AP Biology Karen M. Edmonds firstname.lastname@example.org sciencetogo.wikispaces.com COURSE DESCRIPTION The AP Biology course is designed to be the equivalent of a college introductory biology course usually taken by biology majors during their first year. It should cover those topics regularly covered in a college biology course for majors. It will differ significantly from the usual first high school course in biology with respect to the kind of textbook used, the range and depth of topics covered, the kind of laboratory work done by students, and the time and effort required of students. Text Title: Biology – AP Edition, 8th Edition Author: Campbell, Reece Laboratory Manual: AP Biology Lab Manual Author: College Board COURSE OBJECTIVES 1. To develop a conceptual framework for modern biology. 2. To help students gain an appreciation of science as a process. 3. To gain an insight into what a college biology course will be like. 4. To develop an understanding of concepts rather than on memorizing terms and technical details. Essential to this conceptual understanding are the following: a grasp of science as a process rather than as an accumulation of facts; personal experience in scientific inquiry; recognition of unifying themes that integrate the major subject areas in biology; and application of biological knowledge and critical thinking to environmental and social concerns. 5. Laboratory experience must be included in all AP Biology courses. The labs are designed to encourage the development of important skills such as detailed observation, accurate recording, experimental design, manual manipulation, data interpretation, statistical analysis, and operation of technical equipment. COURSE CONTENT Percentage of Course I. Molecules and Cells 25% Cells are the structural and functional units of life; cellular processes are based on physical and chemical changes. A. Chemistry of Life 7% 1. Water Chemical and physical properties of water make life on earth possible 2. Organic molecules in organisms The role of carbon in the molecular diversity of life How cells synthesize and break down macromolecules How the structure of biologically important molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) account for their functions 3. Free energy changes How the laws of thermodynamics relate the biochemical processes that provide energy to living systems 4. Enzymes How enzymes regulate the rate of chemical reactions How the specificity of an enzyme depends on its structure How the activity of an enzyme regulated B. Cells 10% 1. Membranes The current model of the molecular architecture of membranes How variations in this structure account for functional differences among membranes How the structural organization of membranes provide for transport and recognition The various mechanisms by which substances cross membranes 2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Their similarities and differences Their evolutionary relationships 3. Subcellular organization How compartmentalization organizes a cell's functions How the structures of the various subcellular organelles relate to their functions How organelles function together in cellular processes Factors that limit cell size 4. Cell cycle and its regulation How the cell cycle assures genetic continuity How mitosis allows for the even distribution of genetic information to new cells The mechanisms of cytokinesis How the cell cycle is regulated How aberrations in the cell cycle lead to tumor formation C. Cellular Energetics 8% 1. Coupled reactions The role of ATP in coupling the cell's anabolic and catabolic processes How chemiosmosis functions in bioenergetics 2. Fermentation and cellular respiration How organic molecules are broken down by catabolic pathways The role of oxygen in energy-yielding pathways How cells generate ATP in the absence of oxygen 3. Photosynthesis How photosynthesis converts light energy into chemical energy How the chemical products of the light-trapping reactions are coupled to the synthesis of carbohydrates The kinds of photosynthetic adaptations that have evolved in response to different environmental conditions The interactions that exist between photosynthesis and cellular respiration II. Heredity and Evolution 25% Hereditary events control the passage of structural and functional information from one generation to the next. A. Molecular Genetics 9% 1. RNA and DNA structure and function How the structure of nucleic acids relates to their function of information storage and protein synthesis The similarities and differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes 2. Gene regulation Some mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated in prokaryotes and eukarytoes 3. Mutation Ways genetic information may be altered Some effects of these alterations 4. Viral structure and replication The structure of viruses The major steps in viral reproduction How viruses transfer genetic material between cells 5. Nucleic acid technology and applications Some current recombinant technologies Some practical applications of nucleic acid technology Legal and ethical problems that may arise from these applications B. Heredity 8% 1. Meiosis and gametogenesis Features of meiosis that are important in sexual reproduction Why meiosis is important in heredity How meiosis is related to gametogenesis The similarities and differences between