Dene Suline Language

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					Denesuline
A Locally Developed Program
Level 10, 20, and 30




                         April 2003




   Developed by the Northern Region Dene Working Committee

                           based on
     Saskatchewan Indian Languages: Curriculum Guide for
     Kindergarten to Grade Twelve and Common Curriculum
   Framework for Aboriginal Language and Culture Programs –
                 Kindergarten to Grade Twelve
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



                        Introduction
Acknowledgements

This locally developed Dene 10, 20 and 30 course outline has been initiated by the
comprised of the following: Alice Magee, Elaine Hay, Walter Park, Ann Toutsaint-
Gordon, Julius Park, Joyce Mercredi, Rosalie Tsannie, Brittany Probert, and Chris Todd.
It is also important to acknowledge that the primary work was originally by the writers of
Saskatchewan Indian Languages: Curriculum Guide for Kindergarten to Grade Twelve
and the authors of the Common Curriculum Framework for Aboriginal Language and
Culture Programs – Kindergarten to Grade Twelve.

It is felt by the committee that the following is a beginning statement that will require
ongoing revision and renewal by people dedicated to the respect of the Dene Language
and its place in schools.

Aim

The Denesuline language defines the Denesuline language and culture. The curriculum
for 10, 20 and 30 is an integrated model to help maintain and retain the development of
students’ communication skills in the Denesuline Language and thereby enhancing the
Denesuline Culture. Eventually students will use the Denesuline Language to
communicate with their peers, parents, caregivers and Elders. Further more, students
including non-speakers from other linguistic groups who study the Denesuline language
will develop and understanding and appreciation of the Denesuline culture. They will
strive to attain a level of linguistic competence.

The format of these curricula provides the opportunity to instruct language development
using seasonal environments as the communicative backdrop. The provided outline
articulates two credits at each level. It is assumed that a student would be required to
have successfully completed at least one credit in a level before proceeding to a higher
level.

The assumption of the provided curricula is that students have a prior relationship with
the Dene language and culture. It is also understood that since the Dene language is,
primarily an oral language that oral language development and enhancement would be a
preoccupation over the written and reading components normally found in the English
Language Arts curricula.

Goals

The major goals of this curriculum are:
 To promote student participation in varied situations and activities that will assist
   them in acquiring listening, speaking, and, potentially, reading and writing skills in
   the Denesuline language.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


    To develop an understanding and an appreciation of Denesuline culture through
     language usage.
    To develop students listening skills which will assist them in learning the Denesuline
     in various social settings and situations.
    To encourage enjoyment of learning to communicate in the Denesuline Language.
    To promote positive social and personal growth through use of the Denesuline
     language for cultural survival.
    To encourage students, parents, caregivers and educators to continue to acquire
     fluency through independent study with Elders and fluent speakers

Rationale and Philosophy

The Northwest has within its boundary a “T” linguistic dialect that is similar to the
Northern Saskatchewan dialect. The Denesuline language component represents the
Athabaska Language phylum, it includes the Northwest and Northern Saskatchewan,
Northwest Territories, Northern British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba. The Navajo
and the Apache of the United States of America also fall under this phylum.

Therefore we would have the following:

                                  Athabaskan Language Family
                                                 NWT
BC                                                                           Manitoba

        Alberta                 Sask.


                            Southwest USA

Historically, Denesuline languages were not written. Upon introduction of written
English, Denesuline people continued their traditions but there has been a drastic decline
in the number of people who speak the Denesuline languages. Data from the Socio-
Linguistic Survey of Indigineous Languages in Saskatchewan: On the Critical List (1991)
suggests that the Denesuline languages are in danger of extinction.

In view of this and other facts presented in the document, the Denesuline Nations
recognize that curriculum must promote speaking, reading and writing skills, not only as
tools for communication, however also as a means of language and culture preservation.
A great need exists for more printed materials, but also for qualified Denesuline language
educators, teaching guides and other related resources.

Teaching aids and printed materials are presently being developed, however, it remains at
a stand still process due to lack of funding.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Principles of the Curriculum for K to 12

The philosophy of this curriculum is represented in the following principles:

Second Language acquisition must occur as holistically as possible.

Language acquisition is the main goal in this curriculum. The whole meaning of a
conversation rather than the meaning of separate words is the focus for students. The
curriculum encourages the practice of introducing vocabulary from other subject areas to
make the class interesting and relevant for the students.

Language is used for meaningful purposes.

This curriculum promotes a collaborative effort between teachers and students to identify
opportunities for meaningful use of the target language. Frequent interaction provides
occasion for increased communication. The curriculum guide also encourages utilizing
variety of teaching techniques to accommodate individual learning and communication
styles.

The tenets of language acquisition are represented in the communicative
approach and thematic base.

This curriculum recognizes the communicative competence may be expanded and refined
through meaningful and relevant activities. The thematic component and communicative
approach provides an opportunity for students to learn language that is relevant and
interesting to them. Frequent exposure to and use of language in authentic situations
allows students to develop an understanding of rules, structures ands meanings of words.

The curriculum is resource-based.

Resource-based learning provides an opportunity to use a wide variety of resources. It
accommodates a diversity of interests, needs and talents of students, teachers and the
community. This diversity adds to the students’ second language vocabulary and
enhances enjoyment of language learning. Resource-based learning is a strong
component in teaching the Denesuline language. Communities are rich in local resource.
Teacher-librarians if available can help locate materials such as slides and photographs,
videotapes and storybooks. Student or teacher made materials can also support resource-
based learning. Storyteller, artisans, Elders, caregivers, and parents are invaluable
resources as are administrators, community leaders and professionals.

An anxiety-free environment supports language acquisition and communicative
competence.

The curriculum guide recognizes that learning a language must be a positive experience.
For some students this will be an introduction to their ancestral language and the cultural
identity that is defined through the language. Personal growth, positive self-image and


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


social confidence are increased through communicative competence. Students are
encouraged to express their ideas, opinions, desires, emotions and feelings in an anxiety-
free environment. A comfortable setting encourages students to approach second-
language learning with confidence ands increases curiosity and interest.

Note: the teacher’s strategy section includes suggestions on establishing and enhancing a
positive and exciting environment.

The teacher’s role is one of observer, adapter, coordinator, facilitator and
motivator.

Teachers use their knowledge of language and their sensitivity to individual learning
styles as tools to determine effective teaching strategies and activities. Relevant
adaptations or modifications to teaching methods or teaching aids are made to suit the
students learning styles. Any techniques, adaptation or adjustment, which helps the
teacher and motivates the learner, is encouraged. Factors such as dialects with their
regional vocabulary and colloquialisms, individual student needs and interests,
availability of resources and vocabulary in other subjects are all considered and
integrated.

Assessment and evaluation strategies and techniques take into account the
gradual and on-going nature of language acquisition: communicative competence
and linguistic competence.

The curriculum recognizes that communicative and linguistic competence will be a
gradual but continuous process. Daily classroom activities and experiences provide
opportunity to monitor listening skills, language usage and comprehension. Consult
monitoring and observing of students’ progress, strengths and difficulties provide a base
for both student and teacher to decide on a plan of action to attain mutual goals. Teachers
are encouraged to use appropriate testing techniques to accommodate individual learning
styles at each level of oral and linguistic competence.

Adaptive Dimension

The adaptive dimension is an essential part of all educational programs. Like the
Common Essential Learning, The Adaptive Dimension is a component of Core
Curriculum and is reflected in all curricula.

The Adaptive Dimension in Core Curriculum (1992) provides teachers with a
vehicle to accommodate individual needs of students by:
 Adapting teaching approaches
 Adapting curriculum topics and materials
 Adapting assessment techniques
 Adapting classroom organization




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The curriculum encourages teachers to make adjustments to the environment to meet
individual needs and to identify meaningful objectives that will promote success for each
student. Learning can be made more accessible by modifying the setting, the teaching
method or the material. The Adaptive Dimension allows students to participate in the
learning process by offering them alternative access to and expression of knowledge.

This concept is used to:

   Increase relevant curriculum content for students
   Provide a wide range of learning materials including community resources
   Maximize students potential for learning
   Facilitate integration of resources for enrichment and extension
   Provide opportunity for personal growth and self esteem
   Reduce discrepancies between achievement and ability
   Include traditional customs of the language group
   Accommodate community needs and involvement
   Provide background knowledge or experience

The Adaptive Dimension allows teachers to help students develop their potential as
independent learners. Adaptation should, however, be consistent with the objectives and
spirit of the curriculum.

When making adaptations, teachers might consider the following:

   Create a classroom environment conducive to language acquisition. A friendly
    atmosphere among students and between students and teacher will lower the anxiety
    level.
   Promote mutual respect among students in regards to background, culture, interest,
    language competency and learning style.
   Provide opportunities for students to identify and choose resources that suit their
    interests and needs.
   Follow-up on students suggestions and queries.
   Encourage student participation in planning, instruction and evaluation.
   Vary the pace of the lessons to give to students time to grasp the concepts presented
    before proceeding to more advanced material.
   Monitor the use of vocabulary. Advanced and simple forms of vocabulary can be
    incorporated into the same lesson. Using the different moods of verbs, for example,
    accommodates students individual pace of language acquisition promotes natural
    speech and introduces the students to some unique features of the Denesuline
    language.
   Maintain a low anxiety level through flexibility, not only with class routine, but also
    by altering the physical setting. Learning centres for example, allow students time for
    independent learning, peer tutoring and creativity.
   Introduce new material only when students are comfortable wit basics.
   Utilize cultural and community resources.


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


   Provide a variety of options when planning activities.
   Facilitate a maximum output from each student through appropriate assessment and
    evaluation procedures.
   Change materials to enhance learning.
   Encourage students to take active interest in community activities.

The Adaptive Dimension empowers the teacher and students to use available resources
and various teaching/learning strategies to plan a meaningful and appropriate language
acquisition program for every student. The practice of adapting curriculum content to
student needs requires teachers to make decisions about the necessary changes that will
include relevant meaningful input to achieve maximum achievement by students. This
curriculum guide allows for such flexibility and decision making.

Teacher’s Note

Customs vary form one community to another. To request guidance and/or
assistance from an Elder, one must follow customary protocol. Some general
guidelines include:
 Send a letter to the local band council or education committee stating the
    nature of your request and the Elder’s role within the program.
 Request assistance regarding protocol.
 If your school normally offers honoraria and/or expense reimbursement to
    guests, offer the same to a visiting Elder.
 Consult with the Elder to determine learning outcomes.


