Picture." Syracuse Law Review 16 (1964): 131-32.
MacGregor, Ford H. "Official Censorship Legislation." The Annals of the American Academy of Political
and Social Science 128, no. 217 (1926): 163-74.
Mackey, Thomas C. Pornography on Trial: A Handbook with Cases, Laws, and Documents. Edited by
Charles Zelden, On Trial. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002.
Maltby, Richard. ""To Prevent the Prevalent Type of Book": Censorship and Adaptation in Hollywood,
1924-1934." American Quarterly 44, no. 4, Special Issue: Hollywood, Censorship, and American Culture
(1992): 554-83.
Markmann, Charles Lam. The Noblest Cry: A History of the American Civil Liberties Union. New York:
St. Martin's Press, 1965.
"Maryland State Board of Motion Picture Censors Act of 1922, Chapter 390 as amended 1927,1929,
1939,1941,1945,1947,1955, 1960." Baltimore, 1960.
Mathews, Tom Dewe. Censored. London: Chatto & Windus, 1994.

Matusow, Allen J. The Unraveling of America: A History of Liberalism in the 1960s. New York: Harper
Torchbooks, 1984.
May, Lary. Screening Out the Past: The Birth of Mass Culture and the Motion Picture Industry. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1980.
Mayer, Arthur. "How Much Can the Censors Say?" Saturday Review, 3 November 1962, 18-20+.
———. Simply Colossal: The Story of the Movies from the Long Chase to the Chaise Longue. New York:
Simon and Schuster, 1953.
Mayer, Michael F. The Film Industries: Practical Business/Legal Problems in Production, Distribution and
Exhibition. New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1978.
———. Foreign Films on American Screens. New York: Arno Publishing Company, 1965.
McAnany, P.D., S.J. "Motion Picture Censorship and Constitutional Freedom." Kentucky Law Journal
1962, 427-58.
McCabe, Geo. P., Esq. Forces Molding and Muddling the Movies. Washington, D.C.: no publisher, 1926.
McCarthy, Kathleen D. "Nickel Vice and Virtue: Movie Censorship in Chicago:, 1907-1915." The Journal
of Popular Film 1976, 37-55.
McClure, Lockhart and. "Censorship of Obscenity: The Developing Constitutional Standards." Minnesota
Law Review 45 (1960): 5.
McGreevy, John T. Catholicism and American Freedom: a History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,
———. "Thinking on One's Own: Catholicism in the American Intellectual Imagination, 1928-1960."
Journal of American History 84, no. 1 (1997): 97-131.
Michael F. Mayer, interview by author, tape recording. 9 June 2003.
Midkiff, Leslie DeBauche. Reel Patriotism: The Movies and World War I. Madison: U of Wisconsin Press,
Miller, Douglas T. On Our Own: Americans in the Sixties. Lexington, Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and
Company, 1996.
Miller, Frank. Censored Hollywood: Sex, Sin & Violence in Hollywood: Turner Publishing, 1994.
Mitgang, Herbert. "Transatlantic 'Miracle Man'." Park East, August 1952, 32-36.
Mondschein, Morris. "Constitutional Law: Motion Picture Censorship: Matter of Kingsley Int'l Pictures
Corp. v. Regents of the Univ., 4 N.Y. 2d 349, 151 N.E.2d 197, 175 N.Y.S.2d 39 (1958)." Cornell Law
Quarterly 44 (1959): 411-19.
Mooney, Christopher Z. "The Politics of Morality Policy: Symposium Editor's Introduction." Journal of
Policy Studies 27, no. 4 (1999): 675-.
Moore, R. Laurence. Selling God: American Religion in the Marketplace of Culture. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1994.
Morris, Charles R. American Catholic: the Saints and Sinners Who Built America's Most Powerful Church.
New York: Times Books, 1997.
Murphy, Paul L. The Meaning of Freedom of Speech: First Amendment Freedoms from Wilson to FDR.
Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Company, 1972.
Nelson, William E. The Legalist Reformation: Law, Politics, and Ideology in New York, 1920-1980. Chapel
Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.
"New York Legislative Record and Index." Albany, 1922-1940.
