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Economic Environmental and Social Costs of the Car

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Economic Environmental and Social Costs of the Car Powered By Docstoc
					TREN 3P18: Sustainable Transportation


Environmental, Economic, and
    Social Costs of the Car
‘The World Car Crisis’
• Wolfgang Zuckermann (1922- )




       shakespeare.bookshop.free.fr/ GB/home_page.htm
‘The World Car Crisis’
• Wolfgang Zuckermann
 (1991) described the
  aggregate global
  impacts and influences
  of the automobile as
  ‘the world car crisis’
Problems and consequences
• 500 million vehicles were on the road in 1991
• More than 550 million were on the road by 2002        (1)

• More than 600 million cars were on the road by 2010           (2)



            people.hofstra.edu/.../ conc3en/carprodfleet.html




                                                                      Graph source:
                                                                      Worldwatch
                                                                      Institute
Problems and consequences
• More than 600 million vehicles were on the
  road by 2010
• Mounting traffic congestion
• Air, noise, and aesthetic pollution
• Near-total dependence on fossil fuels (often
  dirty and imported)
• Highly wasteful usage of materials and energy
Problems and consequences
• More than 250,000 traffic deaths each year
• Negative impacts on cities and land use
• Approximately fifty million new vehicles
  added each year (100 each minute)
• Emerging limits on the carrying capacity of
  the planet
• Climate modification with serious
  consequences
Increasing auto dependency
• Even with cleaner fuel, we’re driving more in
  low miles-per-gallon vehicles. Air pollution
  damages human health, crops, structures, and
  our climate.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
          Percent of Trips by Travel Mode (all trip purposes) – compiled 1998
Country            bicycle       walking     public transit      car           other
Netherlands          30            18              5             45              2
Denmark              20            21             14             42              3
Germany              12            22             16             49              1
Switzerland          10            29             20             38              1
Sweden               10            39             11             36              4
Austria              9             31             13             39              8
England/
                     8             12             14             62              4
Wales
France               5             30             12             47              6
Italy                5             28             16             42              9
Canada               1             10             14             74              1
United
                     1              9              3             84              3
States

Source: John Pucher, Transportation Quarterly, 98-1 (from various transport ministries
and depts., latest avail. year) (table from www.ibike.org/library/ statistics.htm)
Increasing auto dependency:
European cities
• since 1975, the average distance between
  home and the workplace has more than
  doubled
• journeys by private car increased 9.4 %
  between 1989-1996
• The car is used more often for leisure
  activities or for shopping

               − http://www.22september.org/info/en/air.html
Increasing auto dependency:
European cities
• European car use is
  approaching that of the
  USA: by 2002, 82% of
  urban journeys in
  European cities were
  undertaken by car
 (12% transit, 6% bicycle)
  −   http://www.22september.org/info/en/air.html
Increasing auto dependency:
European cities
However, modal split (walking / cycling / public
  transit / private car) is quite variable –
• Spanish cities are most walkable
• Danish and Dutch cities are most cyclable
• Slovakia, Switzerland, Estonia use public transit
  the most
• Italy and Spain have highest car use
   (Modal split for European cities of over 250,000 population, 2004 data – www.urbanaudit.com )
  Costs and impacts of the car
…include the following
(nonexclusive) categories:
• Internal economic costs
 (borne by car users)
• External economic costs
 (borne by society)
• Environmental costs
 (borne by the environment)
• Social costs
 (borne by all of society)
Internal economic costs
(borne by users)

• Fixed costs
• Operating costs
• Personal costs
• Financial benefits?




                        Click worksheet to download
Direct Costs paid by motorist
• Fixed costs – insurance, licensing, registration and taxes
• Finance charges – interest on borrowed money for
  vehicle purchase
• Depreciation – The difference between what you paid
  for a car and what you can sell it for
• Fuel and Oil Expenses
• Maintenance and Tires
• Parking
Direct Costs paid by motorist
• Annual costs of ownership of most US vehicles
can be compared online at Vincentric website:
• Brand Analysis by Segment - Ownership Costs
$ CDN – exch.18 Jan 2010 $ 10,041   $ 8538   $ 7353
Direct and Societal Costs
Travel time
• cost to drivers of unpaid time
• cost to employers for work time spent in travel
• costs of opportunities lost to travel time

• Measured door-to-door (including time spent parking
  and walking to and from vehicle.) Variable rate
  depending on congestion and travel distances

   −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
       Institute, June 2002
External economic costs
(borne by society)

• Infrastructure development and
  maintenance costs
• Government subsidies to auto industry,
  petroleum industry, etc.
• All other non-environmental external
  costs
Environmental costs
Environmental impacts of cars
Impacts to…
• Atmosphere    (air)

• Hydrosphere (water)
• Lithosphere (soil)
• Biosphere (biota)
… affecting ecosystem
 process and function
Waste Disposal Costs
• Disposal of tires, batteries, junked cars,
  oil and other hazardous and semi-
  hazardous materials are environmental
  costs paid by all.


