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					Food Sanitation
   EMD 545b
   Lecture #13
                   Food borne Illness
   Range 20 - 80 million cases a year (U.S.)
   325,00 hospitalizations, 5,000 deaths (U.S.)
   10 - 83 billion cost from absence from work or
    school, medical costs
   Generally fecal-oral transmission
     food borne infection - invasion by the organism with
      multiplication or toxin production in the host.
     food borne intoxication - growth in food source with
      toxin production before ingestion
                         Agents

   Clostridium botulinum, C. perfringens
   Staphylococci, Salmonella, Shigella
   Campylobacter jejuni, E. coli 0157:H7
   Vibrio parahaemolyticus
   Hepatitis A, Norwalk virus, Rotavirus
   Calicivirus, Listeria monocytogenes
   Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Bacillus cereus
   Toxoplasma gondii, Cyclospora
            Food borne Diseases
   Infection                            Intoxication
       long incubation period               short incubation period
        (days)                                (minutes - hours)
       diarrhea, nausea, vomiting,          Vomiting, nausea, double
        abdominal cramps. Fever               vision, weakness, numbness,
        often                                 disorientation
       Salmonella,                          C. botulinum
       Hepatitis A                          Staph aureus
       Listeria, Giardia                    certain fish/ shellfish
       Vibrio, Campylobacter
       Norwalk virus
                   Outbreaks
   2 or more cases associated in time and place
   E. coli 0157:H7 (Northwest)
   Cryptosporidium (Milwaukee)
   Norwalk virus (Cruise ships)
   Vibrio cholerae (South America)
   Listeria (New York, New Jersey, CT)
                     Surveillance
   Collection and analysis of data of food borne
    illness - goal to protect public
   Identify irregular patterns
   Notify affected entities
   Who, when, what, where?
       Food items, types of contaminant(s), factors
        associated with the illness
    Natural Barriers to Infection
   Stomach acid pH 2
   GI Tract immune system
   normal intestinal flora
   bile acids and digestive enzymes
         Increased Susceptibility
   Gastrectomy
   acid blockers for ulcers
   antacids, excessive consumption of water
   buffering capacity of food- milk, fatty foods
   antibiotic therapy
   very young, old
   immunocompromised
   stress, poor hygiene, underdeveloped areas
        Hazard Analysis of Critical
        Control Points (HACCP)
   System to monitor food service process
       Purchase  Serving
   Framework of control procedures
   Identifies “Critical Control Points” (CCP’s)
       Points in process where hazards may be introduced
   Reduce risk of food borne illness
      Hazard Analysis of Critical
      Control Points (HACCP)
   Purchasing
   Receiving
   Storing
   Preparing
   Cooking
   Serving and holding
   Cooling
   Reheating
                         Purchasing
   Evaluate suppliers
       Compliance with federal/state health standards
            Check inspection records
     Trained employees
     Temperature controlled delivery

     Safe/sanitary packaging

     Create “specifications” for acceptance
            Reject substandard items
       Schedule delivery during “slow” times
         Approved Food Sources
   Licensed food distributor/establishment
   Compliance with State Public Health Code
   USDA inspected meat, poultry
   Verify supplier as a safe source
   Fish from safe, unpolluted waters
   Pasteurized milk only
   Inspect suppliers facilities
                         Receiving
   Verify safe/fresh foods
       Inspect upon delivery
          Appearance, odor, contamination, expiration dates,
           condition of containers
          Reject “thawed/refrozen” items (large ice crystals)

          Reject swollen/rusted/damaged cans

          Check temperature of refrigerated foods
          Receipt & Storage

   Check supplies upon receipt for:
       signs of spoilage
          color, odor, texture, slime, mold, dirt, insects
          swollen, pierced, rusted, wet containers

       Quality, temperature, general condition
   Arrange delivery for off-peak hours
   Plan ahead to ensure sufficient storage space
                           Receiving
   Transfer to proper storage promptly
     Create space for new stock
     Clean transport carts

     Date foods (arrival or “use by” date)

     Pest control
           Clean, well lit areas
                            Storing
   Dry storage
     Clean/orderly, items 6” off floor
     Good ventilation,

     50 – 70 F (verify temp periodically)

     First In, First Out (FIFO) rotation
           Dating packages, place new to rear
     Clean spills promptly, trash kept out of room
     Segregate cleaning supplies (avoid contamination)
                       Storage
   Purchase foods that will be used ASAP
   Place in properly maintained storage area
   Use food quickly
   Keep potentially hazardous food outside of
    danger zone
       < 40 F --> Danger <---- < 140 F
   Keep cleaning materials away from food
                     Storing
   Refrigerated storage
     < 40 F (colder preferred, Verify periodically)
     Don’t overload

     Allow for air transfer (slotted shelves)