"New York Statute Censuring 'Sexual Immorality' in Motion Picture Film Held Unconstitutional." Temple
Law Quarterly, Winter 1959, 242-46.
"New York Statute Censuring 'Sexual Immorality' in Motion Picture Film Held Unconstitutional." Temple
Law Quarterly, Winter 1959, 242-46.
Nimmer, Melville B. "The Constitutionality of Official Censorship of Motion Pictures." The University of
Chicago Law Review 25 (1958): 625-57.
"Notes: Motion Pictures and the First Amendment." Yale Law Journal 1951, 696-719.
Nunez, Richard. "In Search of a Legislative Definition: the Judicial and Legislative History of State Film
Censorship in New York." Masters, Syracuse University, 1960.
Oakes, John. "Barney Rosset and the Art of Combat Publishing: an Interview." The Review of
Contemporary Fiction 10, no. 3 (1990): 20-57.
"Ohio Censorship Laws Sections from the Ohio General Code." unknown.
O'Mara, John T. "Obscenity: Roth Goes to the Movies." Buffalo Law Review 14 (1965): 512-24.
O'Neil, Paul. "The Only Rebellion Around." Life 1959.

O'Neill, James M. Catholicism and American Freedom. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952.
"Ordinance Governing the Exhibit of Motion Pictures in Atlanta." Atlanta, GA, 1944.
Parker, Alison M. Purifying America: Women, Cultural Reform and Pro-Censorship Activism, 1873-1933.
Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1997.
Peiss, Kathy. Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in Turn-of-the-Century New York.
Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.
"Pennsylvania State Board of Censors Rules and Standards." Philadelphia, PA, 1918.
Post, David. "Understanding the Techno Evolution." The American Lawyer (1996).
Powdermaker, Hortense. Hollywood: The Dream Factory: An Anthropologist Looks at the Movie-Makers.
Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1951.
Pritchett, C Herman. Civil Liberties in the Vinson Court. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1954.
Rabban, David M. Free Speech in its Forgotten Years: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Randall, Richard S. Censorship of the Movies: The Social and Political Control of a Mass Medium.
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968.
Ray, Laura Krugman. "The Road to Bush v. Gore: The History of the Supreme Court's Use of the Per
Curiam Opinion." Nebraska Law Review 79 (2002): 517-76.
Reiner, Donald F. "Motion Picture Censorship Re-examined." Albany Law Review 23 (1959): 152-68.
Rembar, Charles. The End of Obscenity: The Trials of Lady Chatterley, Tropic of Cancer, and Fanny Hill.
New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1968.
"Report on the Motion Picture Division, New York State Education Department." 34: New York State
Temporary State Commission on the Coordination of State Activities, 1949.
Rice, Elmer. "Entertainment in the Age of McCarthy." New Republic, April 13 1953, 14-17.
Ronald Freedman, telephone interview by author, tape recording. 11 September 2002.
Rosenbloom, Nancy J. "Between Reform and Regulation: The Struggle over Film Censorship in
Progressive America, 1909-1922." Film History 1 (1987): 307-25.
"Rules of the Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York." Albany, New York, 1932.
Salmon, John N. "A Guide to State Records in the Archives Branch of the Virginia State Library." Virginia
State Library, 1985.
Saylor, Richard C. "Banned in Pennsylvania!" Pennsylvania Heritage, Summer 1999, 12-.
Saylor, Richard Carl. "The Pennsylvania State Board of Censors (Motion Picture)." Master of Arts thesis,
The Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, 1999.
Schiller, Reuel E. "Free Speech and Expertise:." Virginia Law Review.
Schumach, Murray. The Face on the Cutting Room Floor: The Story of Movie and Television Censorship.
New York: William Morrow and Company, 1964.
Skinner, James M. "The Tussle With Russell: The Outlaw as a Landmark in American Film Censorship."
North Dakota Quarterly (1981): 5-12.
Sklar, Robert. Movie-Made America: A Cultural History of American Movies. New York: Vintage Books,
Skowronek, Stephen. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative
Capacities, 1877-1920: Cambridge University Press, 1982.
Snyder, Robert W. The Voice of the City: Vaudeville and Popular Culture in New York. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1989.