Common Essential Learning

Six Common Essential Learnings have been identified:

C              Communication
N              Numeracy
CCT            Critical and Creative        Thinking
TL             Technological Literacy
PSVS           Personal and Social Values and Skills
IL             Independent Learning
NEL            Northern Essential Learning
Understanding the Common Essential Learnings (1988)

The Denesuline language curriculum offers many opportunities for incorporating the
Common Essential Learnings (C.E.L.s) into instruction. Integrated the C.E.L.s into the
course of language acquisition will prepare students for their learning throughout and
beyond the kindergarten to grade twelve education system. The decision to focus on
particular C.E.L.s within a lesson is guided by the needs and abilities of individual
students and by the particular demands of the curriculum.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


It is important to incorporate the C.E.L.s in a natural manner. For example, some units
may offer many opportunities to develop all of the Common Essential Learnings, others
will not. It should be noted that developing a particular C.E.L.s may also lead to the
development of other C.E.L.s. This is to be expected as the Common Essential Learnings
are interrelated.

It is intended that the Common Essential Learnings be developed and evaluated within
subject areas. Therefore, foundational objectives for C.E.L.s are included in the guide.
Because the Common Essential Learnings are not necessarily separate and discrete
categories, it is anticipated that working toward the achievement of one foundational
objective may contribute to the development of others. For example, many skills,
understandings and abilities required for developing Communication, Numeracy, and
Critical Thinking are also needed for the development of Technological Literacy.

Incorporating the Common Essential Learnings into instruction has implications for the
assessment of student learning. A unit, which has focused on developing particular
C.E.L.s, should also reflect this focus when assessing student learning. If student are
encouraged to think critically and creatively throughout the unit which requires students
to demonstrate their critical and creative thinking abilities. The Common Essential
Learnings are to be integrated, accommodated and incorporated within the evaluation of
each content area.

It is anticipated that teachers will build from the suggestions in this guide and from their
personal reflections in order to incorporate the Common Essential Learnings into
Denesuline language instruction.


Locally Determined Options

To meet community and students needs at the local level, provision is made within Core
Curriculum for locally determined options.

At the elementary level and middle levels, time for locally determined options may be
gained by reducing the time spent in one or more of the Required Areas of Study up to a
maximum of 20%.

Dene Language as a Second Language

The number of Denesuline students who are fluent in their mother tongue has declined to
the extent which teachers of Denesuline language now use second language teaching
strategies. However, although there has been this loss, some of the students may have
been exposed in varying degrees to this language. The challenge to teachers is to
determine and meet the individual needs of these students.

In accordance with the communicative approach, students’ abilities, weaknesses and
strengths in both English and Denesuline must be assessed. Appropriate teaching



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


approaches should be utilized to maintain a balance in students’ understanding of
language processes. Sound pedagogical development in one language will enable
students to appreciate and acquire skills in the other language.

Language acquisition can occur through first or second language learning. In first
language acquisition, the student does not consciously study how to speak in a particular
language. Rather the information is learned naturally. An infant is surrounded by many
teachers – parents, siblings, grandparents, family friends, and other children and extended
family members – who provide a vast range of language experiences and information. In
addition, media reinforce first language acquisition. As the child grows older, teaching
aids in various forms widens the circle of “teachers”. The techniques also change as
parents and others sing or read to the child, enriching the child’s vocabulary.

Krashen and Terrell (1983) refer to the last language acquisition as the Natural Way.

Historically, second language teaching methods have not reflected this natural process,
but rather use grammar-translation (the most common method of instruction), Audio-
Lingual and the situational methods. Teachers usually use one or a combination of these
three methods. Students are generally introduces to the language by one teacher who
spends only a specified amount of time with the students each week. At the end of the
class students may return to classrooms where they are taught in another language. In
some cases, there is limited contact with other speakers of the language being learned. A
recent trend in teaching methods is to try to simulate as natural an environment as
possible. The Communicative Approach represents an attempt to simulate a situation for
natural first language acquisition.

The sample units and suggested activities, which form the second half of this curriculum
guide, may help the teacher structure learning situations that reflect the communicative
approach.

Second Language Acquisition

Attaining fluency in a second language requires competence in discourse, linguistics and
sociolinguistics. There may be some students whose Dene language fluency is
insufficient to be considered a first language. This implies learning the proper use of
language as dictated by the social protocol inherent within the language. It is socialization
to the culture of a particular language. Consider the following brief explanation of each
of these areas.

   Discourse proficiency is knowing appropriate use of the language.
   Linguistic competence is knowing the possibility and impossible sentence structures
    of a language.
   Sociolinguistic proficiency is knowing and acknowledging the inherent cultural
    aspects of language usage.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


This curriculum promotes active bilingualism rather than passive bilingualism. Passivity
may occur in the early stages of second language learning when a student is beginning to
learn the new sounds and vocabulary or may occur in an environment that is not
conducive to daily use the Denesuline Language. People are either active or passive in
their ability to speak a second language. When a person is fluent in a language and speaks
that language without error he or she is considered actively bilingual and “monitor-free”.
This person speaks spontaneously and although he or she may be aware of grammar, does
not worry about grammar rules before speaking. While this person may not be
consciously concerned with the linguistic analysis of the language, he or she is aware of
the ‘body language’ involved as part of discourse and interaction within a particular
community. This is known as sociolinguistic awareness. Some sociolinguistic awareness
and social protocol situations can be difficult to simulate in the classroom but students
can be informed about appropriate responses and behaviour before attending cultural and
community events. With assistance from community members, other social events may
be simulated or actually performed in the classroom. Vocabulary may be introduced and
discussed beforehand.

A person who is passively bilingual has limited understanding and use of the language.
Communication will probably be a mixture of body language, facial expressions, actions
and words. Generally, there has been limited contact with other speakers of the language.

A teacher’s plans will be guided by a number of considerations including:

   Initial diagnostic assessment of the students’ fluency level.
   The stages of second language proficiency
   Students’ interests
   Community needs
   Ages of students
   Evaluation
   Language proficiency in first language
   Time allotment for the class

Once an assessment has been completed and the interests and community needs have
been determined, a review of the stages of second language acquisition may indicate the
direction of a plan. The following outline of these stages, as explained by Stephen D.
Krashen and Tracy D. Terrell (1983), is based on the “Natural Way” of acquiring a first
language.

Stages in Second Language Acquisition

Stage 1: Comprehension

This stage is characterized by a period of silence or incubation. Students are not required
to respond orally. Rather they are given information that is relevant and interesting to
them. This information is referred to as input. Eventually students will understand and
feel comfortable enough to respond top commands and questions through actions or in


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


their first language. This is output, the result of listening and observing skills that the
students acquire. In this natural way they retain and use the new sounds and vocabulary
of the second language.

Stage 2: Early Production

As the students begin to master pronunciation, they also begin to build a key list of
personal vocabulary. Their responses may be a combination of words in their first
language plus words of simple sentences in the second language or the response may be
action. Although the combination, word order or choice of words may not be entirely
correct, students are able to make themselves understood. They are recalling retained
input. At this stage they will begin to recognize written words and associate them with
concrete objects and actions.

Stage 3: Speech Emergence

The ultimate goal is for students to achieve discourse proficiency, sociolinguistic and
linguistic competence. This level of achievement is reflected through longer responses,
more complex discourse and the ability to converse with a variety of audiences in
different situations. Students show interest in and are motivated to pursue independent
study of the language. At this point student have developed listening, speaking, reading
and writing skills. The degree of fluency is dependent on factors such as a positive
learning environment, relevancy of the vocabulary introduced, community involvement
and encouragement form everyone.

Instructional Methods

The Learning Environment

This curriculum encourages teachers to utilize the input of students, parents, teacher-
librarians and Elders in the language program. Students may help with planning and
setting goals. Teamwork and communication among these groups establishes a sound
basis for a positive environment, good rapport and a mutual respect. Inclusion of the
community, students, parents and Elders ensures that language acquisition takes place in
the social context of the community, generates a feeling of ownership and fosters a
holistic learning environment.

In addition to the planning of the course, establishing the physical setting is of equal
importance. The classroom should be organized with several areas where students have
access to materials such as paints, storybooks, construction paper and an audio station
where students may listen to or record songs, conversations and stories. Although the
appearance of these workstations will change over the year the well-planned classroom
setting will help pupils adjust to the daily routine and encourage independent learning
and self-reliance.

Traditional Indian Teaching Methods



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




Many North American Indian societies had no writing system aside from petroglyphs and
pictographs o animal hides. Yet people managed to impart language, life skills, attitudes,
values and customs to their descendants. In her paper in the book Teaching the Indian
Child (p.163), Sandra A. Rietz (1988) explains oral literature in this way, “It teaches (by
introduction) what a people knows about itself and the universe, both through the story
content and through structural device – the organizational and linguistic properties of the
story.” She also states that, “ An oral literature, ‘language of the mind’ (Frost, 1980),
structures the collective memory of a people.” Storytellers were given the responsibility
of committing to memory the worldview of a particular group. This may be the reason
oral literature is characterized by repetition of certain structures or phrases. For example,
number sets such as four occur in Indian stories and the number three in Russian stories.
The numbers occur in ceremonies too. Traditional Denesuline teaching through
storytelling, legends or ordinary stories can enhance contemporary educational
methods, not only in the teaching of Denesuline languages, but also to preserve the
encoded “cultural memory” within the stories. Today’s cultures, European and
Denesuline are a reflection of this tradition. Even though European oral literature was
considered by some as insignificant and of little value, the Denesuline perspective
considers the tradition as the lifeline to culture. Reitz (1988) explains that the intention or
purpose of storytelling was culturally “utilitarian” and was intended “to tell people how
to behave, to bind people together in a common cultural community, and to teach and
reinforce models which belongs to the cultural cosmology” in other words, legends or
ordinary stories and recollections of events served to transmit history and customs,
information on tribal taboos, examples of rewards or punishments, and models of
behaviour. Stories served as a form of social control, developing attitudes and
interpersonal skills. Some stories had a moral. Storytellers did not explain the moral as
that was considered insulting. Listeners reflected on the story and came to their own
conclusions.

Another method was modeling or experiential learning where children watched how a
certain task was done but were not pressured to do the task immediately afterwards.
There were no written instructions so children had to remember the how, why and when
to do the tasks.

