Course Title: AP Biology by TBd92btU


									                                     AP Biology
                                  Karen M. Edmonds

                               COURSE DESCRIPTION

The AP Biology course is designed to be the equivalent of a college introductory biology
course usually taken by biology majors during their first year. It should cover those
topics regularly covered in a college biology course for majors. It will differ significantly
from the usual first high school course in biology with respect to the kind of textbook
used, the range and depth of topics covered, the kind of laboratory work done by students,
and the time and effort required of students.

Text Title:    Biology – AP Edition, 8th Edition
Author:        Campbell, Reece

Laboratory Manual: AP Biology Lab Manual
Author:      College Board

                                COURSE OBJECTIVES

1. To develop a conceptual framework for modern biology.
2. To help students gain an appreciation of science as a process.
3. To gain an insight into what a college biology course will be like.
4. To develop an understanding of concepts rather than on memorizing terms
   and technical details. Essential to this conceptual understanding are the following: a
   grasp of science as a process rather than as an accumulation of facts; personal
   experience in scientific inquiry; recognition of unifying themes that integrate the
   major subject areas in biology; and application of biological knowledge and critical
   thinking to environmental and social concerns.
5. Laboratory experience must be included in all AP Biology courses. The labs are
    designed to encourage the development of important skills such as detailed
    observation, accurate recording, experimental design, manual manipulation, data
    interpretation, statistical analysis, and operation of technical equipment.
                                   COURSE CONTENT
                                                                         of Course

I. Molecules and Cells                                                   25%
       Cells are the structural and functional units of life; cellular
       processes are based on physical and chemical changes.

       A. Chemistry of Life                                               7%
             1. Water
                    Chemical and physical properties of water make
                    life on earth possible
             2. Organic molecules in organisms
                    The role of carbon in the molecular diversity of life
                    How cells synthesize and break down macromolecules
                    How the structure of biologically important molecules
                    (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) account for
                    their functions
             3. Free energy changes
                    How the laws of thermodynamics relate the biochemical
                    processes that provide energy to living systems
             4. Enzymes
                    How enzymes regulate the rate of chemical reactions
                            How the specificity of an enzyme depends on its structure
                    How the activity of an enzyme regulated

       B. Cells                                                                10%
              1. Membranes
                     The current model of the molecular architecture of membranes
                     How variations in this structure account for functional
                     differences among membranes
                     How the structural organization of membranes provide
                     for transport and recognition
                     The various mechanisms by which substances cross
              2. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
                     Their similarities and differences
                     Their evolutionary relationships
              3. Subcellular organization
                     How compartmentalization organizes a cell's functions
                     How the structures of the various subcellular
                     organelles relate to their functions
                     How organelles function together in cellular processes
                     Factors that limit cell size
               4. Cell cycle and its regulation
                      How the cell cycle assures genetic continuity
                      How mitosis allows for the even distribution of
                      genetic information to new cells
                      The mechanisms of cytokinesis
                      How the cell cycle is regulated
                      How aberrations in the cell cycle lead to tumor

       C. Cellular Energetics                                                   8%
              1. Coupled reactions
                     The role of ATP in coupling the cell's anabolic
                     and catabolic processes
                     How chemiosmosis functions in bioenergetics
              2. Fermentation and cellular respiration
                     How organic molecules are broken down by catabolic
                     The role of oxygen in energy-yielding pathways
                     How cells generate ATP in the absence of oxygen
              3. Photosynthesis
                     How photosynthesis converts light energy into
                     chemical energy
                     How the chemical products of the light-trapping
                     reactions are coupled to the synthesis of carbohydrates
                     The kinds of photosynthetic adaptations that have evolved in
                     response to different environmental conditions
                     The interactions that exist between photosynthesis and
                     cellular respiration

II. Heredity and Evolution                                                  25%
       Hereditary events control the passage of structural and functional information
       from one generation to the next.

       A. Molecular Genetics                                                      9%
             1. RNA and DNA structure and function
                    How the structure of nucleic acids relates to their
                    function of information storage and protein synthesis
                    The similarities and differences between
                    prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes
             2. Gene regulation
                    Some mechanisms by which gene expression
                    is regulated in prokaryotes and eukarytoes
             3. Mutation
                    Ways genetic information may be altered
                    Some effects of these alterations
       4. Viral structure and replication
              The structure of viruses
              The major steps in viral reproduction
              How viruses transfer genetic material between cells
       5. Nucleic acid technology and applications
              Some current recombinant technologies
              Some practical applications of nucleic
              acid technology
              Legal and ethical problems that may arise from
              these applications

