Food Shopping Behavior Among Ethnic and Non-Ethnic Communities in by v84g8v


									Food Shopping Behavior Among
    Ethnic and Non-Ethnic
    Communities in Britain
              By: Ogenyi E. Omar
                   Alan Hirst
               Charles Blankson

  Journal of Food Products Marketing, Vol.10(4), pp.39-57. 2004
• In societies with many cultures such as the United States, Britain,
  and Canada, ethnic groups have not had very much research
  regarding consumer habits compared to their social classes (Omar
  et al., 2004).

• Research shows that ethnic minority groups are a large part of a
  consumer market, which is not being utilized (Omar et al., 2004).

• “…...UK marketers have been slow to embrace the concept of ethnic
  marketing but this strategy could offer rich rewards….” (UK
  Marketing Business Magazine)
            Introduction (Cont.)
• “In Britain, the term “ethnic minority” is used to
  acknowledge the multicultural social setting and to
  identify people of separate status belonging to different
  groups” (Omar et al., 2004).

How the groups are spilt up
• Non-ethnic = White people who originally were born in
• Ethnic group one = White people who moved to Britain
  (e.g. Irish, Polish, Jews…..)
• Ethnic group two = Non-whites immigrants (e.g. from
  British Commonwealth countries such as Jamaica,
  Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Barbados).
           Introduction (Cont.)
• The differences in food choice and shopping behavior
  among different consumer groups in Britain are reflected
  in their selection of grocery stores and their
  responsiveness to certain marketing policies ( Omar et
  al., 2004).
          Background Information
•   Brand products change forms through color, design, flavor,
    options, packaging style, features, and size, for the purpose of
    differentiating between their competitors. (Omar et al., 2004)

•   The non-white ethnic majority groups are still becoming accustomed
    to the British way of life. They still tend to eat and buy foods that
    are a “comfort food” to them. (Omar et al.,2004)

•   Retailers in ethnic market area now need to develop brand products
    that fit the needs of this ethnic minority. (Omar, 2004)

• British food retailers know very little about ethnic minorities’
  food brand choices. (Omar et al., 2004). That is the origin of this
Background Information (Cont.)
• In targeting the issues of ethnic minority markets
  manufacturers and retailers need to look at ethical
  questions such as: kosher meals and other religious
  requirements (Omar et al., 2004).
• With this, previous researchers have focused on
  brand loyalty, consumer values and family
  decision making when researching buying
  behaviors of ethnic minorities (Omar et al., 2004)
• Concerning ethnicity, marketers should look at
  personal beliefs and individuals identities before
  marketing their product (Omar et al., 2004)
         The UK Grocery Market
• The British grocery market is
  highly competitive in terms of
  brand choice and preferences
  (Omar et al., 2004)

• Previous studies about retail
  marketing strategies
  recommended combining
  competitive analysis and
  marketing segmentation, but
  they released that a marketing
  strategy focused solely for the
  ethnic minority would be too
  narrow and therefore unhelpful
  (Omar et al., 2004).
 The UK Grocery Market (Cont.)
• Culture is recognized as a
  key influence on
  consumption. This explains
  why so many studies have
  been done on ethnicity, culture
  and their influences on
  consumer behavior (Omar et
  al., 2004).
The UK Grocery Market (Cont.)
• Acculturation = The exchange of cultural features which
  result when groups come into continuous first hand

• Previous studies discuss barriers and incentives to
  ethnic minority consumers’ acculturation. Other studies
  emphasize using cultural market skills, paying close
  attention to social relations between majority and
  minority cultures (Omar et al., 2004).
Acculturation of Ethnic Consumers
• In regards to ethnicity
  and culture many
  marketers only
  consider the market
  from the outside,
  and forget that their
  understandings and
  actions contribute to
  further cultural and
  ethnic divide (Omar et
   What Questions This Research
• Are UK retailers providing food brands
  and appreciating ethnic minority food

• What is the relationship between brand
  choice and acculturation of ethnic minority
  food consumption?
          Brand Preferences
• A well-known and much studied
  element of consumer behavior
  acknowledges that people buy
  brands for what the products
  mean as well as what the brands
  can do.
• It has been suggested that
  consumers buy things to allow
  others to see what they have
  purchased rather than buying
  products that they actually need.
             Aims and Objectives
•    To contribute to marketing literature by
     enhancing the appreciation of brand
     preference comparison.

