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Enhancing Gender Equity 1 Enhancing Gender Equity Awareness and Skills in Preservice and Inservice Technical Education Teachers Rodney Stanley Ronald Spangler Morehead State University Morehead, Kentucky Kentucky Workforce Development Cabinet Department for Technical Education Grant Abstract Enhancing gender equity involves activities that provide future and current teachers with the knowledge and skills to develop appropriate lessons and activities. These activities are designed to influence their students to be more successful in a nontraditional technical area or to consider a career in a non- traditional technical area. During this project, gender equity activities were developed, attitude surveys of in-service teachers toward gender in employment and educational situations were completed and enrollments by gender for technical programs was analyzed in comparison to employment numbers. The final report and activities was distributed on CD to Kentucky’s 176 School Districts, 53 Area Technology Centers, 14 Community Colleges, 9 Technical Colleges, and 8 Universities receiving Perkins funding. Enhancing Gender Equity 2 Introduction Original Proposal This project was undertaken after acceptance of a proposal submitted to the Cabinet for Workforce Development (see Appendix A). Changes to the project were necessary after delays caused by the Institutional Review Board for the Protection of Human Subjects (IRB) at Morehead State University (MoSU). The IRB at MoSU does not recognize the exemptions set forth in Federal regulations covering research using human subjects. As a result the researchers had to undergo an exhaustive process of submittal, review, and re-submittal that resulted in final approval by the IRB in February, 2004. This left the researchers with fourteen weeks to complete a project that was planned for a full year. After approval by the IRB, it was evident that many of the researchers’ plans for visiting schools would need to be modified or abandoned. The researchers also decided to limit the collection of survey data to in-service teachers in secondary school programs. These surveys were conducted through state meetings such as HOSA and VICA, as well as a limited number of school visits. Conditions set forth by the IRB resulted in the researchers abandoning the plans to administer the survey to pre-service teachers. The researchers also decided, due to the compressed time frame, that post-secondary teachers would not be surveyed at this time. The researchers were fortunate that the services of a few undergraduate and graduate students were available to assist with the research project. These students provided help in developing ideas for activities as well as collecting and scoring data. These students are identified in the conclusion of this paper. Enhancing Gender Equity 3 Definitions and Descriptions For purposes of this research the following definitions were used: Non-Traditional, as related to employment or field of study - Any area where there is 25% or less of one gender compared to the other gender. Gender Equity - The intentional establishment of policies and procedures to ensure that there is no discrimination, bias, or harassment of students or employees based on gender. SRES Instrument - “Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale” available through Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc (1993) is a survey instrument with scales to measures a person’s attitudes about gender in marital roles, parental roles, employment roles, social- interpersonal-heterosexual roles and education roles. National norms have been established for each of the instrument's scaled areas. For this study the researchers used the employment and education scales. Subjects for Survey - The subjects used in the collection of data from the SRES consisted of in-service male and female technical education teachers. Subjects for Activity Field-Testing – The majority of the subjects were in-service teachers. In addition others subjects that were not directly involved in education participated in field-testing of the activities. The majority of the reviewers were enrolled in a graduate level course being taken under one of the researchers. As part of an on-line class meeting, nineteen students reviewed the materials and conducted a discussion about the value and appropriateness of the activities. The discussion consisted of 115 messages, many with multiple comments and suggestions. This discussion was under the direction of the other researcher so that the students would not feel pressured to Enhancing Gender Equity 4 participate. This part of the class was voluntary and was not used as part of the grade calculations. Additional teachers in area schools also reviewed the materials. Due to the limited time frame not all of the activities were able to be field-tested. Procedures Activity Development The activities were developed with the goal of providing teachers with materials they could use in their classrooms to establish a gender-neutral environment, to attract nontraditional students to their classes, and to retain these students through completion of the program. Another focus was to develop activities for a professional development. The activities consisted of materials developed by the researchers as well as the identification of materials already available from published or Internet sources. When Internet sources were utilized the activity consisted of a directed Internet search to locate the items (see Appendix B). Activity Field Testing The majority of the field test consisted of a review by nineteen students in a graduate level course under the direction of one of the researchers. The students provided anonymous critiques of the materials and provided ideas for additional activities. This method of field-testing the activities was supplemented with feedback from teachers at area technology centers through phone conversations and personal interviews. Survey Instrument Modification The SRES is made up of five scales covering attitudes about gender in marital roles, parental roles, employment roles, social-interpersonal-heterosexual roles and Enhancing Gender Equity 5 education roles. For the purposes of this study the researchers elected to use only the scales covering the employment roles and education roles (see Appendix C). This greatly reduced the number of questions on the survey and emphasized the areas most closely related to the purpose of this project. The questions were taken from Form B of the SRES and were reproduced and printed by the researchers with permission from SRES. The resulting survey consisted of 38 questions with each scale consisting of 19 questions. The subjects were to identify their gender and then select an answer from five choices. Strongly agree, agree, neutral or undecided, disagree, or strongly disagree. These choices were scored on a scale of one to five with a higher score representing a greater degree of agreement based on gender. The wording of the questions had an effect of whether a score of five was related to the strongly agree answer or to the strongly disagree answer. A manual-scoring template was utilized and the surveys were hand scored to establish points for each question. The total score for the scale was determined by summing the point values for each question grouped by the scale addressed. These values could then be compared to differences in scores for male and female subjects and to scores obtained through previous administrations of the SRES Form B. The SRES manual by Sigma Assessment Systems (King and King, 1993) included comparison data that provided a means of relating scores from this study with scores obtained by previous studies using the SRES. Survey Administration The modified survey used in this study was administered to subjects using three different methods. One method was soliciting participants at two different statewide meetings. The attendees of the meeting were asked if they would care to assist in a research study Enhancing Gender Equity 6 on gender equity. Those that agreed to participate were given a survey instrument and an informed consent letter. After reading and signing the consent letter the subject was instructed to read the instructions for the survey and complete the instrument. The instruments and consent letters were collected by the researcher and kept in separate locations so the name on the consent letter could not be identified with a survey instrument. This method was used at the state HOSA and VICA meetings. Another group of subjects were solicited at a two-day meeting of the New Teacher Institute. At this meeting the participants of the meeting were asked if they would be willing to participate in the research and the individuals that agreed to participate were provided the materials as at the state meetings. The survey instruments and the consent forms were collected and separated in the same manner as before. The last method used for the collection of survey data was through visits to individual schools. During these visits the principal was first asked for permission to ask for volunteers to participate. After approval by the principal the researcher made individual contact with the teachers in their classrooms and if they agreed to participate a survey and consent form was given to the subject. The researcher came back later and collected the survey instruments and the consent forms. As with previous collections the survey instrument and the consent forms were separated and stored so that the name on the consent form could not be associated with a survey instrument. Kentucky Enrollment Data Another aspect of the research involved an analysis of enrollment by gender in the technology programs under the Department for Technical Education (see Appendix D). This data was analyzed to determine the level of gender equity among programs in Enhancing Gender Equity 7 operation during the 2002-2003 school year. Another analysis using this data involved a comparison of 2003 employment data for non-traditional areas to the enrollment numbers for potential feeder programs. This analysis was conducted to determine if current enrollment numbers could potentially increase the number of non-traditional gender workers available for these jobs. At the time of completion of this study only data on employment for females in non-traditional employment could be located. Although employment data for areas where males represent 25% or less of the workforce can be developed, no specific listing of male non-traditional employment was located. During the data collection for this study, enrollment numbers were obtained for programs operated by the Kentucky Department of Education, Kentucky Community and Technical College System, and Kentucky's Public Universities. Enrollment data for these institutions were not analyzed as a part of this report, but, will be analyzed in future reports and publications by the researchers. Analysis Survey Data Data collected from the modified SRES instrument indicated that both male and female subjects held similar views on the employment and education questions asked (see Appendix E). Figure 1 illustrates the comparison between male and female averages on the responses for each question. As can be seen from the graph the female subjects would be considered slightly more egalitarian than the males, however, the overall comparison was very similar. The sixteen subjects that did not identify gender were not documented in this comparison. However, the graph presented in Figure 1 does indicate an overall consistency among male and female averages. Enhancing Gender Equity 8 Comparison of Female and Male Responses 6 Averages Male 4 Responses 2 Female Responses 0 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 Statements Figure 1 Comparison Between Genders for Selected Statements The following graphs illustrate the differences in responses to thirteen of the thirty-eight statements from the survey. Each set of graphs provides a comparison between the male and female response to the questions. Questions 2,9,10,24,28,32, and 38 are from the education scale. Questions 4,6,19,27,29, and 34 are from the employment scale. The following graphs were generated from the following statements: 2. Home economics courses should be as acceptable for male students as for female students. 