Name giving coincided with a person’s social and personal growth. Relatives chose
names that reflected traits they hoped a newborn child would possess. Then as a child
reached adolescence, an outstanding feat of bravery of the demonstration of leadership
qualities often warranted a name change. The new name symbolizes the person’s
qualities or the feat achieved. It was an honour to be chosen for a name change.
Receiving the name of a well-respected individual whose name was inherited was
foremost in the mind of the receiver but it was also a responsibility to uphold the person’s
reputation. People’s names might be changed a number of times during a lifetime but
always for good reasons.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


These samples of traditional Indian teaching methods reflect a holistic approach to human
development. In the process, the individual makes choices and decisions wit the guidance
of immediate and extended family members.

Incorporating legends, stories, recollections and information about customs such as name
giving not only helps teach the language but also serves to revive customs.

Teachers should provide students with opportunities to interact with peers and adults in a
traditional fashion. Community celebrations or activities may be structured or attended. If
the class is in an urban centre, the teacher may consider inviting male and female Elders
to explain or to tell stories.

This is consistent with the communicative approach to language instruction and the
philosophy and principles of Core Curricula.

The diagram following this section explains the cyclical progression of the
Communicative Approach to Resource-based Learning to the Adaptive Dimension
and back to the use of the language through communication. Each component enhances
the environment by giving students opportunities to gain practical experience in speaking
the Denesuline Language being taught. The Communicative Approach can be described
as an umbrella encompassing a number of teaching methods/approaches that encourage
the use of a second language.

Resource-based Learning, the next step in the process, is where the teacher, teacher-
librarian, students identify resources and others involved in the teacher’s plans. The
resources are not confined to printed materials but can include involvement of
community people, attendance at local events, visiting historical sites in the vicinity and
generally utilizing appropriate ands relevant materials and activities to give students an
opportunity to use the Denesuline language.

The Adaptive Dimension provides teachers with a vehicle to accommodate individual
needs of the students by adapting:

   Curriculum topics
   Instructional materials
   Teaching approaches
   Assessment techniques
   Classroom organization

Teaching Strategies
Total Physical Response

Dr. James J. Asher (1988) researched a method now known as Total Physical Responses
(TPR). It is based on the natural way that children acquire language through listening and
responding physically to requests, invitations and commands from family members.


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Asher’s method is based on the premises that understanding the spoken language should
be developed far in advance of speaking, that comprehension can be learned through
physical movement, that speech will emerge naturally and that students should not be
rushed into reading and writing before they have had ample listening and speaking
experience. Students in a second or foreign language class begin by listening to
commands, watching the teacher role-play and by internalizing and responding to the
vocabulary.

Organic Vocabulary, Reading and Writing

In her book Teacher, Sylvia Ashton-Warner (1963) describes how she introduces reading
and writing English to Maori children in New Zealand using the Organic Reading and
Writing method.

Ashton-Warner attempted to bridge the gap between the two cultures by having the
children read and write using vocabulary that had emotional significance to them. She
had the young children begin with single words written on cardboard. Each student took
that word home and brought it back to school the next day. If the word held great
significance for the student, he or she remembered it without difficulty. Gradually each
child built a key vocabulary, which formed the basis for reading and writing sentences
and paragraphs.

A similar approach may be used with any second language class. The teacher may write
what the child says about some activity or event, in or out of school, which is important
to the child. Recording regularly in the second language, by the teacher or older students,
these “stories” may form a booklet to be used by the child as a personal reader or be left
in the library as a useful resource for others to read. In teaching a second language it is
important to use a wide variety of instructional approaches and learning situations.

The Language of Instruction

The communicative approach and the objectives support the idea that the language of
instruction should, as much as possible, be the language being learned. That is, if the
general language of the school is English and the language being learned is Denesuline,
the second language classes would be conducted primarily in Denesuline. English would
then be used as sparingly as possible.

Instructional Approaches

The document Instructional Approaches: A close Framework for Professional Practice
(Saskatchewan Education, 1991) identifies five categories of instructional approaches,
along with lists of more specific teaching strategies. These are meant to imply to all
disciplines and the full range of in-school language teaching. Most of the strategies are
consistent with the communicative approach for second language teaching. The strategies
appear below, followed by a number of more specific methods or comments about the
approach.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Direct Instruction:
 Structured Overview
 Explicit Teaching
 Mastery Lecture
 Drill and Practice
 Teacher-talk
 Total Physical Response
 Polarity questions
 Compare and Contrast
 Didactic Questions
 Demonstrations
 Guides for Reading, Listening, Viewing
 Storytelling

Generally speaking, direct instructional methods:
 Are teacher directed
 Include lecture, didactic questioning, explicit teaching, practice and drill and
   demonstrations
 May be effective in providing information or developing step by step skills
 Work well for introducing other teaching methods or actively involving students
 Are usually deductive
 Have limitations in the area of developing abilities, processes and attitudes required
   for critical thinking and for interpersonal or group learning

Indirect Instruction:

   Problem Solving
   Case Studies
   Guided Inquiry
   Reading for Meaning
   Reflective Discussion
   Concept Formation
   Concept Mapping
   Concept Attainment
   Cloze Procedure

Generally speaking, indirect instructional methods:
 Are student centred encouraging students to observe, investigate, infer from data or
   form hypotheses
 Free student to explore diverse possibilities
 Foster creativity and develop interpersonal skills and abilities
 Allow teachers to be facilitators, supporters and resource persons
 Rely on use of print, non-print and human resources
 Foster cooperation among teachers or other staff members



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


   May be time consuming
   May require teachers to relinquish some control, resulting in outcomes that may be
    unpredictable and less safe
   May be inappropriate for memorization and when immediate recall is desired

Independent Study:
 Essays
 Computer Assisted Instruction
 Reports
 Learning Activity Package
 Correspondence Lessons
 Learning Contracts
 Homework
 Research Projects
 Assigned Questions
 Learning Centres

Generally speaking, independent study:
 Is initiated by the teacher or student
 Fosters the development of knowledge, abilities, attitudes and processes required to
   become self-sufficient and responsible citizens through planned independent study
 Is survived or guided by the teacher
 May be used with other instructional strategies or may be used by itself depending on
   the unit topic

Experiential Learning:
 Field Trips
 Experiments
 Simulations
 Games
 Total Physical Response
 Focused Imaging
 Field Observations
 Organic Vocabulary/Writing/Reading
 Role Playing
 Synectics
 Model Building
 Surveys
 Summer/Winter Camps
 Cultural Camps

Generally speaking, experiential learning:
 Is inductive, student centred and activity oriented
 Consists of five phases-experiencing, sharing, analyzing, inferring and applying



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


   Emphasizes learning rather than product
   May be in or out of the classroom
   Uses a variety of resources
   Is limited by kinds of experiences that can be utilized, student safety, time and
    finances
   Includes simulated experiences
   Increases understanding and retention of information
   Is motivational for students

Interactive Instruction:
 Debates
 Role Playing
 Panels
 Brainstorming
 Peer Practice
 Total Physical Response
 Discussion
 Teacher Talk
 Laboratory Groups
 Problem Solving
 Circle of Knowledge
 Tutorial Groups
 Interviewing

Generally speaking, interactive instruction:
 Relies on discussion and sharing
 Allows students to learn from peers and teachers to develop social skills and abilities,
   to organize their thoughts and to develop their rational arguments
 Requires student and teacher observation, listening and interpersonal skills and
   abilities

Rather that using primarily one teaching approach, a variety of strategies used during the
course of the year as well as in each class period will serve to the advantage of both the
teacher and students
 Interest, for both the teacher and students, will be stimulated
 The students’ different learning styles are more likely to be accommodated
 Teaching is more likely to be effective
 Teaching and learning will be more enjoyable




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                      The Communicative Approach
The communicative approach can be described as an umbrella encompassing
a number of teaching strategies that encourage the use of a second language




      Resource-Based Learning                               Adaptive Dimension

Resource-based Learning is the next step in       The adaptive Dimension provides teachers
 the process where resources are identifies       with a vehicle to accommodate individual
by the teacher, students and others involved      needs of the students through adapting:
 in the yearly plans. The resources are not
    confined to printed materials but can             Curriculum topics
include involvement of community people,              Instructional materials
  attending local events, visiting historical         Teaching approaches
     sites in the vicinity, using computer            Assessment techniques
  assisted learning and generally utilizing           Classroom organization
   appropriate and relevant materials and
activities to give students an opportunity to
    use the Indian language being taught.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                        Second Language Outcomes




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



                              Second Language Outcomes
Language and Culture Program Aim

Language and culture programs will have the aim of providing students with Aboriginal
perspectives and skills (including language) that will help them to:
 Find balance within themselves to live peacefully and respectively with themselves,
    one another and the land.
 Play a role in revitalizing Aboriginal languages and cultures.


Cultural Program Goals

Students will demonstrate the ability to:
 Participate in the practices and the use of the products of their Aboriginal culture
 Understand the perspectives and underlying knowledge of their aboriginal culture
 Willingly reflect on their relationships with themselves, one another and the natural
   world.

Second Language Program Goals

Student will demonstrate the ability:
 Use language in community and school situations requiring interaction, production or
   interpretation of language
 Use strategies for learning language
 Communicate with degrees of precision, coherency and fluency
 Use language to give and get information, socialize and celebrate, interpret and
   produce talk and research culture.

The outcomes for the Aboriginal language as a Second Language are based on the
assumption that language will be taught and used while teaching cultural content, just as
with the First Aboriginal Language.

Aboriginal Language as a Second Language

The number of Denesuline students who are fluent in their mother tongue has declined to
the extent that teachers of the Denesuline Language now use second language teaching
strategies. However, although there has been this loss, some of the students may have
been exposed in varying degrees to these languages. The challenge to teachers is to
determine and meet the individual needs of these students.

In accordance with the communicative approach, student abilities, weaknesses and
strengths in both English and Denesuline must be assessed. Appropriate teaching
approaches should be utilized to maintain a balance in students’ understandings of
language processes. Sound pedagogical development in one language will enable
students to appreciate and acquire skills in the other language.


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


In first language acquisition, the student does not consciously study how to speak in a
particular language. Rather the information is learned naturally. An infant is surrounded
by teachers – parents, siblings, grandparents, family friends, other children and extended
family members. These people provide a vast range of language experiences and
information. In addition, media reinforce first language acquisition. As the child grows
older, teaching aids in various forms widens the circle of “teachers”. The techniques also
change as parents and others sing or read to the child, enriching the child’s vocabulary.