Sova, Dawn B. Banned Books: Literature Suppressed on Sexual Grounds. New York: Facts on File, Inc.,
Springhall, John. "Censoring Hollywood: Youth, Moral Panic and Crime/Gangster Movies of the 1930s."
Journal of Popular Culture 32, no. 3 (1998): 135-54.
"State Court Upholds Constitutionality of Refusal to License Lady Chatterley's Lover Under Recently
Amended Motion Picture Licensing Statute." Columbia Law Review, February 1959, 337-51.
Steele, Richard W. Free Speech in the Good War. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1999.
Steigerwald, David. The Sixties and the End of Modern America. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
"The Supreme Court as Policy-Maker: Three Studies on the Impact of Judicial Decisions." 1972 1968.
Tedford, Thomas L. Freedom of Speech in the United States. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing
Company, 1985.
Thompson, Frank. "Pre-Code Parlance." American Film 15, no. 2 (1989): 13.
Thorp, Margaret. America at the Movies. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1939.

Thrasher, Frederic M. "The Motion Picture: Its Nature and Scope." The Journal of Educational Sociology
10, no. 3, The Motion Picture in its Educational and Social Aspects (1936): 129-42.
Tushnet, Mark V. The NAACP's Legal Strategy against Segregated Education, 1925-1950. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1987.
Urofsky, Melvin I. Division and Discord: The Supreme Court under Stone and Vinson, 1941-1953:
University of South Carolina Press, 1997.
———. Felix Frankfurter: Judicial Restraint and Individual Liberties. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991.
Van Allen, Rodger. The Commonweal and American Catholicism: The Magazine, the Movement, The
Meaning. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1974.
"Vatican Over Hollywood." The Nation, July 11 1936, 33.
Vaughn, Steven. "Morality and Entertainment: Origins of the Motion Picture Code." Journal of American
History 77 (1990): 39-65.
Verani, John R. "Motion Picture Censorship and the Doctrine of Prior Restraint." Houston Law Review 3
(1965): 11-57.
"Virginia Censorship Laws." Richmond, 1930.
Walker, Samuel. In Defense of American Liberties: A History of the ACLU. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1990.
Walsh, Francis R. "'The Callahans and the Murphys' (MGM, 1927): A Case Study of Irish-American and
Catholic Church Censorship." Historical Journal of Film, Radio & Television 10, no. 1 (1990): 33-46.
Walsh, Frank. Sin and Censorship: The Catholic Church and the Motion Picture Industry. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1996.
Wambeam, Rodney A. "Lights! Camera! Policy! Regulating the Morality of American Entertainment."
Ph.D., University of Nebraska, 1999.
Warner, Linda K. "Movie Censorship in Kansas: the Kansas State Board of Review." Masters, Emporia
State University, 1988.
Wasby, Stephen L. "The Supreme Court's Use of Per Curiam Dispositions: The Connection to Oral
Argument." Northern Illinois University Law Review 13, no. 1 (1992): reprint.
Wertheimer, John. "The Mutual Film Reviewed: The Movies, Censorship and Free Speech in Progressive
America." American Journal of Legal History 1993, 158-89.
Westin, Alan. The Miracle Case: The Supreme Court and the Movies, The Inter-University Case Program,
White, G. Edward. Earl Warren: A Public Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
———. "The First Amendment Comes of Age: The Emergence of Free Speech in Twentieth Century
America." Michigan Law Review 95 (1996): 299-392.
Whitworth, John Harvey, Jr. "Constitutional Law - "Lady Chatterley's Lover": Death to Motion Picture
Censorship?" Mississippi Law Journal 31 (1959): 95-97.
Wiener, Stanley. "Final Curtain Call for the Motion Picture Censor?" Western Reserve Law Review 4
(1953): 148-58.
Wildman, Walter. "How To Be a Censor." The New York Times, November 27 1949, 4:6.
Wirt, Frederick Marshall. "State Film Censorship, with Particular Reference to Ohio (Volumes I and II)."
Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1956.
Wohlforth, Robert. "People and Pickets." New Republic, February 5 1951, 13.


jolinmilioncherie jolinmilioncherie http://