     Date items

     Properly sealed

     Raw/uncooked on bottom – away from ready to eat
      foods
                       Storing
   Freezing
     0 F, store foods immediately
     For foods that are frozen upon receipt

     Slotted shelves (circulation)

     Use moisture proof containers/wrappings

     Avoid multiple entries

     Segregate large warm “container” into smaller ones
                        Preparing
   Thawing and Marinating
       Keep foods out of temperature danger zone
            40 F < Danger < 140 F
     Never thaw on counter or non-refrigerated area
     Use refrigerator – in pan on bottom shelf
     Under running water (70 F) < 2 hours

   Marinate meats/fish in refrigerator
       Avoid cross contamination (never reuse)
   Sanitize cutting boards, knives between use
                       Preparation
   Handle raw, high risk foods in separate area at
    separate time (Border Café in Cambridge, MA)
   Sanitize surfaces/equipment immediately after
    contact with potentially hazardous food
   Hand washing prior to handling food
   ill or infected workers not allowed to handle food
   For big or catered events, hold reference sample of
    all foods served for 72 hours
     Potentially Hazardous Foods
   Beef, poultry, pork, gravies, soups
   Meat or fish stuffing
   Finfish, shellfish, raw fish
   Dairy products
   Eggs, cream-filled pastries, custards
   Vegetables (cooked, raw sprouts, cabbage)
   Starchy foods (grains, rice, potatoes)
                        Cooking
   Cook foods to proper internal temperature
       Internal temp of 165 F
   Stir foods in deep pots frequently
   Regulate size/thickness of foods (uniformity)
     Validate cooking times/temperatures
     Check thickest part of the food

   Always use sanitary cooking/serving utensils
   Never touch prepared foods with bare hands
    The Safe Food Handler

   Training
   Food borne infection
       Reporting to public health authorities
   Carrier state
     during incubation, illness or recovery
     asymptomatic chronic shedding

     Salmonella typhi (Typhoid Mary)

   Personal hygiene
               Serving and Holding
   Keep hot food above 140 F
       Steam tables, keep food covered
       Stir foods to ensure even heating
   Keep cold food below 40 F
       Refrigeration unit/ice
   Check temperature periodically
       Sanitize thermometer after each use
   Discard food held in danger zone (4 hours)
   Never add “fresh” food to food already out for serving
           Serving and Holding
   Wash hands before serving food
   Clean/sanitary long handled ladles and spoons
    for serving
   Never touch parts of cups/plates that will have
    contact w/food
   Cover cuts w/ bandages and cover with gloves
   Change gloves after contact with contaminated
    surface
           Serving and holding
   Sneeze guards
   Avoid cross-contamination
   Pre-wrap as much food as possible
   Watch customer behavior – remove
    contaminated food
                            Serving
   Rigid personal hygiene requirements
     handling raw food
     touching unclean surfaces or equipment

     Keep hands away from face, head

     no smoking, eating, handling money

     hand washing following restroom use

     adequately cover cuts, abrasions

     no gum chewing, spitting, coughing

     clean work clothes, hair restraints used
                     Serving
   Don’t wear jewelry
   Use utensils for serving
   Don’t taste food with finger
   Report any illness to management, avoid
    handling food
   Healthy workers, hair washing, bathing, with
    frequent hand washing
                                  Serving
   Temperature of food out of danger zones
   Thermometers to check food temp
       steam tables 180 - 200 F to maintain 140 F food
   Sneeze guards and utensils for salad bar
       no dirty plates used for return trip
   Avoid touching food contact surfaces with hands
   Server trained in choke saving procedure
                       Cooling
   Problems here are #1 cause of food borne illness
   Rapid cooling important
     Chill to below 40 F
     Reduce food mass (divide into multiple containers)
     Shallow pre-chilled pans
     Use ice water bath for quick chill then refrigerate
     Stir to increase cooling
     Monitor temperature periodically

   Store in covered containers
Sanitary Facilities & Equipment
   Cleaning & Sanitization
   Pest Control
   Inspections
     clean floors, no debris, clutter, mouse droppings
     no food storage on floor

     check cleanliness of dishes, utensils in storage

     check drawers for debris, cleanliness

     check cleanliness of all equipment used in food
      preparation or serving (slicers, soup kettles, dispensers
               Sanitary Facilities &
                   Equipment
   Cleanliness of dishwasher
     temperature, detergent, scaling agents
     food debris inside machine, grooves on door

     washing arms free of obstruction

   Backflow prevention devices on plumbing
   Mop closets clean, mop head stored upright,
    replaced or washed frequently
   Facility surfaces and equipment sanitized and
    inspected on an ongoing basis
                   Reheating
   Boil/heat to > 165 F within 2 hours of removal
    from refrigeration
   Never reheat more than once
   Never mix leftover and fresh food
   Discard leftovers refrigerated for more than a
    week from preparation date

				
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