Krashen and Terrell (1983) refer to first language acquisition as the Natural Way.

The Communicative Approach represents an attempt to simulate a situation for natural
first language acquisition.

Second Language Acquisition

Attaining fluency in a second language requires competence in discourse, linguistics and
sociolinguistics. This implies learning the proper use of the language as dictated by the
social protocol inherent within the language. It is a socialization to the culture of a
particular language. Consider the following brief explanation of each of these areas:
 Discourse proficiency is knowing appropriate use of the language.
 Linguistic competence is knowing the possible and impossible sentence structures of
    a language.
 Sociolinguistic proficiency is knowing and acknowledging the inherent cultural
    aspects of language usage.

This curriculum promotes active bilingualism rather than passive bilingualism. Passivity
may occur in the early stages of second language learning when a student is beginning to
learn the new sounds and vocabulary or may occur in an environment that is not
conducive to daily use of the Denesuline Language. People are either active or passive in
their ability to speak a second language. When a person is fluent in a language and speaks
that language without error he or she is considered actively bilingual and “monitor-free”.
This person speaks spontaneously and although he or she may be aware of grammar, does
not worry about grammar rules before speaking. While this person may not be
consciously concerned with the linguistic analysis of the language, he or she is aware of
the “body language” involved as part of discourse and interaction within a particular
community. This is known as sociolinguistic awareness. Some sociolinguistic awareness
and social protocol situations can be difficult to simulate in the classroom but students
can be informed about appropriate responses and behaviour before attending cultural and
community events. With assistance from community members, other social events may
be simulated or actually performed in the classroom. Vocabulary may be introduced and
discussed beforehand.

A person who is passively bilingual has limited understanding and use of the language.
Communication will probably be a mixture of body language, facial expressions, actions
and words. Generally, there has been limited contact with other speakers of the language.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


A teacher’s plans will be guided by a number of considerations including:
 Initial diagnostic assessment of the students’ fluency level
 The stages of second language proficiency
 Students’ interests
 Community needs
 Ages of students
 Evaluation
 Language proficiency in first language
 Time allotment for the class

Stages in Second Language Acquisition

Stage 1: Comprehension

This stage is characterized by a period of silence or incubation. Students are not required
to respond orally. Rather, they are given information that is relevant and interesting to
them. This information is referred to as input. Eventually students will understand and
feel comfortable enough to respond to commands and questions given through actions or
in their first language. This is output, the result of listening and observing skills that the
students acquire. In this natural way they retain and use the new sounds and vocabulary
of the second language.

Stage 2: Early Production

As the students begin to master pronunciation, they also begin to build a key of personal
vocabulary. Their response can be a combination of their first language plus words or
simple sentences in the second language, or the response may be action. Although the
combination, word order or simple choice of words may not be entirely correct, students
are able to make themselves understood. They are recalling retained input. At this stage
they will begin to recognize written words and associate them with concrete objects and
actions.

Stage 3: Speech Emergence

The ultimate goal is for students to achieve discourse proficiency, sociolinguistic and
linguistic competence. This level of achievement is reflected through longer responses,
more complex discourse and the ability to converse with a variety of audiences in
different situations. Students show interest in and are motivated to pursue independent
study of the language. At this point, students have developed listening, speaking, reading
and writing skills. The degree of fluency is dependent on factors such as a positive
learning environment, relevancy of the vocabulary introduced, community involvement
and encouragement form everyone.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




Proficiency-Based Outcomes

Communicative proficiency is the goal of Aboriginal Second Language programs.
Communicative proficiency is the ability to use a language to function in a variety of
basic language to use contexts and situations offered by a culture. Levels of
communicative proficiency can be described in terms of such characteristics as the degree
of accuracy in the communication of meaning, the variety of topics that can be dealt with
and the amount of spontaneity and abstraction involved in various language use situations

Second Language Outcomes

At a particular level of proficiency, students will:

In these contexts,                               Language Use Contexts

Using these specific strategies,                 Strategies for Language Learning

With his/her quality of language,                Language Quality

Be able to perform these functions.              Language Functions


Areas of Language Outcomes

Language Use Contexts

At each level, three kinds of language use contexts in which students are expected to
perform are identified below:

Interaction:            involves face-to-face communication and the sociocultural rules
                        for such interaction.
Interpretation:         requires students to understand and interpret discourse or a
                        connected set of sentences or ideas.
Production:             requires students to produce discourse that is understandable to
                        others.

Strategies for Language Learning

Skills that pertain to becoming more effective as learners are identified.

Language Quality




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Language quality as a measure of communicative proficiency is not synonymous with
                      meaningful communication. It is possible to communicate meaning
                      with relative degrees of quality. Quality is defined using three
                      criteria:

Accuracy:               primarily involves the grammatical system of a language.
Fluency:                involves the ease with which communication is expressed or
                        received.
Coherency:              relates to the connectness of information, thoughts and ideas within
                        discourse.


While the communicative approach to teaching second languages emphasizes the
primacy of function over form, the qualitative features of language use must be dismissed
nor delayed during instruction. Ignoring skills in these areas tends to lead to a
fossilization of language development regardless of continued instruction or language
use. Individuals are able to function relatively well in the second language, understanding
and being understood, but are viewed by the language community as having a “broken”
language or “pidgin” language.

Language Functions

Language functions are those, which students are expected to be able to perform in the
language use contexts. They include:
 Giving and Getting Information
 Socializing and Celebrating
 Interpreting Discourse
 Researching
 Producing Discourse


Instructional Focus

Level 1 (K – Gr.1)

In the first level of second language development, students learn that the Aboriginal
language is being utilized. The teacher uses pre-talk, concrete and visual aids, gestures
and actions to help students understand what is being said. Students find language
learning much easier when the activities are action oriented, predictable, repetitious or
familiar and relevant to their interests.

Level 2 (Gr. 2 – 3)

Students at this level are surrounded with familiar and basic situations in terms of
language used and they continue to interact with phrases and memorized expressions.
The teacher continues to teach the cultural understandings and skills with active and


                                             Page 24
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


concrete learning activities. Students continue to learn the language they need to operate
in this context. They learn to respond to many more complex commands and concepts,
but their spoken language lags behind as they lay the foundations for understanding. They
use and rely on their listening skills.



Level 3 (Gr. 4 – 6)

At this level, the students begin to rely less on memorized expressions and one word
answers. They begin to produce sentences appropriate to particular situations. They move
into learning more directly from oral tradition.

Level 4 (Gr. 7 – 8)

At this level, the focus is on using the Aboriginal language as the medium of instruction
in learning cultural skills from members of the community. The students make many
errors as they push themselves to create more complex sentences. It is important in terms
of their confidence that the contact they have with the community at this time is
supportive and encouraging. The teacher uses language to provide constructive feedback
and error correction to ensure that the students continue to develop accuracy.

Level 5 (Gr. 9-10)

At this stage, the students are introduced to learning directly form the oral tradition and
the Elders of the community, in a less sheltered way. Language skills focus on strategies
for accessing and interpreting the oral tradition.

Level 6 (Gr. 11 – 12)

In this final stage of learning before leaving school, students are given opportunities to
explore language and culture as career choices. They continue in their study of cultural
content but integrate it into projects that they can undertake in cooperation with
individuals, businesses and institutions involved in the communication, research and
translation of language and culture.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Assessment and Evaluation

The following guiding principles of student evaluation appear on page 1 in Student
Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook (Saskatchewan Education, 1991).

   Evaluation should be an integral part of the teaching-learning process.
   Evaluation should be a planned, continuous activity.
   Evaluation should reflect the intending outcomes of the curriculum.
   Evaluation should assist teachers in meeting individual needs and providing
    appropriate programs for students.
   Evaluation should include not only measurement but also interpretation and
    judgement.
   Evaluation should be sensitive to sociodemographic differences such as culture,
    gender and geographic location.
   Evaluation should be based on a variety of indicators that may be norm-referenced,
    criterion-referenced or self-referenced.
   Evaluation should use assessment techniques for formative, diagnostic and
    summative purposes.
   Evaluation should provide information within the cognitive, affective and
    psychomotor domains.
   Evaluation should respect and safeguard confidentiality of student information.
   Evaluation should be fair and equitable, giving all students opportunities to
    demonstrate the extent of their knowledge, skill and abilities.
   Evaluation should provide positive, supportive feedback to students.
   Evaluation should foster students’ abilities to transfer knowledge into life
    experiences.
   Evaluation should encourage active participation and student self-appraisal to foster
    lifelong learning.
   Evaluation should provide opportunities for student development and improvement.
   Evaluation should include the communication of a teacher’s overall evaluation plan
    to students in advance. Student should be made aware of the objectives of the
    program and the procedures to be used in assessing performance relative to the
    objectives.
   Evaluation should be regularly communicated to parents/guardians and students in a
    meaningful manner.


These guidelines are meant to assist the teacher to identify areas of the program that need
change, to assess progress, to identify student needs and to help the teacher plan future
lessons. The teacher may choose alternate approaches to assessment.

Evaluation implies not only to the testing of the students but also an assessment of
the program.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Core curricula gives students the opportunity to make some decisions about the
curriculum and also gives them some of the responsibility for assessment.
Samples of assessment instruments, which are adapted for second language testing and
may be further adapted to suit individual circumstances, are in Appendix A. the
placement checklist is designed for first language testing but may be adapted for second
language testing.

The Student Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook (p.28) identifies ways a teacher may
organize the assessment process. Suggestions include the following:

   Assessment stations
   Individual assessments
   Group assessments
   Contracts
   Self and peer assessments
   Portfolios

Depending on the technique used, records may be kept using one or more of the
following:

   Anecdotal records
   Observations checklists
   Computer programs
   Rating scales
   Files for portfolios

Some activities may be observed and assessed on an ongoing basis:

   Class assignments
   Presentations
   Homework
   Class participation

Foundational Objectives
The foundational objectives reflect the aim and the goals of the curriculum guide. They
guide the teachers in their yearly plans and unit plans. Usually the foundational objectives
state intended levels of achievement/learning at a specific grade. However, in second
language teaching the situation may be that some students have varying degrees of
fluency or even varying degrees of exposure to the language. Therefore, the objectives
are divided into phases. The teacher should keep in mind, however, that a student may be
in the emerging phase in second language acquisition and be in the developing phase or
the extended phase in other areas of language learning.