gametogenesis in animals and gametogenesis in plants 2. Eukaryotic chromosomes How genetic information is organized in the eukaryotic chromosome How this organization contributes to both continuity of and variability in the genetic information 3. Inheritance patterns How Mendel's work laid the foundation of modern genetics The principal patterns of inheritance C. Evolutionary Biology 8% 1. Early evolution of life The current biological models for the origins of biological macromolecules The current models for the origins of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 2. Evidence for evolution The types of evidence that support an evolutionary view of life 3. Mechanisms of evolution The role of natural selection in the process of evolution How heredity and natural selection are involved in the process of evolution The mechanisms that account for speciation and macroevolution The different patterns of evolution that have been identified and the mechanisms that are responsible for each of these patterns III. Organisms and Populations 50% The relationship of structure to function is a theme that is common to all organisms; the interactions of organisms with their environment is the major theme in ecology. A. Diversity of Organisms 8% 1. Evolutionary patterns The major body plans of plants and animals 2. Survey of the diversity of life Representative organisms from Monera, Fungi, and Protista Representative members of the major animal phyla and plant divisions 3. Phylogenetic classification The distinguishing characteristics of each group (kingdoms and the major phyla and divisions of animals and plants) 4. Evolutionary relationships Some evidence that organisms are related to each other How scientists study evolutionary relationships among organisms How this information is used in the classification of organisms B. Structure and Function of Plants and Animals 32% 1. Reproduction, growth, and development The patterns of reproduction and development that are found in plants and animals and how they are regulated The adaptive significance of alternation of generations in the major groups of plants 2. Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations How the organization of cells, tissues, and organs determine structure and function in plant and animal systems How structure and function are related in the various organ systems How the organ systems of animals interact The adaptive features that have contributed to the success of various plants and animals on land 3. Response to the environment The responses of plants and animals to environmental cues, and how hormones mediate them C. Ecology 10% 1. Population dynamics Models that are useful in describing the growth of a populations How population size is regulated by abiotic and biotic factors 2. Communities and ecosystems How energy flow through an ecosystem is related to trophic structure (trophic levels) How elements (e.g. carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, oxygen) cycle through ecosystems How organisms affect the cycling of elements and water through the biosphere How biotic and abiotic factors affect community structure and ecosystem function 3. Global issues Ways humans are affecting biogeochemical cycles TIME SCHEDULE This may be one of the most demanding courses you will take in high school. All material must be covered before the AP exam that is usually administered around the middle of May. Two weeks of time is allotted before the actual exam is taken in order to take practice AP exams. In order to do well in this course you must complete all reading and homework assignments. Please remember that there is a difference between scanning the chapter and truly reading it. You must put forth maximum effort. I am here to help you whenever possible. GOOD LUCK Topics to be completed by the first trimester: 1. Chemistry of Life 2. Cells 3. Cellular Energetics 4. Molecular Genetics 5. Heredity Tests to be completed by the first trimester: 1. Test 1 – Chapters 1-4 2. Test 2 – Chapters 5-7 3. Test 3 – Chapters 8-10 4. Test 4 – Chapters 12-13 5. Test 5 – Chapters 14-17 6. Test 6 – Chapters 18-20 Topics to be completed by second trimester: 1. Evolutionary Biology 2. Diversity of Organisms 3. Structure and Function of Animals Tests to be completed by the second trimester: 1. Test 7 – Chapters 22-25 2. Test 8 - Chapters 26-34 3. Test 9 – Chapters 40-44 4. Test 10 – Chapters 45-50 Topics to be completed by April of third trimester: 1. Structure and Function of Plants 2. Ecology Tests to be completed by April of third trimester: 1. Test 11 – Chapters 35-39 2. Test 12 – Chapters 52-55 STUDENT EVALUATION All assignments are worth a certain number of points which are added together to give you your grade. Point values may range from as little as 10 to as much as 115. For example, at the end of a term, if you have 468 points out of a possible 507 your grade for the term would be a 92%. (Very Good!) 1. Chapter Objectives 2. Article Summaries 3. Labs 4. Tests - In order to prepare the student mentally for the AP Exam, tests will follow the same format as the AP Exam. **Much of the information above was taken from the Advanced Placement Course Description for Biology and was put out by The College Board. If you would like more information about this course or the Examination, please ask.
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