4. Males and females are equally suited for business careers. 6. Women have as much ability as men to make major business decisions. 9. Secretary training is more fitting for women than for men. 10. High school counselors should encourage qualified women to enter technical fields like engineering. 19. Women make better receptionists than men do. 24. Men and women should be given an equal chance for professional training. 27. The entry of women into traditionally male jobs should be discouraged. 28. Expensive job training should be given mostly to men. 29. It is wrong for a man to enter a traditional female career. 32. More men ought to major in elementary education. 34. Women are just as capable as men to run a business. 38. A major in the fine arts, such as drama and dance, can be as rewarding for a man as it is for a woman. Enhancing Gender Equity 9 Male Responses for Selected Statements 90 80 70 60 SA Percentages Agree 50 Neutral 40 Disagree 30 SD 20 10 0 2 4 6 9 10 19 Statements Figure 2 Female Responses for Selected Statements 120 100 80 SA Percentages Agree 60 Neutral Disagree 40 SD 20 0 2 4 6 9 10 19 Statements Figure 3 Enhancing Gender Equity 10 Male Responses for Selected Statements 90 80 70 SA 60 Percentages Agree 50 Neutral 40 Disagree 30 SD 20 10 0 24 27 28 29 Statements Figure 4 Female Responses for Selected Statements 120 100 80 SA Percentages Agree 60 Neutral Disagree 40 SD 20 0 24 27 28 29 Statements Figure 5 Enhancing Gender Equity 11 Male Responses for Selected Statements 70 60 50 SA Percentages Agree 40 Neutral 30 Disagree 20 SD 10 0 32 34 38 Statements Figure 6 Female Responses for Selected Statements 100 90 80 70 SA Percentages 60 Agree 50 Neutral 40 Disagree 30 SD 20 10 0 32 34 38 Statements Figure 7 Enhancing Gender Equity 12 Enrollment Data Vs. Employment Data One of the areas where student help was utilized was in collecting data on current employment numbers by gender. Data for female non-traditional occupations was found through the Department of Labor Women’s Bureau, Current Federal Data On Non- Traditional Employment (see Appendix F). The researchers analyzed the data in relation to the enrolment numbers in Kentucky technical programs. Three programs considered non-traditional for females exceeded the 25% threshold. These were: 1. CULINARY ARTS [20.0401] 88.89% 2. COMPUTER AIDED DRAFT [48.0101] 27.95% 3. PRINTING TECHNOLOGY [48.0201] 25.58% Another nine programs had enrollment numbers where the percentage of females enrolled exceeded the percentage of females employed in the workforce. These programs were: 4. MASONRY [46.0101] 2.56% 5. METAL FABRICATION [48.0506] 6.25% 6. WELDING [48.0508] 10.24% 7. ELECTRICITY [46.0302] 10.86% 8. MACHINE TOOL TECH [48.0503] 12.18% 9. AUTO TECH [42.0604] 12.33% 10. CARPENTRY [46.0201] 14.02% 11. BUILD/CONST MAINT [46.0401] 16.44% 12. INDUSTRIAL MAINT TECH [47.0303] 19.28% Figure 8 illustrates the difference between the percentages of females enrolled in these non-traditional programs compared to the percentage of females employed. The researchers could not find comparable data for non-traditional male occupations. However, analysis of general data from the Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, indicated that healthcare practitioner and technical occupations employ 26.3% males. And, personal care and service occupations employ 20.9% males. Whereas, DTE Enhancing Gender Equity 13 enrollment data for areas such as health science and cosmetology programs indicate males enrolled at rates of 12.65% and 0% respectively. Comparison of DOL Employment to DTE Enrollment 100.00% 80.00% 60.00% DOL 40.00% DTE 20.00% 0.00% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Figure 8 CONCLUSION Summary of Project Although the reduced amount of time the researchers had available for the project resulted in changes from the original proposal, the researchers were able to identify some useful information. The researchers were able to collect data using the SRES to establish a baseline for Kentucky technology teacher attitudes about gender. The researchers were able to analyze the differences between program enrollments and national employment of females in non-traditional occupations. And, the researchers were able to produce and field test the activities that were a major component of the original proposal. Enhancing Gender Equity 14 One of the most interesting results of the study was the identification of enrollment in non-traditional areas that exceeded the employment percentages at the national level. This could be seen as positive evidence that even though there is a long way to go to reach the 25% threshold, that Kentucky schools are a step ahead of the employers when it comes to non-traditional occupations. One observation made by the researchers was that there were even more programs that were above the employment percentages if data for previous years was included. But many of these programs had been discontinued as evidenced of a lack of enrollment numbers for either male or female students. It was also noticed that there were programs that in previous years would have exceeded the employment percentages but had dropped enrollment. When comparing 2002-2003 school year data to 2003 employment data the program fell below the national employment percentages. Sex-role stereotype obstacles are still evident in our society and are a subject of discussion in career choice theories. Gottfredson indicates that “…public presentations of masculinity-femininity will be most carefully guarded when making career decisions based on conflicts dealing with self-concepts” (p. 91, Brown, 2002). It is the researchers opinion that this factor will not be mitigated until employment in non-traditional areas reaches a point where the non-traditional gender is accepted and gender is no longer associated with an occupation. It appears to the researchers that Kentucky schools are making progress in providing the non-traditional student access to these areas but that it is up to employers to hire the non-traditional gender student. The surveys conducted using the modified SRES provided preliminary indication that in Kentucky female teachers are more egalitarian than male teachers. However, it Enhancing Gender Equity 15 must be noted that this survey data at best can help establish a base line to judge future efforts in gender related professional development for the teachers. A relatively small sample population was used in this study. The sample was also somewhat influenced by school visits to the eastern half of the state. The researchers were fortunate to be able to collect statewide data by administering the surveys at the VICA and HOSA conferences and at the NTI meeting. In field-testing the activities, the reviewers accepted the context and premise for what was suggested. The activities developed provide a wide range of classroom and professional development possibilities. As the activities are distributed and utilized by administrations and teachers, it will be interesting to note any changes in enrollment numbers in the non-traditional programs. The researchers are grateful to the students who provided help for this study. The students provided the researchers with ideas for activities, assisted in data collection, helped in scoring the surveys and many additional tasks that allowed the researchers to complete much more of the project than would have been possible within the given time frame. The students that assisted in this project were: Michelle Legge Linda Thompson Felicia Ferrell Jason Fights Students in CTE 650 Organization and Administration of Career and Technical Education. In addition the researchers would like to thank all of the teachers that agreed to participate in the SRES survey. Enhancing Gender Equity 16 Suggestions for Future Study o Completion of additional attitude surveys after teachers have viewed the activities. o Compare enrollment data for KDE programs and post-secondary programs. The researchers have in hand the reported enrollment data for these groups and have discussed plans to analyze the data in a similar manner as was done with the DTE enrollment data for this study. This analysis was not done for this study due to the reduced time frame the researchers were under. o The collection and analysis of enrollment data from other states would allow for comparisons and the identification of trends in enrollment and employment. Enhancing Gender Equity 17 Bibliography Brown, Duane, & Associates (2002) Career Choice and Development (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. King, Lynda A., & King, Daniel W. (1993) SRES Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unpublished data, Annual Averages 2003, Current Population Survey Enhancing Gender Equity 18 APPENDIX A CONTRACT SUMMARY Gender Equity Materials for Technical Education Areas Project Title Project Name Enhancing Gender Equity Awareness and Skills in Preservice and Inservice Technical Education Teachers Eligible Recipient Morehead State University Address Department of Industrial Education and Technology City, ST Zip Code Morehead, Kentucky 40351 Phone 606-783-2418 Fax Number 606-783-5030 e-mail Address email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org Briefly Describe the Project (Limit description to this page): Enhancing gender equity at the university level concerning technical education will involve activities that provide future and current teachers with the knowledge and skills to develop appropriate lessons and activities that might influence their students to be more successful in a nontraditional technical area or to consider a career in a technical area. In doing so, the developers of this proposal plan a multifaceted approach. Each facet of this plan is summarized below. 1) Preservice and inservice teacher awareness and skills. A. Surveys will be administered to determine technical education teachers’ attitudes toward gender equity in their area and school structure; B. Surveys will be administered to determine to what degree gender equity issues and career opportunities are included in daily lessons and activities; C. Materials for lessons and activities will be developed for teacher educators to use; D. Workshops will be held at convenient locations for teachers in particularly problematic career areas. 