Foundational objectives should serve as the basis for establishing intended learning
outcomes, unit planning and student evaluation.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



                                Foundational Objectives
Emerging Phase

Students will demonstrate emerging:

   Ability to listen politely according to cultural norms.
   Ability to use oral Denesuline language to being meaning to what they observe, feel
    and hear through questions and discussion.
   Awareness that the print and symbols of Aboriginal Languages convey meaning.
   Curiosity about the patterns, sounds and intonations of the Denesuline Language by
    listening, speaking and participating in shared reading and writing activities.
   Desire to participate in discussions of ideas and illustration in a variety of resources
    either in English or Denesuline language.
   Awareness of the contemporary and the historical or traditional lifestyles and cultural
    protocol of the Denesuline people.
   Ability to participate in small or large groups for various purposes.

Developing Phase

Students will demonstrate developing:

   Ability to use listening to understand the meaning of the Denesuline language.
   Ability to convey meaning orally and with confidence in the Denesuline language to
    adults. Elders and peers in various situations.
   Interest in interpreting symbols and print in their environment.
   Awareness of the relationship between the letters, symbols and sounds of the
    Denesuline language.
   Curiosity about and interest in print by participating in independent and shared
    reading and writing activities.
   Recognition that writing is a process focused upon conveying meaning to self and
    others.
   Desire to independently initiate reading and writing activities for various purposes.
   Interest and ability to read orally and silently for enjoyment and information.
   Ability to discuss a limited number of topics using the Denesuline language.
   Awareness of and respect for cultural protocol.
   Respect for one’s own culture and other cultures, lifestyles and experiences of others.
   Respect for the ideas, language, dialect and communication styles of others and the
    ability to respond sensitively and thoughtfully.
   Ability to participate in small or large groups for conversation and other purposes.




                                             Page 28
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Extended Phase

Students will demonstrate increasing:

   Ability to use oral Denesuline language to generate, clarify and extend their personal
    understanding of what they observe, feel, hear and read through interaction with
    others.
   Ability to convey meaning with confidence to adults and peers in various settings and
    situations.
   Ability to interpret symbols, sounds and intonation of words through reading and
    conversing.
   Ability to read for meaning by integrating all cueing systems.
   Interest and ability to express ideas, thoughts and feelings in writing for self and
    others.
   Ability to discuss a variety of topics.
   Respect for the ideas, language, dialect and communication styles of others.
   Confidence and ability to respond in culturally appropriate ways to various audiences
    and situations.
   Awareness of and respect for the range of cultures, human behaviours, experiences,
    emotions and ideas conveyed through oral communication.
   Ability to participate cooperatively in large and small groups.

Specialized Phase

Students will demonstrate increasing:

   Ability to use oral Denesuline language to generate, clarify and extend their
    understandings of what they observe, feel, hear and read through personal reflection
    and interaction with others.
   Interest and ability to use oral and written language in various settings, activities,
    purposes and to respond to the needs of an audience.
   Interest and ability to read and respond to what others have written and to collaborate
    with them in the stages of the writing process.
   Ability to monitor for meaning during oral and silent reading.
   Interest and ability to express increasingly more advanced ideas, thoughts and
    feelings for self and others through writing.
   Ability to discuss, in depth, more complex topics.
   Ability to interpret and respond to ideas conveyed through various media.
   Respect for the ideas, language, dialect and communication styles of others and
    awareness of the need for sensitive and thoughtful response.
   Maturity of thought in cultural protocol and responding appropriately to various
    audiences in different situations.
   Awareness of and respect for the range of cultures, human behaviours, experiences,
    emotions and ideas conveyed through speech, interaction, literature and various
    media.


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


   Ability to play a leadership role in a small group.


Learning Objectives

Learning objectives affect several aspects of a curriculum:

   The direction of the unit plans
   Lesson plans
   The mode of evaluation
   Teaching strategies
   Selection of resources

Learning objectives are determined by factors such as:

   Ages of students
   Level of fluency of each student in the class
   Whether the class is to be taught as the first and/or second language acquisition
    situation
   Language proficiency in the first language

This curriculum uses a spiral model for determining and organizing its learning
objectives. Using this developmental model, teachers introduce students to various
content, specific skills and important attitudes at an early stage. The content, skills and
attitudes are revisiting periodically throughout the year and in years to come in order to
review, strengthen and build on them, at levels that are appropriate for the age and
proficiency of the students. For example, kindergarten students might learn various basic
greetings. During that same year and in subsequent years, the students will review the
greetings they learned, learn additional ways to greet people, and learn protocol related to
certain situations. Learn about the cultural significance of certain greetings, demonstrate
an appropriate attitude and perhaps learn greetings that were used in the past. In this
expanded spiral fashion, what students learn at an early stage they encounter again and
again, each time within a border context or with increasing complexity.

Some general and some specific learning objectives are listed below. Although the
objectives are arranged under specific headings, the categories are not discrete. That is,
usually more than one skill is developed in any given activity. For example, when
students learn to speak, they also strengthen their abilities to listen and comprehend.

Listening and Comprehension

Students will have opportunities to:

   Compose their own responses – oral or written – to questions, statements and oral or
    written material.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


   Listen and observe attentively.
   Follow instructions.
   Utilize prior knowledge to express new ideas.
   Interpret meanings of gestures, tones, emotions and expressions.
   Master the intonation, rhythm, patterns and stress points of the language.
   Listen to oral presentations given in various situations and select specific information
    form them.
   Understand vocabulary used in different contexts.
   Identify the main idea of spoken or written material.

Speaking

Students will have opportunities to:

   Develop confidence in their verbal responses.
   Perfect their pronunciation, intonation, stress and volume to suit the situation.
   Use vocabulary at their level of instruction to express themselves.
   Express opinions on a variety of topics and with a variety of audiences.
   Express themselves in a formal cultural setting.
   Use vocabulary correctly and in appropriate contexts.
   Speak to different kinds of audiences in various situations.
   Participate, with greater insight, in increasingly complex discourse.

Reading

Students will have opportunities to:

   Read and recognize the written version of the oral vocabulary being learned.
   Extract meaning from written material using context and picture clues.
   Develop reading ability appropriate to their age and competency levels.
   Read about topics of interest.
   Read materials that contain increasingly complex vocabulary and structure.

Writing

Students will have opportunities to:

   Communicate through writing about their ideas, experiences and emotions.
   Express themselves through writing, using vocabulary learned in the oral and reading
    portion of the class.
   Learn the importance of proper sequencing of events in their own or other writing.
   Learn to be sensitive to the ways in which each community uses the language.
   Learn to use increasingly complex grammatical structures.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Cultural Considerations

Students will have opportunities to:

   Learn about the origin and significance of some of the vocabulary.
   Learn vocabulary related to making some crafts.
   Learn how to communicate with Elders in a respectful and appropriate manner.
   Listen to and recognize the vocabulary related to activities such as dances, feasts and
    winter festivals.
   Participate appropriately in traditional ceremonies (e.g. feasts, sweat lodge).
   Listen to and read stories that reflect various aspects of culture in the language being
    learned.
   Learn about historical and current experiences of the people of the languages group.
   Learn to appreciate and value the language and the culture it reflects.



Themes for Kindergarten to Grade Twelve
The following chart is a general guideline for teachers. It includes some of the topics
outlined in the scope and sequence document written by the Saskatchewan Indian
Cultural Centre for Saskatchewan Education, Training and Employment.

An asterisk beside each topic indicates the suggested level at which the concepts and
vocabulary of specific topics may be introduced. Because this curriculum is based on a
spiral model, it is assumed that the concepts and vocabulary will be reviewed and
expanded on in subsequent years.

The chart is intended to be a guide and teachers are encouraged to make adjustments to
suit the needs of their students and communities. Teachers may use the column on the
right to indicate any modifications they have made. For example, teachers might use
colored asterisks to show that the topics were moved to a more appropriate level. Using
the chart as a record may be useful form one year/semester to the next as teachers design
a language program for a particular schools or community.

This chart may also serve as a guide for placement of incoming students.

Suggested Yearly Overview

Although it is important for the teacher to have a general plan for the year, flexibility is
imperative in order to accommodate the changes that will occur as teachers and students
collaboratively determine the direction and content of each unit. Some factors to consider
when developing a yearly plan are: time allotted to the Denesuline language teaching,
students’ interests and abilities and the length of each unit.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The English Language Arts, A Curriculum Guide for the Elementary Level
(Saskatchewan Education, 1992, p.69) offers an example of a Case Study which shows
how a yearly plan can change as the year progresses.

A placement test administered at the beginning of the school year would assist the teacher
in determining a starting point in regards to content, approach and depth of the course. A
sample placement test is included in Appendix A.


Components of a Plan
Teachers may consider the following components when planning a unit.

Theme: the Scope and Sequence chart outlines suggested themes that may be developed
at different grade levels and at different levels of language acquisition.

Focus/Direction: the teacher along with students may establish a specific focus for the
unit. For example, the class may wish to develop vocabulary in preparation for a special
event (e.g. feast, guest speaker, and assembly performance).

Foundational Objectives: the foundational objectives for the unit are determined by the
phase the students have attained: emerging, developing, extending or specialized.

The teacher may select foundational objectives on the basis of the students’ age, grade
level and the extent of second language instruction received to date. For example, the
teacher may decide that a class of grade 5 students is in the emerging phase because they
have had no previous second language instruction.

Learning Objectives: these are specific skills, knowledge and attitudes that the teacher
would like the students to master.

Student Involvement: collaborative decisions made by teacher and students can give
direction to the course. The students’ interests and enthusiasm are critical factors, which
can determine the length of the unit and the number of lessons to be planned on a topic.

Students’ interests and abilities as well as availability of resources, print and non-print
will establish the direction and focus of the unit. Teacher-student approaches to planning
include:

   Brainstorming matters like favorite things or the direction of a unit.
   Categorizing or webbing extensions of a topic.
   Planning group activities and/or projects.
   Developing questions that can be asked in the Denesuline language.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Student Evaluation: the teacher along with the students any determine the evaluation
criteria and instruments.

   The instruments may include checklists, conferences, portfolios, student assessments
    or teacher prepared tests.
   The criteria should reflect the foundational and skills objectives and may range from
    fluency in speaking to working cooperatively in a group.
   The types of assessments may include evaluations done by the teacher, by peers or by
    the students assessing their own progress.
   Evaluation should include both formative and summative assessments.
   Refer to the Student Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook (Saskatchewan Education,
    1991) and to the Appendix A of this curriculum for additional material.