  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
Resource Consumption Costs
• Cars use many nonrenewable natural resources –
  petroleum, metals and synthetic rubber.
• Passenger vehicles account for 40% of petroleum
  products consumed in the U.S. each year.
• Environmental and national defense costs associated
  with extraction, processing, transport, recycling and
  depletion of non-renewable resources are not covered
  by the purchase prices of gas and automobiles.
   −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
       Institute, June 2002
   −   U.S. Department of Energy, "Conserve Resources for the Future Generations," [online] 2002
   −   Alliance to Save Energy, Increasing America's Fuel Economy, February 2002
Road Noise
• Noise negatively affects human health and
  wildlife and it causes declines in property
  values. Noise mitigation measures are not
  always successful and come at a high price.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
Atmosphere
• Large scale atmospheric diffusion of pollutants
• Local concentration of pollutants (e.g. urban smog)
• Photochemical reactions
  e.g., ultraviolet light inducing reactions with ozone,
  SO2, NO2
• Climate change (global warming)
• Acidic precipitation
• Synergistic / cumulative effects
  (e.g. smog and greenhouse gases)
Hydrosphere
Water Pollution Impacts include:
• crankcase oil and fluid drips
• roadside herbicides
• leaking underground storage tanks
• oil tanker spills contribute to water pollution,
  degradation of surface, ground and drinking water and
  destruction of wildlife habitat.

Hydrologic Impacts include:
• increased impervious surfaces
• shoreline modifications
• reduced groundwater recharge
   −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
       Institute, June 2002
Hydrosphere
• Diffusion of pollutants in a dissolved or colloidal state.
• Acidification of groundwater and underground water; loss of
  buffering capacity
• Decline of pH following snow melt (aquatic organisms are
  particularly vulnerable)
• Increased solubility and toxicity of heavy metals due to
  acidification
• Additions of organic compounds, aluminum, lead, manganese,
  calcium, magnesium and potassium to water bodies through runoff
• Contamination of ground and underground water by nitrates
• Modification of hydrological systems by the construction and
  maintenance of automotive infrastructure
Lithosphere
• Liberation of toxic metallic ions from soil
  (aluminum, cadmium, etc.) through
  acidification
• Loss of soil nutrients, notably calcium and magnesium
• Inhibition of nitrification
• Inhibition of microbial decomposition through pH changes and toxic
  effects
• Loss of soil flora and fauna
• Fixation by plants of heavy metals (e.g. lead) and contamination
• Consumption of land
• Impacts of raw material extractions (metals, aggregates, fossil
  fuels)
Automobile production…
• is among the world's most resource-intensive and
  polluting industries
• is expanding globally
• consumes the majority of the rubber, iron and lead in
  the United States
• is also a top user of steel, zinc and copper
• is responsible for a significant proportion of the
  massive pollution from primary resource industries
                      − Clean Production Action                   .
                        www.cleanproduction.org/ what/vehicles.htm
Environmental impacts of cars:


Specific toxicants
 attributable to
 automobile use      Image credit:
                     www.epa.gov/.../programs/
                     caa/caaenfstatreq.html
Fuel and additives
Lead
• gasoline additive banned in the 1970s
• still sold for use in older vehicles in some
  jurisdictions (e.g. sales reinstated in UK,
  despite initial ban in 2000)
• extremely toxic; can affect almost any organ
  in the body
• low level chronic exposure to lead affects the
  nervous system (learning disorders) and the
  blood (anemia)
Lead
• even low levels of lead can impair the
  mental abilities of children
• soil in parts of West Oakland, CA is so
  highly contaminated with lead from
  highways and leaking underground
  petroleum storage tanks, that it qualifies
  as a Superfund Hazardous waste site
Benzene

• Fuel additive (up to 5% in some areas) which
  improves the performance of unleaded gasoline

• limited in Canada (since 1999) to < 1% by volume
  CEPA Benzene in Gasoline Regulations (SOR/97-493)