2) Local community awareness of gender in-equity. A. Seminars will be conducted for schools, government, and industry to discuss gender equity issues and opportunities. 3) Success of overall program. Enhancing Gender Equity 19 A. Rubrics and other evaluation tools will be developed for use by all levels—KCTCS, local school districts, area technology centers, and universities; B. Assistance will be provided through collaboration with all agencies receiving funding. A. Introduction. Identifies the agency requesting the funds and its credibility. Summarize outcomes of project in past if continued funding is requested. This section is limited to 1/2 page. Morehead State University (MoSU) has led the state in intergrating technology into its technical education courses. Since the year 2000 more than 600 teacher education students have recieved instruction in the use of computers in the classroom. MoSU has a strong commitment to diversity and has instituted a Women’s Study Minor and is the leading institution for training technical educators in Eastern Kentucky. MoSU has also been actively involved in work with PT3 grants and the P-16 council B. Problem/Need. Identifies the problem to be solved or the results of a needs assessment. This section is limited to one-half page. Talent is a precious thing to waste. This fact along with the needs of a technologically based work force that needs well trained individuals makes it imperative that we as educators do all we can do to help insure that all students have an unbiased opportunity to enter the career of their choice. One only needs to look in their own communities to learn that special training facilities have been established to train workers from telecommunications to truck drivers. Kentucky’s Accountability Testing System, showing school report cards, reflects that students at all levels remain at single digit percentages in proficiency in science related classes. Further research shows a large discrepancy in the enrollment of male and female students in many of these science related classes, especially technology. This problem is even more exacerbated by nontraditional gender roles. Because research has shown that both female and male students can perform in these areas, it is critical that preservice and inservice teachers implement classes that encourage all students to consider fields that they might not consider otherwise. It is also important to encourge schools to make available technical programs that provide equal opportunities based on gender. C. Program Objectives. Measurable outcomes (rates of increases or decreases in certain performances or behaviors within specific time periods) of program. Program objectives are limited to no more than 4 and to a total of one-half page. 1) Document level of awareness and attitudes concerning gender equity issues for both pre-service and in-service technical education teachers. Surveys will be administered to a random sample of teachers in all 21 counties of Morehead State University's (MoSU) service region. An additional sample of teachers statewide will be surveyed. The survey will be repeated at the end of the grant cycle and once per year there after for a total of five years data. Preservice teachers in MoSU's technology teacher education program would Enhancing Gender Equity 20 be surveyed upon consent of the student and the course instructor. Pending cooperation of students and instructors, pre-service teachers at other regional Universities with technology teacher education programs will be included in the survey. 2) Assist both pre-service and in-service technical education teachers to incorporate gender equity into their schools and curriculum. Professional development workshops will be conducted to field test in materials during the year for secondary and postsecondary programs. These field-testing workshops will be made available to all schools in MoSU's service region with a goal of providing the materials to a minimum of 1/3rd of the technology programs. This would result in a minimum of seven to ten, county secondary programs at area technology centers; seven to ten, technology education programs in local school districts and at least two KCTCS colleges being provided the workshop. Preservice teachers in MoSU's technology teacher education program would be provided workshop instruction upon consent of the course instructor.; 3) Track and analyze enrollment data for gender equity in [100% of secondary and postsecondary] technical programs for a total of five years using enrollment data as reported by the school systems to State agencies where available. It is the expectation of the researchers that this enrollment data would be made available through State agencies for the research purposes outlined in this proposal. ; 4) Assist pre-service and in-service teachers to identify and address gender equity issues in their community and program areas concerning nontraditional careers for both male and female students. This objective will be included through the above mentions field-testing workshops as well as additional consulting available through professional development activities if requested. D. Methods. Describe the processes, activities, services, and products that will be completed within a certain time schedule in order to meet the objectives. The time schedule for initiating and completing the processes, activities, services, and products are a part of this section. Criteria to be used in the formative evaluation of the processes, activities, services and products are also included in this section. This narrative is limited to two pages. In being consistent with the traditional teacher education role of universities this proposal and the resulting activities will be developed to assist the classroom teacher through in- service training workshops and pre-service teachers through university class activities in the need for gender equity awareness and techniques for ensuring gender equity is incorporated into the daily classroom. These materials and activities should assist the teacher in incorporating the specific classroom activities developed by the other recipients of the grants and provide ideas for developing additional materials for their individual classroom. Enhancing Gender Equity 21 The process for completing this project includes the development of “teacher education” materials on the gender equity issue and the importance of addressing gender equity for recruitment and retention purposes. An activity “blueprint” will be constructed to provide guidance in the development of the specific activities. By using a consistent format, schools will be able to use the format as a model for developing additional in- service activities and lesson plans that take gender equity into consideration. A selection of individual activities will be developed for the purpose of field-testing the ‘blueprint” and the effectiveness of the sample materials. After the data from the initial field-testing is analyzed the initial activities will be adjusted and the remaining activities will be developed. At this time another evaluation meeting will be conducted to provide feedback on the complete activity package. The data developed through the final evaluation meeting will be utilized for a final round of revisions and for inclusion in the final report. Materials to be developed would include activities as shown on the list of activities at the end of this document. The list is a result of preliminary discussion among the researchers. These are subject to change upon input from teachers throughout the state and results of field tests. These activities would assist the teacher in developing additional materials. The activities would include a basic format for identifying appropriate Internet sites, reference materials, and useful publications. An example would be for the activities such as "Role Models" or "A Historical Perspective." An example of an activity would be provided with information about an appropriate role model or historical event. Guidelines on developing other teacher made activities will be illustrated. Activities would range in scope from creating information sheets/posters to multi-step activities with implementation guidelines for creating a more gender friendly classroom. These activities will be presented through workshops, conference presentations, and will be available on-line through a Web site provided by the researchers. Participating teachers will be asked to complete a survey, develop classroom products as per activity directions, and provide feedback on the activities usefulness to their teaching situation. As previously stated, the specific activities developed will result in products designed for use as in-service training for teachers and as classroom activities for pre-service teacher education students. The process required for completing project objectives will include, in addition to the development of the “activities,” using the activities in teacher education courses at the university and the development and presentation of workshops for schools on the use and development of other classroom activities. It is during this time that the field-testing of the specific activities will be conducted. Sites for the field-testing will be selected to include at least one local school district, one area technology center, one technical or community college, and at least one teacher education course at the university. Services that will be provided include but are not limited to the presentation of in-service workshops, critique and review of teacher-developed materials, and assistance in identifying areas where gender equity is an issue. The evaluation of the materials will consist of an evaluation rubric as well as survey instruments collected from the participating teachers. The survey instruments will be Enhancing Gender Equity 22 used to measure the teacher’s attitudes on gender equity issues before and after completing the field-tested activities and the degree gender equity issues are addressed and applied in the preparation of teacher-developed materials for the classroom. The evaluation will be further discussed in the next section of this document. A pre-test/post-test procedure will be used to track awareness and attitude changes. The planned surveys, indicated in the expanded objectives section in these pages, will be analyzed to document changes. The survey will be conducted using electronic means as well as hardcopy surveys conducted during field-testing workshops and conferences. In addition the information collected from enrollment data will indicate the overall effect of the gender equity efforts across the state. The researchers are investigating the use of all or portions of the “Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale” available through Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc. At this time it appears that the researchers will be able to survey a minimum of 200 to 300 teachers using this instrument. The exact number will be influenced by reproduction requirements imposed by Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc. It is a possibility that the researchers will be able to survey a larger number of teachers than indicated. More than one version of the survey instrument may be developed depending on limitations imposed by the use of copyrighted materials. Data on the individual activities will depend on the number of field-testing workshops conducted