It is important that evaluation be an ongoing process, with the students getting frequent
feedback as to “how they are doing”. Again, there should be no surprises when it comes
to student evaluation.

Cultural Component: language is an important part of a culture. When learning a
second language, students should learn information about the cultural group’s past and
present as well as develop an appreciation for the values and beliefs of that culture.
Whenever possible, students should have the opportunity to experience traditional or
cultural events, discuss traditional and current values and beliefs, and be exposed to
relevant stories, artifacts, music and dance of the people. It is important that the students
learn a language within the context of a culture.

Teachers need to be sensitive to cultural values and accepted protocols. For example,
certain manners may be associated with some greetings, a feast may require specific
procedures or a community may have regional customs related to a variety of situations.
For guidance in these matters, community Elders should be consulted.

Resources: these may include print (e.g. videos, software, games, songs) resources, as
well as people (e.g. guests, teacher-librarian, experts) and events (e.g. pow-wow, setting
nets).

If the language is being taught in a community where it is spoken or where various
related traditional or cultural events occur, events and members of the community may
well become an important part of the instructional program.

C.E.L.s, gender equity, adaptive dimension: the teacher should be aware of the
requirements of these various department initiatives and incorporate them appropriately
and consistently.

Time Frame: the teacher should establish the approximate duration of the unit. Although
flexibility here is important, it is also essential that a variety of themes are dealt with and
that not too much time is spent on one topic.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Integration: teachers are encouraged to incorporate vocabulary and activities form
various subject areas. As well, other teachers on staff may be encouraged to use second
language vocabulary when teaching their subjects. Whenever possible, utilize community
and seasonal events.

Activities: these should be varied and interesting always promoting some aspect of
language acquisition or understanding. Activities should be designed to review, teach,
practice and extend knowledge and skills. As much as possible, these activities should be
designed to take advantage of natural contexts and reflect the communicative approach to
language instruction


Planning Checklist

   Have you reviewed curriculum expectations?
   Have you considered student needs, interests and abilities and incorporated students’
    input?
   Have you considered the relevance of this unit to:
     Students’ lives outside the school context?
     Students’ language and learning experiences in other subjects?
     Students’ language proficiency?
   Have you selected appropriate Denesuline language learning objectives?
   Have you identified the major language skills and main content or concepts students
    will attain?
   Can you provide rationale for this unit?
   Are there sufficient interesting, useful and varied resources available to accompany
    the unit?
   Is there an adequate supply of relevant literature?
   Have you checked the Indian and Metis Resource List for K-12, Saskatchewan
    Education, Training and Employment (1994) for interesting and relevant resources?
   If literature is not available, are there alternate plans to invite storytellers and/or other
    community resource people to come to the classroom?
   Have you considered using relevant computer programs?
    Have you included a variety of instructional strategies, language experiences and
    activities?
   Do unit plans incorporate the daily language routines advocated in this curriculum?
   Have you provided opportunities for students to use listening, speaking, reading and
    writing for various purposes?
   Have you included Elders, parents, caregivers and other community resource people?
   Does the unit plan allow for flexibility and adaptation?
   Have you provided opportunities for student input and collaborative decision making?
   Is your time frame realistic?
   Have you determined appropriate assessment and evaluation strategies?
   Have you considered incorporating the unit, or parts of it, with other subject areas?
   Have you considered possible unit extensions and applications?


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The Daily Routine:

Remember that some of the allotted time will be used for the daily routine of your class.
This may include practicing greetings, introducing new students or recording the date and
weather conditions. This will be the time to use the teacher-talk approach to review
previous information and to practice informal dialogue.

Specific Resources:

Teachers should consult the Indian Languages List of Resources, Saskatchewan
Education, Training and Employment (1994). The information contained in that
document and the annotated bibliography will assist in the selection of relevant resources.


Sample Plans

Emerging and Developing Phases

Two sample units included here illustrate how a teacher might proceed with the topic of
“food” at the emerging and developing phases. The units should not be regarded as being
prescriptive, but rather as providing suggestions for teachers who may be unsure as to
how to begin.

The teacher should keep in mind that every class is different. Some classes will not be
able to cope with all the content and activities suggested, some classes might require
more independent activities, while others may respond well to additional group activities
and field experiences.

Some classes may be unfamiliar with peer and self-assessment strategies or with being
involved in establishing evaluation instruments and criteria. These students will have to
be taught specific skills and as they develop competence, the teacher may ease into these
practices gradually.

Lessons
Lesson 1

Learning Objectives
Students will:
 Listen and observe attentively. (IL, PSVS)
 Follow instructions. (C, CCT)

Engaging Activity
 Begin the lesson by writing the word “food” in both languages.
 Display flashcards of various food items.
 Discuss with the students how the foods might be grouped.


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


   Write the categories and names of these foods in webs. Webs may be written in the
    first or second language or a combination of both.
   Brainstorm for other foods that can be included in the groups.
   The students may choose which group of foods they want to study.

The resulting sample web might resemble the following:



                                              Meat
                                            Caribou
                                            Moose
                                            Deer
                                            Fish
Wild Fruit                                                               Wild Meat
Raspberries                                                               Dried Fish
Blueberries                                                               Pemmican
Cranberries                                                               Dried Meat
                                                                          Duck
                                                                          Rabbit
Fruit
Apples                                                                    Vegetables
Oranges                                                                   Carrots
Bananas                                    FOOD                           Potatoes
Grapes                                                                    Onions


Drinks                                                                    Other
Tea                                                                       Salt
Pop                                                                       Pepper
Coffee                                                                    Lard
Juice                                                                     Butter
                                              Baked Goods                 Sugar
                                              Bannock                     Soup
                                              Bread
                                              Cookies
                                              Cake
                                              Pie

The web may be expanded to include other items such as cooking terms and prices of
food, according to the students’ choices. The teacher will proceed depending on the
progress and enthusiasm of the students. An occasional review of this web may be in
order.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




      Rating Scale for Student Self-Assessment in Cooperative Work Situations

Student name:

Date or Time Period of Assessment:

Directions:
Read each question. Circle the phrase that best describes how you feel about each
statement.

1. How do you feel about choosing the members of your group on a project?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.

2. How do you feel about having your teacher choose the members of your groups on a
   project?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.

3. How do you feel about deciding in your group how you are going to work together to
   do a project?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.

4. How do you feel about taking a leadership role in your group when you are deciding
   how to do a project?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.

5. How do you feel about someone else taking a leadership role in your group when you
   are deciding how to do a project?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.

6. How do you feel about working together to finish a project in class?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.

7. How do you feel about being a part of a group that works together to complete a
   project for your school work?

    I really like it.                    It’s okay.                      I don’t like it.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The above rating scale may be adapted for ILSL classes.

From Student Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook. Saskatchewan Education. (1991)
   Observation Checklist for the Assessment and Evaluation of Affective Aspects

     Evaluation Criteria                  In Evidence                    Not in Evidence
A. Task Attitude
  Shows enthusiasm
  Cooperates with others
  works hard at improving
  can work with others on a
   team
 shows consideration for
   the safety and well-being
   of others
B. Motivation
 Can work by him/herself
 Is able to
   predict/understand the
   tasks to be done and
   completes them without
   being told
C. Reliability
 Can be trusted
 Is able to follow oral and
   written directions
 Is on time with tasks
 Attends class regularly
 Meets responsibilities
D. Flexibility
 Is able to learn new
   methods of doing things
   easily
 Can adapt to new
   assignments easily
 Follows detailed
   directions well


The above checklist may be adapted to be used by the teacher or the students (for peer or
self-evaluations).

From Student Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook. Saskatchewan Education. (1991)




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Rating Scale for Cooperative Group Learning
Student Name:

Date or Time Period of Assessment:

                                                          Never    Seldom    Often   Always

1. The student works with a wide range of peers,            1            2      3      4
   not just with close friends.

2. The student willingly shares materials and ideas         1            2      3      4
   with others.

3. The student shows respect for others by listening        1            2      3      4
   and considering other points of view with group
   work.
4.    The student follows group work rules as               1            2      3      4
     established for the activity.

5. The student fulfils his/her work                         1            2     3       4
   responsibilities in the group.

6. The student exhibits appropriate work                    1            2      3      4
   behaviours during time set aside for group work.

7. The student participates in discussions during the       1            2      3      4
   time sets aside for group work.

8. The student contributes ideas to the group efforts       1            2      3      4
   during the discussions in the time set aside for
   group work.




The above sample rating scale may be adapted to be used by teacher or students (for
group or self-evaluation).

From Student Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook (p.85), 1991, Saskatchewan Education.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Rating Scale for Oral Proficiency

Students Name:

Date or Time Period of Assessment:

Scale:                                                   Comments

3 = Words are clear.

    Voice is well modulated.

    Speech is well paced.

    Pause and/or stress is
    appropriate.

    Voice is loud enough to be
    heard easily.

    Vocabulary used is appropriate.

2 = Some words are not clear.

    Voice has some modulation.

    Rate of speech is at times too
    quick for the listener to catch
    the full meaning.

    Voice dropping in volume
    At times makes it difficult to get
    the full import of the presentation.

1 = Many words are not clearly
    spoken.

    Rate of speech is either too fast
    or too slow.

    Pauses or emphases for effect
    are not in evidence.

    Voice is too soft, making it
    difficult to hear.



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


    The previous rating scale may be used as a model. The teacher in consultation with
    the students may develop a similar or more appropriate one. The rating scale may be
    used by the teacher or by the students (for peer or self-evaluation).

    Adapted from Student Evaluation: A Teacher Handbook, December 1991,
    Saskatchewan Education.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Progress Report for Language Classes

Student:                          Grade:                                 Date:

School:                                          Teacher:

1.   Emerging Phase               U = Usually                    (1) Very Good
2.   Developing Phase             O = Occasionally               (2) Satisfactory
3.   Extending Phase              S = Seldom                     (3) Is Improving
4.   Specialized Phase                                           (4) Needs Improvement
                                                                 N/A Not Applicable

Social and Personal Growth:                                      Comments

Accepts responsibility.

Pays attention in class.

Demonstrates independence.

Follows directions.

Completes assignments.

Demonstrates ability to self-correct.

Displays a positive attitude.


Cultural Awareness:                                              Comments

Is becoming aware of cultural
significance of vocabulary.

Is beginning to learn how to
approach Elders in a respectful
manner.