• Sources in air: emissions from motor vehicles;
  evaporation losses during handling, distribution,
  and storage of gasoline
Benzene
• levels are higher in urban areas (highest near
  filling stations, gasoline storage tanks and
  benzene producing and handling industries)

• proven carcinogen; no known safe threshold level
MMT    (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl)


• used for many years in Canada as an additive to
  boost octane and to prevent valve problems in
  old cars designed for leaded fuel

• a suspected neurotoxin and
  respiratory toxin (manganese
  may cause memory impairment,
  tremors, and psychosis similar
  to Parkinson's Disease)
MMT   (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl)


• banned in California and most of the US
  eastern seaboard
• 85% of U.S. gasoline is MMT free
• virtually every European country has also
  banned the additive
• Government of Canada banned trade and
  transportation of MMT in 1996 due to
  health concerns
MMT    (Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl)


• Ethyl Corporation (now Afton Chemical) used
  Chapter 11 of the NAFTA to sue Canada for 350
  million dollars - the amount Ethyl says the ban
  cost them in lost profits and damage to their
  reputation
  (Chapter 11 allows corporations to sue a
  government for compensation if that government
  passes a law that harms a corporation's profits or
  reputation)
In an out of court settlement, the Govt. of Canada:

• paid US $13 million in damages to Ethyl

• agreed as a part of the settlement to allow MMT
  back into the Canadian market

• issued a statement through Health Canada (now
  buried, and available through special request
  only) saying that the additive poses no health
  threat

• Contrast health concerns with industry position
  (Afton Chemical, manufacturer of MMT)
Combustion Byproducts
Carbon monoxide (CO)
• colorless and odorless gas
• affects human health by impairing the oxygen-
  carrying capacity of blood
• Fatal at high concentrations
• Lower levels of CO can result in impaired
  perception, slowed reflexes, drowsiness,
  headaches and effects on the central nervous
  system, the heart, and blood circulation around
  the body
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
• one of the major greenhouse gases contributing
  to global climate change
• One-third of CO2 emissions in the U.S. are
  transportation-related
• Cars, SUV’s and light trucks in the U.S. account
  for more than 300 million tons of CO2 emitted
  into the atmosphere each year
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
  −   Environmental Defense, "Carbon Emissions Fact Sheet: Clearing the Air on Climate Change," [online] July
      2002
Oxides of nitrogen
• include nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide
  (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O)
• derived from automobile emissions
• irritate the respiratory tract, reduce lung
  function, and increase susceptibility to asthma
  and viral infections
• play a major role in the formation of acid rain
  and ground-level ozone
Hydrocarbons /
VOCs
• unburned or partly burned
  fuel from exhaust
• some are carcinogenic; others cause
  drowsiness, eye and respiratory tract
  irritation, and coughing
• react with nitrogen oxides to form
  tropospheric ozone, a principal component of
  photochemical smog
Photochemical
smog
• causes eye irritation,
  headaches, coughing, impaired lung
  function, and eye, nose and throat
  irritation.
• asthmatics and children are most at risk
• adverse health effects increase during
  heavy exercise or outdoor activity
Particulates
• fine particles such as
  soot that result from
  the incomplete combustion of fuel
• higher output from diesel engines
• can aggravate respiratory diseases such
  as bronchitis and asthma
• carcinogenic
Aldehydes
• a group of chemicals emitted from car
  exhaust as a result of incomplete fuel
  combustion
• pungent odor; responsible for much of the
  smell associated with traffic, particularly
  diesel vehicles
Aldehydes
• cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and
  throat; sneezing, coughing, nausea, and
  breathing difficulties.
• Children, the elderly, and asthmatics most
  sensitive
• Some (e.g., formaldehyde) are
  carcinogenic
Other Auto-related Toxics
Trace metals
• include arsenic, beryllium,
  mercury and cadmium, as well as lead
• trace quantities emitted in exhaust
• present in used oil, lubricants and other
  fluids which are drained or leak from old
  and scrapped vehicles
• can be highly toxic at low concentrations
Trace metals: mercury (pre-2003)
Trace metals: mercury (pre-2003)
• High Intensity Discharge (HID) mercury vapour lights
• Switches (trunk and hood lights, ABS systems,
  antitheft systems, some airbag systems.

                                       Left: Mercury switch. Each
                                       switch contains about
                                       1.2 g of metallic mercury.

                                       Centre: Ball bearing switch
                                       (no mercury)

                                       Right: US dime, for size
                                       comparison
Trace metals: mercury


                        = 1901 kg
                        Metallic lead



                        = 1112 kg
                        Metallic lead


                        = minimum
                        3010 kg
                        metallic lead
                        (assuming 1
                        switch per
                        vehicle!)
Trace metals: mercury
References for this section:
•Beard J, ed. 1992. The environmental impact of the car: a
Greenpeace report. Greenpeace, Seattle, Wa. Pp. 21-26.