and the number of individual teachers reviewing the materials. As activities are developed they will be made available for statewide access through the Web site. The researchers feel that it will be necessary to continue tracking data as indicated after the first year efforts. Although in is possible that awareness and attitudes can be influenced through the workshops and materials distribution within the first year, it is unlikely that noticeable changes in career choice, as indicated by enrollment data, will be evident until after the teachers and programs have implemented the materials. Career “sextyping” and self-concept are a major influence in career choice and are the root causes that have led to the under representation by gender in the technical areas. It will most likely require a sustained effort over a period of years to see significant change. Additional data on the school environment will be collected through antidotal information provided by participating teachers and through changes observed by the researchers during school visits. Most of this data will come from MoSU’s service region as the researchers have more contact in this area than in other areas of the state. E. Evaluation. The evaluation of the objectives will be based on: • To what degree teacher’s (in-service and pre-service) attitudes on gender equity are affected by the activities presented. • To what degree gender equity issues are incorporated into the school structure. Enhancing Gender Equity 23 • To what degree gender equity issues are incorporated into daily lessons and classroom activities. • To what degree gender equity issues in the local community are identified and addressed. • To what degree gender equity activities assist in the recruitment and retention of students in individual programs or schools. Methods used in the evaluation will consist of: • Before and after survey instruments conducted during classroom or workshop activities. These surveys will measure the attitudes of the individuals participating and will focus on the awareness and concern for the gender equity issue. • The application and critique of a “gender equity rubric” to assist in the development of materials for the classroom and the effectiveness of such materials. • Observations of changes in the school environment that indicate an awareness of the gender equity issue and the issue are being addressed. • Documentation of enrollments indicating that gender equity activities are having an effect on underrepresented genders. • Documentation of efforts to include the community in addressing gender equity needs. Survey instruments used to measure the attitudes will consist of existing instruments used for measuring psychological traits or will be developed by the researchers. These instruments will be used to provide quantitative data on the effect the activities have on teacher attitudes about gender equity and the teacher’s general knowledge about the gender equity issue. The gender equity rubric will provide quantitative and qualitative data on the use, application, and effect of gender equity materials. It will be designed based on rubrics used to evaluate multi-media materials, lesson plans, etc. Changes in the school environment will be conducted through observations and will be based on objective and subjective data collected during visits by the researchers to the sites used for the field-studies. Documentation on enrollments will be based on school records. Documentation of addressing of the needs of the community will be done through compilation of examples identified during the evaluation meetings conducted at the test sites. Quantitative data will be analyzed using statistical analysis techniques to determine if activities have had a significant effect on the gender equity issues addressed through the activities presented. Qualitative data will be compiled and reported through the final report in a section on researcher’s observations and case study examples of outcomes. Enhancing Gender Equity 24 F. Future Funding. Describes a plan for continuing the project or program beyond the grant and the availability of other resources necessary to implement the grant. This section is limited to 1/2 page. The continuation of this project can be easily accomplished through the role of Morehead State University as a teacher education institution. Continued development and testing of materials can be accomplished during teacher education courses at the university. Additional in-service workshops can also be provided for school systems within the service region and the state. In many cases the travel expense incurred can be absorbed by combining with travel for recruitment, KTIP observations, student teacher observations, and on-site advising trips that are a part of the normal travel for university personnel. Materials can be distributed through individual and departmental WEB pages and other electronic media at a relatively low cost. Another source of continued funding is to incorporate gender equity materials into activities of future grants. MoSU personnel are currently preparing an application for a grant to improve pre-service teachers ability to use instructional technology. Activities addressing the gender equity issue could easily be incorporated into the proposal. Additional support is possible through MoSU industrial contacts and resources from industries seeking to address the gender equity problem. Enhancing Gender Equity 25 APPENDIX B ACTIVITY 1: Gender Inequity AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DERSCRIPTION: The intent of this activity is to help make participants aware of gender equity opportunities for students in technology. Participants will define gender equity and discuss how students perceive gender issues in technical areas. OBJECTIVES: To define gender equity; To find instances of gender inequity; To discuss influences that visuals have on creating stereotypes in society. MATERIALS: Access to the Internet Out of class—access to the Internet, magazines, TV PROCEDURE: 1. Define gender, equity, and inequity as a group or in small groups. Come to consensus and display suggested definitions on large screen or chalkboard. 2. Discuss examples of gender inequity in society, in work, and in school. 3. Discuss how examples could be used to reverse these inequities. 4. Discuss why these issues exist. 5. Role-play by taking opposite viewpoints as a group to generate several viewpoints on gender issues. EVALUATION: How many instances did the class find? How open was the discussion? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Find examples on TV, at work, in school, etc. where gender inequity could have been turned more positively to reflect a more equitable scenario. Enhancing Gender Equity 26 ACTIVITY 2: Design a Poster AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 2-3 Class periods DERSCRIPTION: The intent of this activity is to help make participants aware of gender equity opportunities for students in technology. Participants will define gender equity and discuss how students might be influenced by visual displays in their schools. The participants will create posters for display in their schools or class that might attract students to a particular technology. The poster’s visuals should attract students who would not normally be inclined to take a particular class. The posters will be displayed and discussed in class. OBJECTIVES: To define gender equity; To find or create visuals that attract opposite genders to a class; To discuss influences that visuals have on creating stereotypes in society; To create a poster for display in a school that might attract the opposite sex to a particular class. MATERIALS: For in-class work—markers, large paper, scissors, glue, computers, color printer, projector, overhead projector, magazines, newspapers, etc. Out of class—access to the Internet, magazines, TV PROCEDURE: 1. Define gender, equity, and inequity as a group or in small groups. Come to consensus and display suggested definitions on large screen or chalkboard. 2. Discuss examples of gender inequity in society, in work, and in school. 3. Discuss how examples could be used to reverse these inequities. 4. Discuss why these issues exist. 5. Role-play by taking opposite viewpoints as a group to generate several viewpoints on gender issues. 6. Break into small groups and go through magazines, search the Internet, and work on mock-up of a poster so that all participants get the idea. 7. Assign out of class to view TV ads, commercials, shows, etc and bring back to class in written and picture formats. Enhancing Gender Equity 27 8. For the next class, have participants complete the poster. Work in groups as desired. Display the posters and have groups explain choices. 9. Select the best poster(s) for display in a particular area of the participants’ school. EVALUATION: Use rubric to help with finalizing evaluation. Have participants help score the posters. ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Design a poster for a community event for recruiting nontraditional students into a particular program. Enhancing Gender Equity 28 ACTIVITY 3: What Would You Do? AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DERSCRIPTION: Watching someone else do something often gives the viewer a different perception of their activities. In this lesson you will locate several videos, watch the videos, and reflect upon things that were or were not done—both appropriately and inappropriately. OBJECTIVES: List the major events you witnessed in this video; State the advantages and disadvantages of the approaches you observed; Make suggestions for improving the activities, the ambience, the motivational factors, etc. MATERIALS: TV and VCR or computer and projector PROCEDURE: 1. Use the library or internet to locate videos that deal with gender equity in classrooms, especially in technology related subject matter. 2. View the videos as a class. 3. List the major events that take place in the video. 4. State the advantages in each scenario. 5. State the disadvantages in each scenario. 6. Make suggestions for improvement. EVALUATION: How many different observations were listed? What was the maximum number of advantages listed? What were the maximum number of disadvantages listed? Which group made the most suggestions? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Hold an activity based event for a group of students who would not normally take a particular class. Enhancing Gender Equity 29 ACTIVITY 4: Make a Movie AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: “Semester” project DERSCRIPTION: One of the best methods for effective learning to occur is to have students involved in activities. By having those activities embody several disciplines, students not only learn valuable content, but gain many intrinsic values from the class. One of the most popular of these trends is to have students create a video. In this lesson, students will work in groups where partners must be of the opposite gender. The group will develop a video that will represent best practices in typically nontraditional gender under-represented classes. The purpose of the video is to act as a model that all technology teachers could follow in any class that might cause a female or male student to take a class they might not otherwise consider taking. OBJECTIVES: Develop a minimum of three different lessons for a particular activity; Develop a storyboard for the video; Capture film from a video of the activity; Narrate over the activity in a way that will motivate students and increase learning; Develop a video for a nontraditional class (sewing for all, welding for all, etc.). MATERIALS: Poster paper; video camera; microphone; method to mix or capture the video, narration, text, etc. PROCEDURE: 1. Develop lessons 2. Write and display a storyboard 3. Video examples 4. Capture video to include in lessons 5. Practice narration 6. Find someone to do the narration 7. Narrate over the activity 8. Find pictures Enhancing Gender Equity 30 9. Capture pictures 10. Develop presentation 11. Burn CD of lesson(s) EVALUATION: At the end of the week, did the teacher make adjustments to accommodate all students? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Create a lesson plan that addresses inappropriate teacher behaviors. Enhancing Gender Equity 31 ACTIVITY 5: Be a Nontraditional Student AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DERSCRIPTION: Role playing is a good method to get students to think alternative thoughts. In this lesson, students will assume the opposite of their gender. They will attend a nontraditional class in technology assuming this posture. After the class, students will critique the entire day. OBJECTIVES: List all activities for one day; In the assumed role, list the activities that made the student feel uneasy; In the assumed role, list the activities that made the student feel at easy; List suggestions that would make the student feel comfortable in either scenario. MATERIALS: Note paper and pencil PROCEDURE: 1. The instructor should assign each person the gender opposite their own. 2. The student should choose a class that is predominately attended by the opposite gender. 3. The student will attend the class for a minimum of one activity-based day. 4. At the end of the day, the student will list all the situations that made them feel uncomfortable, inadequate, and so forth. 5. Lastly, students will make suggestions to correct those situations that made them feel less wanted or able to be successful in the class. EVALUATION: At the end of the week, did the teacher make adjustments to accommodate all students? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Create a lesson plan that addresses inappropriate teacher behaviors. Enhancing Gender Equity 32 ACTIVITY 6: A Personal Invitation AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DESCRIPTION: One of the best methods to attract students to a class is to invite them personally. This activity will require you to develop a couple of approaches for students who would not normally take your class. You will write a script to accompany one of the approaches whether it is for a one-on-one encounter or for a group. OBJECTIVES: To develop an approach for a single student; To develop an approach for a group of students. MATERIALS: For in-class work—word processor, printer, projector, overhead projector. PROCEDURE: 1. Jot down people that you will contact. 2. Jot down groups that you will contact. 3. Develop a survey to determine possible interest in a class. 4. Develop a plan for contacting these students. 5. Develop a script to use in the approach to an individual. 6. Develop a scenario to use for an assembly of students. EVALUATION: Follow-up on the number of students who take a class. Follow-up on the number of students who are retained in the class. ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Hold an activity based event for a group of students who would not normally take a particular class. Enhancing Gender Equity 33 ACTIVITY 7: “Maze Production” AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DESCRIPTION: This activity should be presented early in a class. The idea is to do something interesting and attractive for ALL students. The context could be centered around building a picture frame, doll house, set of horses, welded structure, welded art form, putting in a door, wiring a lamp, and so forth. Students would start at a beginning point where they would perform some function. They would then move to the next station or step and so forth until the activity was finished. Another student of course would then be at station one and three. Students would move through the “maze” to the finish where they would receive a finished product or reward. OBJECTIVES: Describe mass production; Describe a logical process; Identify certain tools components, or equipment. MATERIALS: Shop setting; tools or equipment; cleaning materials or equipment; sandpaper; glue; clamps; finish material; etc. PROCEDURE: 1. Set up the stations you need. 2. Place tools or equipment at each station. 3. Place needed components at each station. 4. Have students take turns at each station performing the task for that station. 5. At the end of the “maze” each student is rewarded. EVALUATION: Short quiz. Interest survey Participation ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Research building a small shed Enhancing Gender Equity 34 ACTIVITY 8: Trouble-Shooting AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DESCRIPTION: You have undoubtedly performed service on an automobile or some trouble- shooting problem in one of your classes. The idea for this activity is a spin-off of the “Maze Production” activity. Because, to a large extent, these activities are to help recruit and retain nontraditional students in class, it might be beneficial to perform this activity as a group. The group activity might take pressure off of students who might be interested in taking a class but not certain whether to try. By performing this activity as part of an open house activity, more students might end up taking the class. The idea is to set up several stations where students would progress through several activities. If it is checking out an automobile, they could perform one task or two on one vehicle then move to the next station or another vehicle to perform another task. At the end they would get to start a Corvette or take a spin with the teacher. OBJECTIVES: State the steps in trouble shooting a problem a simple problem; Perform basic service checks on an automobile; Help recruit your friends to take a class. MATERIALS: Auto mechanic classroom, two or three vehicles; “reward” vehicle. PROCEDURE: 1. Set up the stations you need. 2. Place tools or equipment at each station. 3. Place needed components at each station. 4. Have students take turns at each station performing the task for that station. 5. At the end of the activity, the student is rewarded. EVALUATION: Was interest generated in taking the class? Did the students actively participate? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Set up a trouble-shooting problem for the students to solve. Enhancing Gender Equity 35 ACTIVITY9: Panel Discussion AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DERSCRIPTION: This activity will provide students of both genders with real life opportunities for all students in areas typically considered to be male or female dominated. The instructor should invite speakers from real work environments who are considered to be successful in an area typically reserved for the opposite sex. The panel should represent a balance between men and women in “nontraditional roles”. An ideal panel would consist of two workers of each gender from two or three different trades—welding, carpentry, and automotive for instance. OBJECTIVES: State three benefits of working in nontraditional trades; State three downsides to work in nontraditional trades; State entry obstacles for nontraditional workers; State the requirements for success in at least one nontraditional setting. MATERIALS: 6 chairs sitting on a raised platform Flip chart to record major points or to write questions from audience Internet Connection Video Camera PROCEDURE: 1. Have two guests from each trade, one male and one female minimum, sit on the panel. 2. Have each panel member give a brief introduction of who they are and what they do. 3. Have each member give a brief overview of how they got into their trade and obstacles to their success. 4. Allow the audience to ask questions—they could write the question on paper and have the moderator combine similar questions then give to the appropriate speaker. 5. Have the panel members summarize anything not covered to this point, ending with the pros and cons if not already addressed. Enhancing Gender Equity 36 EVALUATION: Did students seem interested in the discussions? Was there adequate interaction between the panelists? Was there adequate interaction between the audience and the panelists? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have students form a follow up panel made up of classmates from their own or other classes. Enhancing Gender Equity 37 ACTIVITY 10: Guest Speaker AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: 1 Class period DESCRIPTION: In this activity, students will be expected to invite a guest speaker who is a nontraditional worker, business person, etc. in a nontypical work setting. The person should be as well known and successful as possible in the community or the speaker could be a nationally recognized individual from a particular field—a female astronaut or male chef for example. OBJECTIVES: Elaborate upon being a nontypical gender in a certain field; Discuss pros and cons; Describe requirements to enter the field. MATERIALS: Non classroom setting. PROCEDURE: 1. Have students assemble in a special place. 2. Introduce the speaker. 3. Have speaker make the presentation following suggested outline (they should have this well in advance). 4. Allow for questions from audience. EVALUATION: Participation Interest survey Short questionnaire ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Find videos or research successful individuals in nontypical settings Enhancing Gender Equity 38 ACTIVITY 11: All Female Shed AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: Semester project DESCRIPTION: This activity is analogous to the all female habitat house, but on a scale that can be completed in a time frame conducive to teaching concepts while dong something novel to catch students’ attention throughout the school and community. OBJECTIVES: Complete a small shed; Identify tools and equipment; Describe processes in building; Demonstrate can do attitude. MATERIALS: Building materials Tools and Equipment PROCEDURE: 1. Determine whether the shed is to be permanent or transportable. 2. Have the supervisor (female builder) on site as coordinator. 3. Have all female students assemble in a special place. 4. Assign a leader for each group. 5. The foundation should already be in place, especially if concrete or block. 6. Layout and build walls on platform as in house construction. 7. Erect and brace walls. 8. Continue and complete all walls. 9. Build trusses for roof or erect ridge board and rafters. 10. Complete roof with strips for metal or standard sheathing for shingles, etc. 11. Cut out and install at least one window. 12. Build and hang door. 13. Stain or paint to suit. 14. Build work bench and at least one cabinet. EVALUATION: Enhancing Gender Equity 39 Participation Quiz School wide survey to determine any desired feedback. ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Plan a small house or vacation home. Give students credit who would like to work on a habitat house in the community. Enhancing Gender Equity 40 ACTIVITY 12: Home Repair AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One class period DESCRIPTION: The instructor should choose a home repair item that is gender neutral. A good example might be to change out a door knob to one with a key and dead bolt; to replace an old faucet; or to place a ceiling fan where none existed, etc. OBJECTIVES: Identify small hand tools needed around the house; State the procedure to perform the task; Demonstrate a can do attitude; Invite a friend to take the class. MATERIALS: Desired fixture or repair parts Tools and Equipment Stain, finish, paint, etc. PROCEDURE: 1. Identify problem to be remedied. 2. Collect components, parts, or item. 3. Layout needed tools. 4. Layout and make certain all parts are at your disposal. 5. Perform “dry run” if appropriate. 6. Begin repair. EVALUATION: Participation Quiz School wide survey to determine any desired feedback ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Give students credit who would like to work on a habitat house in the community. Have students bring something from home that needs repair. Enhancing Gender Equity 41 ACTIVITY 13: Curriculum Page on Gender AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: For the Instructor prior to beginning of school year or assignment DESCRIPTION: The instructor should prepare a sheet that will be given to the class. The sheet should contain a list of valid sites and other sources pertaining to a particular topic. The purpose of the curriculum sheet is to help students focus upon the assignment and to use the best possible sources without spending unnecessary time in the search process. It is easy to waste hours searching the Internet or to become distracted while trying to find pertinent information—worse yet, students become frustrated with finding unrelated sites. This activity can be used in many applications from scavenger hunts to more serious research on any topic. OBJECTIVES: Follow prescribed steps in finding information to help solve a problem; Locate pertinent information on the web, in the library, and in the community; Complete a resource sheet giving correct annotation and references. MATERIALS: Access to the Internet Access to the library Access to business, industry, and government entities in the community PROCEDURE: 1. Assign an appropriate topic concerning gender issues that requires finding alternative solutions, ideas, or other information from several sources. 2. Require students to find information by using several sources. 3. Group students of opposite sex to perform the research. 4. Have students complete notes, annotated bibliography, etc., and reference list from their findings. EVALUATION: To what extent did the groups (pairs) find pertinent information? How complete were the assignments in using multiple resources? Was the assignment correct and in the appropriate format? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have students compile and analyze the information as a collective body. Have students select an opposite gender person to report on gender findings. Enhancing Gender Equity 42 ACTIVITY 14: Attend a conference of opposite gender AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: For the Instructor prior to beginning of school year DESCRIPTION: The instructor should attend a conference concerning the gender that is opposite their own. In other words, men might attend the conference on Women in Construction, or Men in Nursing, etc. Women might attend and Engineering conference, or Men in Nursing, etc. OBJECTIVES: Discuss the pros and cons of working in a “nontraditional” setting; List ideas to attract and retain the opposite sex into nontraditional classes; List speakers for your school or class; List appropriate videos for your school or class that deals with nontraditional jobs. MATERIALS: Open PROCEDURE: Open EVALUATION: Did the conference cause you discomfort? Did you gain worthwhile knowledge from the conference? Will you do anything differently as a result of attending the conference? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Complete a report that others might find beneficial from the information gathered at the conference. Speak to a group concerning your experience at the conference. Enhancing Gender Equity 43 ACTIVITY 15: Find Examples of Nontraditional Workers AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: For the student or the instructor—two class periods DESCRIPTION: The focus of this activity is to find quality examples of women and men in nontraditional settings in the workplace. These examples could be from real-life local areas, television or broader populations, videos, etc. These examples should be shared with other instructors and students as part of a school or class activity. Instructors and students should have the opportunity to discuss the examples and to give examples of their own. OBJECTIVES: Use several resources to locate examples; State pros and cons of working in “nontraditional” settings; List financial rewards of a particular vocation. MATERIALS: Community or national audience Videos Newspapers Magazines Etc. PROCEDURE: Open EVALUATION: Number of examples located Quality of the examples ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Show your examples to other instructors, students, or classes. Invite a speaker to your school or class. Enhancing Gender Equity 44 ACTIVITY 16: First Visit to your Class AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One class period DESCRIPTION: You never know when a prospective student or parent might visit your class, or when all the bright new faces start one of your classes. What impressions do you wish to make? What kind of examples of student work should be on display? What message are you sending to the nontraditional student? Do you have a systematic plan to keep fresh examples in your classroom? Prior to the first day of school, you should have examples displayed in your classroom that would be interesting to both male and female students. If you cannot have actual projects, you might consider having pictures of past students with their projects. These pictures should be large enough to be easily seen from most vantage points in your room. The objective you want is for any student in your area to say wow, I would like to do that. OBJECTIVES: Attract more nontraditional students to your class; Retain all students that start your class; Send positive messages to parents who visit your classroom. MATERIALS: Display area(s) in your classroom Examples of students’ work in project or picture form PROCEDURE: 1. Find strategic locations in your classroom for displays of objects or pictures. 2. Find or create examples the will be appealing to male and female students. 3. Ask students from the previous semester to loan you their projects if necessary. 4. Ask them to set up the display in a tasteful manner. EVALUATION: There should be examples interesting to male students. There should be examples interesting to female students. Did people make positive comments? Over time you should notice an increase in nontraditional students taking your class. ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have students from previous semesters present their projects. Enhancing Gender Equity 45 ACTIVITY 17: Verbal Sensitivity AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One week DESCRIPTION: We often think of visual ques in gender stereotyping, but do we here what people are saying. The objective of this activity is to listen to words and comments people make about men or women concerning the task they are asked to do, jobs they are expected to do, or any statement in general that tends to reflect stereotypical thinking concerning expectations of male or female gender. You should jot down the statement as accurately as possible and as soon as possible after you hear it. Because you might hear such opportunity at any time, you should carry a small notepad and a pencil as much as possible from the time you awake to the time you go to sleep. You will collect these statements for at least one week’s duration. OBJECTIVES: Become more sensitive to verbal statements that tends to stereotype people; More easily detect inappropriate speech in everyday conversations; Model more appropriate behavior in your own day to day activities. MATERIALS: Notepad and writing instrument PROCEDURE: 1. For at least one week, carry a notepad and pencil. 2. Jot down every statement you here that tend to stereotype people. 3. Share these statements with other teachers or students as part of a school or class activity on sensitivity training, etc. EVALUATION: Number of statements collected What insight was gained from this activity ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Make an audio recording that could be used in conjunction with the poster activity. The tape could be played continuously during an appropriate activity concerning gender issues. Enhancing Gender Equity 46 ACTIVITY 18: Women in History AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One week DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this activity is to help break down any preconceived ideas about whether women have played significant roles in technology throughout history. One might begin to think about early pioneer days; the west expansion; early apprenticeship programs; the industrial revolution; military conflicts and world wars; ventures into outer space, and so forth. OBJECTIVES: Discuss historical significance of women in history; Help dispel stereotyping when in conversation with others. MATERIALS: Access to the Internet, library, and historical documents. PROCEDURE: 1. Early in the semester, discuss roles different genders have played in important events. 2. Begin to narrow this discussion to focus on technological events. 3. Break the class into teams or pairs consisting of both genders if possible. 4. After getting the students’ attention and motivation going, assign them to search for women from early times to the present who have made significant contributions related to machines, or other technically related events. 5. Have each team present their findings to the entire class. EVALUATION: How well did the class participate? How many instances did the teams find? Did the students seem to carry the conversations beyond the classroom? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have students create a documentary, complete with pictures and notation. Enhancing Gender Equity 47 ACTIVITY 19: Men in History AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One week DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this activity is to help break down any preconceived ideas about whether men have played significant roles in “nontraditional” events throughout history. One might begin to think about early pioneer days; the west expansion; early apprenticeship programs; homemaking, and so forth. OBJECTIVES: Discuss historical significance of men in history; Help dispel stereotyping when in conversation with others. MATERIALS: Access to the Internet, library, and historical documents. PROCEDURE: 1. Early in the semester, discuss roles different genders have played in important events. 2. Begin to narrow this discussion to focus on men in nontraditional roles. 3. Break the class into teams or pairs consisting of both genders if possible. 