Is beginning to listen and
recognize vocabulary related
to cultural activities.

Is beginning to appreciate and
understand the importance of
one’s culture.

Is beginning to use vocabulary
in different contexts.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Academic Achievement:                                                      Comments
Listening:

Understands oral communication.

Follows directions.

Listens for enjoyment.

Speaking:

Participates in conversations.

Pronounces correctly.

Uses accurate sentence patterns.

Retains more vocabulary.

Writing:

Copies diacritics correctly.

Uses accurate sentence patterns.

Spells appropriately.

Reading:

Understands what is being read.

Recognizes vocabulary.

Applies word attack skills.

Reads fluently.


Adapted from English as a second Language: An Introductory Handbook for Teachers Kindergarten to
Grade 8 (Draft 1993), Saskatchewan Education.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Assessment Instruments/Procedures

 Portfolio:
This is a collection of student’s work which may be used for teacher evaluations, by
students to self-evaluate their progress, or to show to parents as examples of the student’s
work. The student and/or teacher decide on what to include and whether there will be a
limit to the amount of material to be kept in the portfolio. The portfolio might be a large
envelope or a file folder stapled to make a container. Each item included should be dated
and may include a comment or mark achieved. These collections are a convenient tool to
report student progress to parents/guardians or caregivers.

 Assessment station:
This is a designated area where students may perform tasks for evaluation purposes.
Students are evaluated in groups or individually. For the language classes this may be a
listening centre where students practice speaking into a tape recorder or listen to tapes
and practice specific vocabulary. This assessment can be administered during classroom
time. Another example of an assessment station for languages would be the use of
computer games and drills for vocabulary enhancement and grammar study. Whether the
assessment station is in or outside the classroom, clear instructions outlining where to go,
how much time to be spent at each station or for each task, should be established. Assign
work for students to do upon their return to the classroom. The instructions may be
written on the chalkboard and/or a card or paper. Prepare a timetable indicating ten or
fifteen minute interval. Students may choose the time they want to go for their
assessment. Use rating scales or checklists indicating specific points that are being
assessed.

 Group Assessments:
Learning and using language involves social activities. An observation checklist rating
scale or anecdotal record may be used to describe how well students function in group
situations. The comments made, items checked or marked assigned may be done by the
teacher or the students, assessing themselves or their peers in their groups. Participation,
willingness to work cooperatively, willingness to respect the views of others are some of
the areas that may be assessed.

 Checklists:
These help to check that each student is listening, participating and speaking during the
day to day lessons. Checklists may be planned in cooperation with the students and
completed by the teacher or by the students. The items to be checked will generally
reflect the objectives of a lesson are: to pronounce certain words correctly, to use them in
sentences while conversing with a partner and for partners to help each other, then those
items would form at least part of the checklist. The items may be checked by the teacher
or by the students.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


 Rating Scales
These may be used to rate students’ progress. The criteria as well as the marks assigned
may be determined in consultation with the students and should reflect the objectives of a
lesson, project or unit. For example, if the objectives include working cooperatively in a
group situation, listing 6 open-ended questions for an interview and be completing the
assignment on time, then those are the items to be rated. The teacher and/or students may
determine the scale (1-5, marks out of 10, etc.) to be used.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Appendix B:
Sample Letters to Parents/Guardians and Caregivers

The following is a sample letter to parent/guardians and caregivers that might be sent at the
beginning of the year to explain the evaluation strategies to be used. Please adapt the letter to
suit your situation.


Date


Dear Parent/Guardian or Caregiver:

This letter is to inform you about (name of class). Your son’s/daughter’s performance and
progress in the class will be assessed on an ongoing basis using different methods. This
letter includes information on how your child’s mark/grade in (name of class) will be
given. As you read on, you might think of some questions to ask your child or me to
explain that would help you to understand how a student’s progress is determined.

Our curriculum recognizes and puts emphasis on various components of the learning
process. Firstly, there is a certain amount of content/knowledge that students need to
grasp. To be successful with the content, students need to develop certain skills. Specific
processes and opportunities are necessary to develop use of those skills. Lastly, the
attitudes that are necessary and essential to encourage the development of young people
who can work with others in a positive and constructive way are emphasized. These are
considerations when students are assessed for skills in listening and comprehension,
speaking, reading and writing.

Rating scales or checklists will be used during class to record students’ progress while
working in groups or while working alone. They will also be used during the fluency
testing. The cassette tape will be used during “choice time” and during the fluency test.
The information plus work samples will be kept in a file folder for each student.

Your son/daughter can explain to you in more detail how he/she will be evaluated
because the class as a whole discussed and determined the schedule and criteria of some
of the testing.

If you have questions, you may contact me at (phone number).

I am looking forward to communicating with you about your son’s/daughter’s progress in
(name of class).


Sincerely,
(teacher’s name)



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The following is a sample letter to parents explaining a special project at school and requesting
specific items needed. Please adapt it to suit your situation.


Dear Parents/Guardians or Caregivers,

On                     , we will be making “          “ (soup) in our
language class. If you are able, kindly send with your child one of the following “             “
(vegetables). We’ll be cutting them at school as part of our project.



One potato

One carrot

One tomato

One onion

Celery




Thank you very much, (Marsi Chogh)




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The following is a sample letter to parents requesting various items that will be used during the
course of the year. Please adapt it to suit your situation.


Dear Parents/Guardians or Caregivers,

Throughout the year our class will need a variety of items. If it is convenient for you, we
would appreciate you saving some of the following items and sending them to school
with your child.

   Magazines, catalogues (especially those with a lot of pictures)
   Puppets
   Writing supplies - envelopes, paper, wallpaper, note cards (new or used)
   Paper – a variety of sizes, colour and textures (including computer paper)
   Fabric, yarn, felt and large needles for sewing
   Dress-up clothes, clothes pegs
   Games and puzzles
   Pictures, large or small, especially of people involved in various everyday activities,
    also of animals, plants, fish, weather, foods, buildings and furniture
   Local field trip suggestions (perhaps where you have a personal connection or
    interest).

Thank you kindly.

Sincerely,




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


The following is a sample letter to parents requesting volunteers to assist in and out of the
school. Please adapt it to suit your situation.


Dear Parents/Guardians or Caregivers,

We plan to have a variety of activities in our         Language class during the school
year. In order to carry these out, we will need help from adult volunteers from time to
time. If adults in your home are willing to help, please indicate their names and what they
might be prepared to do.

Assistance in class:
       Work with small groups of children.
       Help with speaking, reading or writing       (language).
       Help with special projects (e.g., cooking, making puppets, field trips).
       Take pictures of help with videotaping class events and activities.
       Share a hobby or tell about your job.
       Other (please include your suggestions):

Assistance from home:
       Act as a volunteer contact person. We would like one or two adults who would be
       willing to work with the teacher to telephone volunteer when they are needed.
       Bake or cook for class celebrations.
       Use your computer to create books of stories the children have written. We will
       photocopy them for each child.
       Mend torn dress-up clothes.
       Make a puppet theatre.
       Other (please include your suggestions):

Name(s):


Days of the week most likely available:


Thank you in advance for volunteering your time and talents. With your help, our class
will have a great year!

Sincerely,




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Appendix C:
A Sample of ‘Teacher Talk’

The following is a sample of ‘teacher talk’ which is one of the many suggested strategies
for teaching a second language. Although it is written in English, the conversation would,
of course, occur in the language being taught.


Teacher Talk

By Jean L. Bellegarde and Terry J. Klokeid

Teacher talk occurs when the instructor, who is a fluent speaker of the target language,
uses a simplified version of the language to converse with the students. It is structured to
elicit short answers from the students and can be structured to move into new and longer
sentences. The instructor must plan carefully because although a simplified language is
being used it must be authentic. The objectives must be clear so that only specific
information is given to the students to master. The instructor will probably use this
technique after the students have acquired some vocabulary. The strategy is also useful
for introducing new vocabulary. In the process of using teacher talk the instructor will
use exaggerated actions so that the students can grasp what is being said without
necessary understanding every word that is being said.

As an example, consider the following session where the teacher has already introduced
the terms for weather conditions and verbs such as: to be tired; to read; to sleep; to jog; to
work and to go outdoors. The students have also had a class where a dialogue including
questions about past and present weather conditions.

It is raining, cold and there are strong winds on this particular day. The objective is to
reinforce this knowledge and to give the students a chance to use the language to talk
about present and past weather conditions. The following dialogue with the students
would take place.

The people involved are: T = Teacher; Bill, Cam, Sam, Quinn, Lori, Kelly = students.

T               Hello Bill! How are you?
Bill            I am fine today.
T               What is the weather like today?
Bill            (Bill has a puzzled look on his face. So the teacher turns to Lori.)
T               Lori, what is the weather like today?
                (Here the teacher looks towards the window using exaggerated motions in
                an attempt to give a hint as to what she is talking about.)
Lori            What?
T               What is the weather like today?
Lori            It is a nice day? (weather)



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


T               Ahh, Sam, is it a nice day? (weather)
Sam             No.
T               Well, what is the weather like?
Sam             It is raining today.
T               Yes it is raining today.
                (Here the teacher could nod yes and make motions with her hands to
                imitate rainfall.)
T               Quinn, is it just raining?
                (Again the teacher looks toward the window.)
Quinn           No, it is windy also.
T               yes, it is windy and it is raining.
T               (at this point, the teacher is giving everyone the chance to volunteer the
                answer. Several hands are raised.)
                Is it just windy and raining?
T               The teacher with a questioning look just nods directly at Cam who has not
                yet been addressed.
Cam             It is raining and windy and it is also cold.
T               (Still keeping eye contact with Cam) And last night, did it rain?
Cam             I did not go outside last night.
                (Cam has changed the direction of the conversation and the teacher will
                have to decide whether to guide him back to the original topic or to pursue
                this new direction. The topic has changed.)
T               Ahh, you did not go outside last night. Sam, did you go outside last night?
Sam             Yes.
T               Did it rain last night?
Sam             No, it was moonlight.
T               (The teacher should gesture indicating that she agrees wit Sam at the same
                time she would look at the rest of the class. Sam has introduced yet
                another topic.)
                Ahh, it was moonlight.
T               What did you do last night?
Sam             (Sam has that quizzical look so the teacher turns to another student with
                the same question.)
T               Kelly, what did you do last night?
Kelly           I did not go outside either. I sleep.
T               Ahh, you slept. Were you tired?
Kelly           Yes, I was tired
                (Sam has now understood the question and is raising his hand to answer
                the question.)
T               Okay, Sam, What did you do last night?
Sam             I jogged.
T               Ahh, you went jogging.