B. Heredity                                                       8%
      1. Meiosis and gametogenesis
             Features of meiosis that are important in sexual
             Why meiosis is important in heredity
             How meiosis is related to gametogenesis
             The similarities and differences between
             gametogenesis in animals and gametogenesis in plants
      2. Eukaryotic chromosomes
             How genetic information is organized in the eukaryotic
             How this organization contributes to both continuity
             of and variability in the genetic information
      3. Inheritance patterns
             How Mendel's work laid the foundation of modern
             The principal patterns of inheritance

C. Evolutionary Biology                                            8%
      1. Early evolution of life
              The current biological models for the origins
              of biological macromolecules
              The current models for the origins of prokaryotic
              and eukaryotic cells
      2. Evidence for evolution
              The types of evidence that support an evolutionary view
              of life
      3. Mechanisms of evolution
              The role of natural selection in the process
              of evolution
              How heredity and natural selection are involved in the
              process of evolution
              The mechanisms that account for speciation and
                      The different patterns of evolution that have been identified
                      and the mechanisms that are responsible for each of these

III. Organisms and Populations                                              50%
        The relationship of structure to function is a theme that is common to
        all organisms; the interactions of organisms with their environment is
        the major theme in ecology.

       A. Diversity of Organisms                                           8%
             1. Evolutionary patterns
                     The major body plans of plants and animals
             2. Survey of the diversity of life
                     Representative organisms from Monera,
                     Fungi, and Protista
                     Representative members of the major animal
                     phyla and plant divisions
             3. Phylogenetic classification
                     The distinguishing characteristics of each group
                     (kingdoms and the major phyla and divisions of
                     animals and plants)
             4. Evolutionary relationships
                     Some evidence that organisms are related to
                     each other
                     How scientists study evolutionary relationships among
                     How this information is used in the classification of

       B. Structure and Function of Plants and Animals                  32%
              1. Reproduction, growth, and development
                     The patterns of reproduction and development that are
                     found in plants and animals and how they are
                     The adaptive significance of alternation of
                     generations in the major groups of plants

              2. Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations
                     How the organization of cells, tissues, and organs
                     determine structure and function in plant and animal
                     How structure and function are related in the various
                     organ systems
                     How the organ systems of animals interact
                     The adaptive features that have contributed to the success of
                     various plants and animals on land
              3. Response to the environment
                     The responses of plants and animals to
                     environmental cues, and how hormones mediate them

       C. Ecology                                                        10%
             1. Population dynamics
                    Models that are useful in describing the growth of a
                    How population size is regulated by abiotic and biotic
             2. Communities and ecosystems
                    How energy flow through an ecosystem is related to
                    trophic structure (trophic levels)
                    How elements (e.g. carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus,
                    sulfur, oxygen) cycle through ecosystems
                    How organisms affect the cycling of elements and
                    water through the biosphere
                    How biotic and abiotic factors affect community
                    structure and ecosystem function
             3. Global issues
                    Ways humans are affecting biogeochemical

                                  TIME SCHEDULE

This may be one of the most demanding courses you will take in high school. All
material must be covered before the AP exam that is usually administered around the
middle of May. Two weeks of time is allotted before the actual exam is taken in order to
take practice AP exams.
In order to do well in this course you must complete all reading and homework
assignments. Please remember that there is a difference between scanning the chapter
and truly reading it. You must put forth maximum effort. I am here to help you
whenever possible.

                                     GOOD LUCK

Topics to be completed by the first trimester:
       1. Chemistry of Life
       2. Cells
       3. Cellular Energetics
       4. Molecular Genetics
       5. Heredity

Tests to be completed by the first trimester:
        1. Test 1 – Chapters 1-4
        2. Test 2 – Chapters 5-7
        3. Test 3 – Chapters 8-10
        4. Test 4 – Chapters 12-13
        5. Test 5 – Chapters 14-17
        6. Test 6 – Chapters 18-20

Topics to be completed by second trimester:
       1. Evolutionary Biology
       2. Diversity of Organisms
       3. Structure and Function of Animals

Tests to be completed by the second trimester:
        1. Test 7 – Chapters 22-25
        2. Test 8 - Chapters 26-34
        3. Test 9 – Chapters 40-44
        4. Test 10 – Chapters 45-50

Topics to be completed by April of third trimester:
       1. Structure and Function of Plants
       2. Ecology

Tests to be completed by April of third trimester:
        1. Test 11 – Chapters 35-39
        2. Test 12 – Chapters 52-55
                                STUDENT EVALUATION

All assignments are worth a certain number of points which are added together to give
you your grade. Point values may range from as little as 10 to as much as 115. For
example, at the end of a term, if you have 468 points out of a possible 507 your grade for
the term would be a 92%. (Very Good!)

1.   Chapter Objectives
2.   Article Summaries
3.   Labs
4.   Tests - In order to prepare the student mentally for the AP Exam, tests will follow the
     same format as the AP Exam.
**Much of the information above was taken from the Advanced Placement Course
Description for Biology and was put out by The College Board. If you would like more
information about this course or the Examination, please ask.

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