4. After getting the students’ attention and motivation going, assign them to search for men from early times to the present who have made significant contributions related to nontraditional events. 5. Have each team present their findings to the entire class. EVALUATION: How well did the class participate? How many instances did the teams find? Did the students seem to carry the conversations beyond the classroom? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have students create a documentary, complete with pictures and notation. Enhancing Gender Equity 48 ACTIVITY 20: Sexual Harassment AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One to two class periods DESCRIPTION: Harassment is not an acceptable way to treat anyone. Regardless of how our beliefs were perpetuated through media, family, or peers about the role men or women should play in life or work, it is wrong and can be detrimental to the victims to harass them in an antagonistic fashion. Not only is harassment detrimental to self esteem or more serious psychological problems, it can cause students to drop out of a class or school or do poorly in academic activities. In our fast changing technological world, we need all students to remain competitive on a global scale. We need for girls to integrate classes previously dominated by boys and vice versa. While it takes serious efforts from the entire educational community to keep a school free of sexual harassment, we should take particular steps in our work related classrooms to establish a positive attitude about the worth of all students in a particular area. Our goals should be to maintain an environment that fosters appropriate and respectful behavior among all students; to employ only non-sexist curriculum and teaching methods; to promote staff modeling of non-sexist behavior; and to indicate clearly that harassment will not be tolerated. Each classroom should have a written policy that prohibits all forms of sexual harassment and that promotes equitable treatment for all students. If not already, it should be posted in a visible area in the classroom. In order to help ensure that all students believe and buy in to appropriate actions, this activity promotes that students could do some research on their own. This activity could be a good follow-up to the activity on men or women in history. Students would be required to check on current legal policy in the work place, school, or community. They should also find examples of instances and cases in these locales. The students could also arrive at some activities for their class that would be appropriate for a class activity. OBJECTIVES: Become more sensitive to inappropriate behavior; Model more appropriate behavior in your own day to day activities; Promote a harassment free environment; Attract more students to your class; Retain more students in your program; Improve self esteem for all your students. Enhancing Gender Equity 49 MATERIALS: Access to the Internet, library, and community. PROCEDURE: 1. Have students attend a school wide activity on harassment. 2. Discuss harassment in your classroom. 3. Allow for classroom interaction. 4. Assign students singly or in pairs to find their own information on harassment. 5. Have students share information with the entire class. EVALUATION: Did students get involved in discussions? What was the quality of findings shared with entire class? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Role play harassment scenarios in the class. Enhancing Gender Equity 50 ACTIVITY 21: Co-teaching AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One class period DESCRIPTION: For this activity you will find an opposite gender to join you for at least one class, preferably during an activity that is usually performed by a “traditional” teacher. This team-teaching approach will set a good example for the students in any of your classes. It will be even more effective if you choose a novel activity for that particular day. It might be an activity that would be better performed with two people in the first place and if it is an activity typically performed by the opposite sex it will have a positive affect on either or both genders in your class. OBJECTIVES: Duplicate team effort between two people of opposite gender to complete a task; Express to others that certain jobs can be performed by either sex; Approach the opposite gender to ask them to help you complete a task. MATERIALS: Open PROCEDURE: 1. Early in the semester plan a class activity where you will invite the opposite gender to assist (join) you in class. 2. Choose an activity that is normally done by the opposite gender. 3. At two weeks and one week, announce to your class that you will have a guest instructor to help you with a particularly difficult task (don’t tell them the person will be opposite to you in gender). EVALUATION: Did students react positively to the guest? Did students ask questions? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Allow one or two of your better nontraditional students to demonstrate a task usually performed by the opposite gender. Enhancing Gender Equity 51 ACTIVITY 22: Job Earnings AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One week assignment DESCRIPTION: What earnings can you expect in a particular job? What if you were of a nontraditional gender in a particular job? In this activity you will search for jobs not typically performed by either a male or female. The assignment is left to the discretion of the instructor. For motivational use, the female student may want to find jobs that females are not expected to do and vice versa for males. For gender equity issues or awareness of stereotyping, the male and female student may switch their searches to the gender opposite their own. OBJECTIVES: State the expected earnings for either a male or female in a “nontraditional” setting; Discuss the difference(s) in pay for men and women doing the “same “ technically oriented job. MATERIALS: Access to information PROCEDURE: 1. During a motivational or informational topic discussion, assign students to search for jobs they would be expected NOT to do. 2. During the search, have students list salary ranges based on experience. EVALUATION: Were students motivated by their findings? Did students seem to change their minds about how the opposite sex faired in nontypical jobs? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have students complete a comparison study of male and female earnings for similar positions. Enhancing Gender Equity 52 ACTIVITY 23: Men in Nursing AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One class period DESCRIPTION: Did you know that nurses were predominately men prior to 1854 and mostly men from early times until the 18th century? In 1914 the Pennsylvania Hospital started a school for men to study nursing and in 1974 the Michigan Male Nurse organization was formed. Why do you think this was true? What caused the transition from mostly men to mostly women in nursing? As a male, don’t you think you could do as well as a woman in nursing? As a female, don’t you think you could talk a male friend into taking a look into the nursing field? What jobs are available in the nursing field? Are men needed in nursing and why? How much money do nurses make? In this activity, you will do some research into the history of nursing with emphasis on men in nursing. While searching, think about what your school and class might do to attract more men into nursing. At the end of this activity you might be asked to develop a brochure or activity for your class, school, or community to recruit males into nursing. OBJECTIVES: Briefly discuss the major milestones of men in nursing throughout history; Make a case for men as nurses—are they needed, why, etc.; State expected salaries for nurses; Develop a recruiting activity or brochure. MATERIALS: Access to information Access to graphics material or computer PROCEDURE: 1. Give a motivational presentation. 2. Have students research men in nursing from a historical perspective. 3. Ask students to compare their notes in small group sessions. 4. Have students present and discuss their observations in a class setting or through PowerPoint presentations. 5. Optional: have students develop a brochure or activity as a recruiting tool. Enhancing Gender Equity 53 EVALUATION: Were students motivated by their findings? Did students seem more open to men as nurses? Were major milestones discovered and presented with names and dates? Were more males enticed to consider the nursing field? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Develop a brochure for recruiting. Develop a school wide activity that would encompass recruiting males into nursing. Enhancing Gender Equity 54 ACTIVITY 24: Women in Welding AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: One class period DESCRIPTION: The title of this activity could just as easily be Women in Mining, Women Mechanics, or Builders, etc. The point is to find events where women have played dominate roles in technology, or who have been successful in a nontraditional field of work. I chose welding for this activity because people can do several different things in welding and not be restricted by physical attributes. For this activity, think about the different things people could do in welding. As a female, think about what you would do as a welder? OBJECTIVES: Briefly discuss where women have been successful in welding; State several different kinds of jobs related to welding; Discuss the income opportunity you would have as a welder. MATERIALS: Access to information PROCEDURE: 1. Give a motivational presentation of women in different areas. 2. Have students research women in welding. 3. Have students present and discuss their findings in class. 4. Allow students role play as welders. EVALUATION: Were students motivated by their findings? Did students seem more open to women as welders? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Have a female student set up a display of her work and give demonstrations related to art, pipes, structural, etc. Enhancing Gender Equity 55 ACTIVITY 25: Publicity Brochure AUDIENCE: Teachers in technical areas TIME: Two class periods DESCRIPTION: At least one or two of the activities in this manual center around a major recruiting event, the purpose of this activity is to allow the students to develop a publicity brochure to help make certain the event is well publicized and attended by your target audience. OBJECTIVES: Layout and develop a brochure to increase the attendance of either male or female to a recruiting event; Find examples of pictures to download to your brochure; Scan pictures to place on your brochure; Choose appropriate text for the front and body of the brochure; Include important links that people might access to increase their interest. MATERIALS: Access to information Access to graphics material or computer Internet Scanner Color printer Color copier PROCEDURE: 1. Remind the class of the upcoming recruiting event. 2. Break the class into groups and assign tasks to each group. 3. Choose a coordinator for the development if possible. 4. Collect details for the event (time, date, location, etc.) 5. Collect information that will be placed in the brochure. 6. Complete a draft of the brochure. 7. Allow several people, including administration, to review the draft. 