1.   To compare food brand preference, shopping and consumption
     patterns of ethnic and non-ethnic consumers in the London area

2.   To identify the sources that consumers use to obtain information
     about food brands.

3.   To identify influences of acculturation and ethnicity in food brand
              Data Collection
• Mail Questionnaires
  – Section A = Likert scale of 1 to 5, bad to good.
  – Section B = Questions about demographic
    characteristics (ethnic or non-ethnic)
• Sample section
  – 1,400 questionnaires sent out in Southall and
    Brixton believed to be two areas in Britain
    indicative of England’s ethnic diversity.
  – 644 were returned; 604 were usable.
       Data Collection (Cont.)
• Variable measurements
  – Classification Variables = age, gender, income, ethnic
    origin, number per household, social economic and
    demographic characteristics, preferred brands, sources of
    food information used in brand selection, and the degree of
    acculturation that may influence brand selection.
  – The conceptual definition of “ethnicity” polarized the
    population (ethnic versus non-ethnic)
      • 400 respondents classified as non-ethnic
      • 240 respondents classified as ethnic
• Demographic characteristics
  – Ethnic and non-ethnic are defined by
    household size, gender, marital status, age,
    and income and ethnical origin.
  – See table 1.
              Results (Cont.)
• Brand Preferred
  – National and owned label brands of dairy products
    pasta and bread, are high in both ethnic and non-
    ethnic shoppers.
  – With fruit vegetables, meat, rice, fish, and poultry
    = ethnic groups do not purchase any name
  – Non-ethnic shoppers are more loyal than ethnic
    to national and store brands.
  – Non-ethnic shoppers tend to stay away from “no-
    name products”
  – See table 2.
Results Table 2
                  Results (Cont.)
• Information sources used
   – The non-ethnic representatives shop less than the ethnic

   – Non-Ethnic
      • Likes = Bargain items, store flyer advertisements
      • Dislikes = T.V. ads, radio ads, newspaper ads

   – Ethnic
      • Likes = newspapers, store flyers, helpful menu selections, new
      • Dislikes = T.V. ads, radio ads, non bargain items
      Discussion & Conclusion
• In a marketplace that is growing even
  more competitive, British grocers must
  find another niche, for example price,
  quality, or a convenient location.
• According to UK Government Labor
  Statistics ethnic minority groups
  collectively spend £2,870 for food
  consumed at home versus £1,908 for
  non-ethnic groups. It is obvious in
  light of these numbers that ethnic
  minorities represent a profitable niche.
Discussion & Conclusion (Cont.)
• Despite no statistically significant difference
  between brand preferences of ethnic and non-
  ethnic in Britain, this study should pave the way
  for more robust and exhausted studies into
  ethnic minority purchasing behavior. Like fruit,
  vegetables, rice, meat, fish, and poultry, it seems
  that non-ethnic consumers place more value on
  national brands than other ethnic consumers; who
  are more willing to buy the “no name products”.
Discussion & Conclusion (Cont.)
• In summary retailers must focus on
  issues relating to culture and
  tradition of ethnic minorities and
  consider that what “[they] buy
  depends on their religious, cultural,
  and social-economic background”.
 Limitations & Future Research
• In light of its limitations this study is
  exploratory in nature and only concerns itself
  with two very broad definitions of a
  consumer group or population.
• There were too many factors that could
  change each individuals responses to give
  the study any relevance do the purchasing
  behavior off the entire households.
   Limitations & Future Research
• And, since the ethnicity questions that define
  your ethnicity background seemed to cause
  quite a bit of confusion amongst the
  participants, this would need to be done in
  more finite terms in the future, for example,
  future researchers “May retire the
  acculturation scale to include eating habits,
  reading, writing, and speaking ability in the
  English language” just to name a few.
The End

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