•Holmes, Henry. 1995. Building Healthy Communities for Children:
The Transportation Link. Environmental Health Perspectives Volume
103, Supplement 6, September 1995.


• Menke, Dean M. 2001. Toxic by design: the Automobile Industry's
Continued Use of Mercury. The Pollution Prevention Alliance /
Environmental Defense, New York.
Social Costs of Automobile
       Dependency
Direct and
Societal Costs
• Accidents – The UN has estimated that road
  crash injuries cost between one and two
  percent of a nation’s gross national product
  annually. Insurance only covers about one-
  third the cost of accidents with the societal
  costs in lives, property and productivity borne
  by all.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
  −   UN World Health Organization and World Bank World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention, April
      2004
Traffic Deaths




Laube, Felix. 1997. Optimizing Urban Passenger Transport, Ph.D. Dissertation, Sustainable Transport
Research Group, Murdoch University (Perth; http://wwwistp.murdoch.edu.au), Cited in Litman, 2002
Accident rates have declined significantly per vehicle mile,
but not much per capita:




    14 Facts and Figures ‘95, Motor Vehicle Manufactures Association (Detroit), 1995.
Societal Costs we all Pay
• Construction, Improvements and
  Repair of Roadways – In the USA in
  2000, the total cost was $64.6 billion
  with about 64% of that covered by fuel
  taxes and user fees. The remaining $23
  billion is paid by taxpayers through state
  and local sources (36% subsidy)
  −   U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2000
Societal Costs we all Pay
• Maintenance and Operation of
  Roadways –In the USA in 2000, about
  64% of the $30.9 billion cost in 2000
  came from fuel taxes and user fees but
  the remaining $11 billion is financed by
  taxpayers (36% subsidy)
  −   U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Highway Statistics 2000
Societal Costs we all Pay
• Commercial and Employer Parking –
  ‘Free’ parking is a major hidden cost
  which encourages driving.
• Other parking subsidies increase driving
  by 20 to 40%, even where direct
  subsidies are not provided.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
  −   Shoup, Donald, "Cashing Out Employer-Paid Parking" in Curbing Gridlock, 1994
 Parking costs typically constitute a greater portion of poor household
 expenditures than for wealthier households, indicating that they are regressive.

Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).
Social Costs
• Transportation Diversity and Equity –
 Those who don’t or can’t drive cars are at a
 distinct disadvantage in our car culture. Non-
 drivers have fewer options when it comes to
 jobs, housing, education, social services and
 activities.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
                                             USA – 1997 data




Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).
Social Costs
• Barrier Effects on Pedestrians and Cyclists –
  Roads may be transportation links for some,
  but they can also impact the mobility and
  safety of pedestrians and bicyclists. These
  barriers tend to affect mostly disadvantaged
  populations including children, students, the
  elderly and those with disabilities.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
Social Costs
• Land Use Impact Costs – Automobile
  dependency drives urban sprawl and the
  loss of farm and recreational lands. Land
  use decisions based on automobile needs
  further disadvantage pedestrians and
  bicyclists and increase costs for schools
  and municipal and emergency services.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).
Costs of sprawl




60 James Frank, The Costs of Alternative Development Patterns, Urban Land Institute, 1989, from p. 40.
Social Costs
• Roadway Land Value – Roads are under-
 priced compared to other land uses. Roadway
 lands don’t pay rent or generate property
 taxes. They don’t provide the same degree of
 secondary value as other public lands like
 parks, wetlands, open spaces or wildlife
 habitat.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques, Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport
      Institute, June 2002
Social Costs
• Congestion – Congestion
 results in increased travel
 times, air pollution, vehicle
 operating costs and stress.
 It contributes to lost
 productivity and insurance
 rate increases.
  −   Litman, Todd, Transportation Cost Analysis: Techniques,
      Estimates,and Implications Victoria Transport Institute,
      June 2002
Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).
Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).
                                                                    - USA - 1997




Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).
82 Patricia Hu, Jennifer Young, 1990 NPTS Databook, Vol.1, FHWA (Washington DC), Nov. 1993.
Litman, Todd. 2002. The Costs of Automobile Dependency and the Benefits of Balanced Transportation.
Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Available in PDF format at www.vtpi.org/ecodev.pdf (current to 22 Jan 2005).

				
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