8. Complete and print the brochure. EVALUATION: Were students motivated to complete the brochure? Enhancing Gender Equity 56 Were drafts of the brochure in good form? Were the brochures completed and delivered on time? ENHANCED ACTIVITIES: Set up a table (booth) at the event. Videotape the event. Enhancing Gender Equity 57 APPENDIX C Note: Education scale shown in bold type. Not identified on actual survey. SRES EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT SCALES Survey Questions 1. There are many jobs in which women should be given preference over men in being hired. 2. Home economics courses should be as acceptable for male students as for female students. 3. Education beyond high school is as important for women as it is for men. 4. Males and females are equally suited for business careers. 5. Women should not feel as obligated as men to get a college degree. 6. Women have as much ability as men to make major business decisions. 7. A math teacher should expect more from male students than from female students. 8. Business courses are more appropriate for male students than for female students. 9. Secretary training is more fitting for women than for men. 10. High school counselors should encourage qualified women to enter technical fields like engineering. 11. Job promotion should be based on merit, not on the worker's sex. 12. Women shouldn't take jobs away from men in hard times. 13. A female executive deserves the same respect as a male executive. 14. Men and women should have the same equal educational opportunities. 15. Women are more likely than men to work after hours when the boss requests it. 16. Female students are more hardworking than male students. 17. Female students are more dependable than male students in doing class assignments. Enhancing Gender Equity 58 18. Women ought to have the same opportunities as men to enter careers in industry. 19. Women make better receptionists than men do. 20. Nursing schools ought to try to recruit equal numbers of male and female students. 21. Women are not as qualified as men to become church clergy. 22. Male students take their education more seriously than female students. 23. Men and women differ in their desires for challenging work. 24. Men and women should be given an equal chance for professional training. 25. Female bosses are unable to motivate their workers as well as male bosses can. 26. Male elementary teachers are not as effective as female elementary school teachers. 27. The entry of women into traditionally male jobs should be discouraged. 28. Expensive job training should be given mostly to men. 29. It is wrong for a man to enter a traditional female career. 30. It is more rewarding to teach girls than to teach boys. 31. Women are not as devoted to their jobs as men. 32. More men ought to major in elementary education. 33. More women are needed in key industrial management jobs. 34. Women are just as capable as men to run a business 35. Sex should not disqualify a person from any occupation. 36. Men and women should be treated the same when applying for student loans. 37. Equal opportunity for all jobs reguardless of sex is an idea we should all support. 38. A major in the fine arts, such as drama and dance, can be as rewarding for a man as it is for a woman. Enhancing Gender Equity 59 APPENDIX D The data used to calculate enrollment numbers can be found in the file “ENROLLMENT DATA_DTE” on the disk provided. The file is arranged down in the following manner. Sheet 1-5: Enrollment data form schools by program area and gender. Sheet 6-10: Filtered data to separate female and male enrollments. Schools not identified. Sheet 11: Percentages of female and male students by program area. Identified with yellow for programs that exceed the 25% threshold and by blue for programs that have non-traditional enrollments above employment rates. Only program data for the 2002- 2003 school year was used for comparison to national employment data. Enhancing Gender Equity 60 APPENDIX E Gender Equity NUMERIC M = MALE SCORES F = FEMALE Study X = DID NOT MARK Identification Numer Education Employment M001 80 76 M002 69 50 M003 82 78 M004 86 71 M005 78 82 M006 81 85 M007 65 54 M008 89 86 M009 68 63 M010 69 50 M011 80 83 M012 71 73 M013 78 80 M014 67 62 M015 86 81 M016 95 95 M017 71 61 M018 85 72 M019 94 86 M020 93 84 M021 93 88 M022 85 72 M023 83 83 M024 91 80 M025 60 62 M026 78 76 M027 74 66 M028 91 85 M029 69 74 M030 77 73 M031 73 69 M032 93 93 M033 83 67 M034 72 70 M035 79 80 M036 74 72 M037 62 43 X001 82 70 X002 85 84 X003 68 60 X004 76 72 X005 74 72 X007 82 82 X008 76 71 X009 84 89 X010 91 89 X011 83 80 Enhancing Gender Equity 61 Identification Numer Education Employment X012 86 88 X013 71 72 X014 88 84 F001 88 77 F002 87 85 F003 95 95 F004 88 89 F005 86 93 F006 72 66 F007 85 90 F008 86 81 F009 84 82 F010 83 84 F011 84 82 F012 86 80 F013 87 82 F014 86 82 F015 85 84 F016 88 82 F017 85 84 F018 92 88 F019 81 83 F020 77 70 F021 91 86 F022 94 93 F023 78 80 F024 86 81 F025 87 85 F026 80 80 F027 90 91 F028 95 94 Raw data is located in file “SURVEY DATA.” Enhancing Gender Equity 62 APPENDIX F Nontraditional Occupations for Women in 20031 (Numbers in thousands) Text Version Employed Employed Percent Occupation Both Sexes Female Female Upholsterers 56 14 25 Farmers and ranchers 825 204 24.7 Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other 423 103 24.3 Dishwashers 294 70 23.8 Detectives and criminal investigators 112 26 23.2 Supervisors, protective service workers, all other 100 23 23 Architects, except naval 180 40 22.2 Drafters 224 49 21.9 Engineering technicians, except drafters 419 91 21.7 Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and repairers 65 14 21.5 First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives 127 27 21.3 Security guards and gaming surveillance officers 781 165 21.1 Miscellaneous agricultural workers 741 156 21 Cutting workers 95 20 21 Job printers 83 17 20.5 First-line supervisors/managers of production and operating workers 939 189 20.1 Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges 85 17 20 Chefs and head cooks 281 56 19.9 Industrial engineers, including health and safety 180 35 19.4 Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand 1,748 321 18.4 Couriers and messengers 244 44 18 Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers 206 37 18 Barbers 95 17 17.9 Printing machine operators 191 34 17.8 Industrial production managers 276 48 17.4 Surveying and mapping technicians 75 13 17.3 Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 79 13 16.5 Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers 216 35 16.2 Transportation, storage, and distribution managers 225 36 16 Meter readers, utilities 50 8 16 Service station attendants 96 15 15.6 Painting workers 177 27 15.2 Cost estimators 100 15 15 Chemical engineers 75 11 14.7 Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood 62 9 14.5 Enhancing Gender Equity 63 Appendix F cont. Employed Employed Percent Occupation Both Sexes Female Female Cleaners of vehicles and equipment 326 46 14.1 Clergy 410 57 13.9 Radio and telecommunications equipment installers and repairers 251 35 13.9 Parts salespersons 137 19 13.9 Taxi drivers and chauffeurs 286 39 13.6 Motor vehicle operators, all other 66 9 13.6 Precision instrument and equipment repairers 62 8 12.9 Material moving workers, all other 64 8 12.5 Police and sheriff’s patrol officers 612 76 12.4 Engineers, all other 282 35 12.4 Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers 296 36 12.2 Aerospace engineers 82 9 11 First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing, and forestry workers 65 7 10.8 Engineering managers 77 8 10.4 Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers 107 11 10.3 Computer hardware engineers 99 10 10.1 Sales engineers 50 5 10 Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders 72 7 9.7 Construction and building inspectors 95 9 9.5 Parking lot attendants 74 7 9.5 Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic 11 1 9.1 Industrial truck and tractor operators 534 46 8.6 Civil engineers 278 24 8.6 Broadcast and sound engineering technicians and radio operators 94 8 8.5 First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics, installers, and repairers 340 28 8.2 Refuse and recyclable material collectors 63 5 7.9 Electrical and electronic engineers 363 26 7.2 Grounds maintenance workers 1,135 78 6.9 Miscellaneous construction and related workers 58 4 6.9 Welding, soldering, and brazing workers 528 36 6.8 Painting, construction and maintenance 660 44 6.7 Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators 61 4 6.6 Telecommunications line installers and repairers 138 9 6.5 Pest control workers 81 5 6.2 Construction managers 680 40 5.9 Cabinet makers and bench carpenters 70 4 5.7 Railroad conductors and yardmasters 53 3 5.7 Enhancing Gender Equity 64 Appendix F cont. Employed Employed Percent Occupation Both Sexes Female Female Glaziers 53 3 5.7 Mechanical engineers 285 16 5.6 Other, installation, maintenance, and repair workers 272 15 5.5 First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping, lawn service, and groundskeeping workers 223 12 5.4 Machinists 454 22 4.8 Sheet metal workers 147 7 4.8 Driver/sales workers and truck drivers 3,214 148 4.6 Tool and die makers 88 4 4.5 Millwrights 73 3 4.1 Highway maintenance workers 79 3 3.8 Fire fighters 258 9 3.5 Helpers, construction trades 114 4 3.5 Aircraft pilots and flight engineers 116 4 3.4 Crane and tower operators 61 2 3.3 Security and fire alarm systems installers 60 2 3.3 Construction laborers 1,151 35 3 Maintenance and repair workers, general 309 8 2.6 Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers 271 7 2.6 Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers 120 3 2.5 Logging workers 79 2 2.5 First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades and extraction workers 897 22 2.4 Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics 460 11 2.4 Aircraft mechanics and service technicians 128 3 2.3 Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers 86 2 2.3 Electricians 774 16 2.1 Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers 205 4 1.9 Plasterers and stucco masons 53 1 1.9 Stationary engineers and boiler operators 113 2 1.8 Carpenters 1,595 26 1.6 Automobile service technicians and mechanics 884 12 1.4 Operating engineers and other construction equipment operators 376 5 1.3 Roofers 233 3 1.3 Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators 88 1 1.1 Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 595 6 1 Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service technicians and mechanics 200 2 1 Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists 339 3 0.9 Enhancing Gender Equity 65 Appendix F cont. Employed Employed Percent Occupation Both Sexes Female Female Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons 218 2 0.9 Electrical power-line installers and repairers 111 1 0.9 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics and installers 350 2 0.6 Structural iron and steel workers 71 0 0 Small engine mechanics 54 -- -- 1 Nontraditional occupations are those in which women comprise 25 percent or less of total employed. Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unpublished data, Annual Averages 2003, Current Population Survey. Women’s Bureau March 2003
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