This conversation may continue for as long as the students are interested. However
teacher talk should not be used until the teacher is assured that all or most students are at
the same level of speaking and comprehension. There is the danger of confusing those



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


students who are not ready to review specific verbs. There will probably be questions
about certain aspects of the vocabulary. In that case, the teacher should use his/her own
judgement as to how much explanation is required at this particular time. Or he/she can
take note of students’ concerns and create a lesson plan to address their interests and
concerns or give additional examples to explain concepts.

The words that are in capital letters and bold letters indicate the proper tense that the
student should have used or words that are needed to represent an authentic Dene
sentence. The teacher can emphasize their pronunciation to bring them to the students’
attention.



From linguistics 327 notes by Jean L. Bellegarde and Terry J. Klokeid with permission of the authors.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



Voices of the Elders
The wisdom of the Elders is central to cultural learning according to the Denesuline
perspective. Elders are the “keepers of knowledge” and it is their guidance that
Denesuline people seek as they strive for balance in their relationships with the Creator,
the natural work, other people and themselves.

It is to the Elders and the Denesuline Curriculum Development Committee and the
Western Canadian Protocol Working Group turned for guidance on issues of language
and cultural learning. The following Elders’ comments are excerpted from the many oral
and written sources that informed the development of the Framework and the
development of the Denesuline Curriculum.

Note: Denesuline Elders perspective will be referred to in the near future.


“We use the circle as the means of teaching. It is not a straight line type of teaching that we
use. With us, everything is connected and interconnected.”

Parent Council member Joe Duquette High School, Saskatoon (Haig-Brown et al., 1997, p.96)


“ The time the White man first came to this country, he saw there was a lot of land…It was
a beautiful land, a land that was here in order for us to make our living from it. This land
provided us with things, gave us a good life and we were able to survive by all the resources
available to us….The Creator had placed them on the land for our use and though they
were taken, continues to protect us…which is why we were never completely destroyed and
why we are still okay today. If the White man had a better understanding of what the land
meant to us, he would have thought differently about us.”

J.B. Tootoosis, Deceased, pound-maker First Nation (Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre,
http://www.sicc.sk.ca/cgi-bin/sicc/epage.pl?)


“Respect for nature came by watching. If my dad killed a beaver or a goose or anything, it
was never put on the ground, and everything was kept clean. They didn’t throw the insides
to the dogs, they had a dig-out and that’s where they would bury it. They didn’t just throw
it in the garbage… the pouch in the throat of the moose, they took it and they hung it in a
tree. There was respect for the dead moose. And you kept the water clean: you didn’t dump
things in the water.”

Nellie Munro, Norway House ( Frontier School Division No. 48, 1995, p.49)

“ The place we lived was nick-named “moccasin Flats”. That’s where the Metis lived and it
was the way the Metis always lived. They called us “Road Allowance Indians”. We lived on
the outskirts of the reserve or on the outskirts of the dominant white society. The term was
derogatory to people who used it that way, but to us it wasn’t; it was where we chose to
live.”




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Edward Head, Metis, Cold Lake, Manitoba (Frontier School Division, 1995, p.4)

“Some of our family are living in urban areas. That’s no excuse. Families can still keep in
touch and they need to… The responsibility for anyone with any problem lies with the
family ‘cause that is the way our people were historically, ‘cause that’s where the basic help
was all the time, whatever you dealt with. If a problem went beyond the control of the
family, then it expanded to the larger family, you know, discussions of that. Failing that,
then there were advisory groups responsible to the chief who those problems could be
placed under and dealt with.”

Roy Haiyupis, Ahousat (Nuu-chah-nulth, 1995, p.172)

“ We must redefine and redevelop our profile of what our child is: HE is not something to
develop the economy. He is a spirit.”

Wes Fineday, Regina Sk


“I had no schooling. When I was a kid, I used to watch people steadily. I would go to my
Grandmother and she told me what rules to follow.”

Vernon Makokis, Saddle Lake, AB

“ We never forced anybody because we are not supposed to do that. We just share and if
that person wants to learn more, then that person just keeps coming back to the Elders to
find out the importance of Spiritual identity. We have to try to be good all the time.”

Walter Linklater, Thunderchild First Nation (Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre,
http://www.sicc.sk.ca/cgi-bin/sicc/epage.pl?161)


“ In our system of education, knowledge is earned. One learns to listen, like a human being
who has the gift to hear what is said. We don’t put knowledge in a person’s head or hand.
We give directions, not answers. We don’t trap people into thinking answers are given from
the outside. Answers come from the inside.”

Wes Fineday, Regina SK

“Here are some things for young to use: Do what an Elder tells you and at the same time
develop your own understanding and follow that.”

Maggie Okanee, Born 1876, Deceased, Cree Turtle Lake First Nations (Saskatchewan Indian
Cultural Centre, http://www.sicc.sk.ca/cgi-bin/sicc/epage.pl?93)

“The people had carefully organized themselves according to their knowledge, wisdom and
abilities…The men had many abilities; some were canoe builders, carpenters and weather
predictors. Often each man possessed several abilities, which old people call “gifts”.”

Andrew Evans, Norway House, MB (Apetagon, Vol.II, 1992, p.8)




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


From the perspective of the Aboriginal people, the post-contact period is characterized as
a time of great dislocation. Colonizing forces disrupted their fundamental relationships
and their way of being in the world. However, time and experience have shown that
Aboriginal people are survivors. Despite the intensity of the assimilative forces, their
worldview continues to provide meaning, direction and a sense of integrity to those who
were given or who made the choice to listen.


“ My grandmother was a boarding school product and on my mother’s side, my father went
to the same boarding school that her mother went to. Like it seems that we have lost about
three generations of teaching but it was easy for us to go back to our teachings.”

Maria Linklater, Cree, Thunderchild First Nation (Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre,
www.sicc.sk.ca/dgi-bin/epage.pl?162)

“ Our culture is very important to us. I believe that if we lose our language, our dances, our
music, our tales handed down from generation to generation by our Elders, we lose what
our country means to us. We must keep our language, our culture and our land so that,
even Canada, we can still feel that we have our own country.”

Mary John (in Moran, 1988, p.159)

“ In labeling children as “gifted” or “not gifted”, rather than calling attention to their
specific abilities, we begin thinking that children are naturally clustered into well-defined
groups, “gifted” and “non-gifted”.”

Cultural teachers in First Nations communities place a great deal of emphasis on
spirituality—not to be confused with forms of organized religion! These teachers stress that
each individual human has been designed by the Creator and each of us has a specific
purpose to fulfill on earth.”

John W. Friesen (1997, pp.27-28)

Aboriginal educators and Elders have envisioned as education for their concern that
strengthens and inspires by focusing on traditional wisdom. They have envisioned an
education where the young people of today are helping in creating a peaceful balance
within themselves using Aboriginal “laws” as a guide. The “laws” which govern life, are
not laws in the literal and mechanistic sense. They are perspectives that can help young
people while establishing or strengthening their personal identities. They are perspectives
that enable Aboriginal people to live with integrity, regardless of the environment or
circumstances in which they find themselves.

Most importantly for Aboriginal educators, these perspectives are supported with an
abundance of time-tested learning resources in the form of oral traditions. Though the
stories from the oral tradition have been used in formal classrooms in the past, they are
only recognized as valuable and integral learning resources when the perspectives that
they communicate are understood and recognized as legitimate.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Here, in their words, are Aboriginal voices that speak clearly and persuasively about the
need for and the right to culture and language programs based on Aboriginal
perspectives.


“We came from a system of laws and relationships. The laws were the parameters of
acceptable behaviour within each relationship. Our lifestyles have changed a lot but the
necessity to survive with integrity is still in me. We must evaluate our discussion in a way
that we can identify the principles.”

Wes Fineday, Regina, SK

“ We need the Elders to provide us with the guiding principles and to interpret for us how
the traditional principle are to be translated in the contemporary urban context.”

George Calliou, Cree Sucker Creek, AB (1997, p. 224)

“ Business cannot be separated from the environment. The environment cannot be
separated from the government. Government cannot be separated from social and economic
issues. People cannot be separated from all of the above. Perhaps it is time to recognize this
and make efforts to reinstate a whole-life perspective in education.”

Patrick Kelly, Sto:lo Nation (Jenson and Brooks, Eds., 1991, p.145)

“Language…is not just a neutral instrument (for communication). Rather it shapes our
very conceptualization of phenomena, such that some phenomena are not translatable into
another language and some language shave no words for certain phenomena found in other
cultures. We Aboriginal people are forced to speak the foreign language of the English to
convey a lot of our spirituality, our thought, our essence. Unfortunately, it is not adequate to
the task. So, if the people want to understand us and the things in which we take pride, they
should learn our respective languages. I am proud of my Cree language and heritage.”

George Calliou, Cree, Sucker Creek, AB (1997, pp.223-224)

“Our kids are losing their identity. They don’t know their history. My grandparents taught
me the dangers, what to respect, etc. they told me to never forget where I came from. When
our kids come out of school, who are they? Who do they belong to?”

Roddy Blackjack, Little Salmon/Carmacks, YT

“We know that the world will be a much different place when our children become adults
and take responsibility for our community. We must now decide what we want our children
to know and what traditions to carry from our ancestors.”

Peigan Education Committee, 1985 (Assembly of First Nations, 1990,. p.13)

“Indian parents have the right to directly influence the education of their children. This
right, which was guaranteed through treaties, should never become a privilege.”

Alexis First Nation (Assembly of First Nations, 1990, p.12)



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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




“ We have a litany of what we have viewed as the one item that will save our languages.
This one item is quickly replaced by another. For instance, some of use said, “Lets get our
languages into written form” and we did and still our Native American languages kept on
dying. Then we said, “let’s develop culturally relevant materials” and we did and still our
languages kept on dying. Then we said, “lets use language masters to teach our languages”
and we did and still our languages kept on dying. Let’s put our language speakers on CD-
RO-ROM. Finally someone will say let’s flash freeze our remaining speakers.”

Richard E. Littlebear (Cantoni, Ed., 1996, p. xii)

“ In 1960 we started out by organizing ourselves to bring back our dances and songs. The
young people are so willing to learn our ways. But I can’t be out too much anymore. We are
tired.”

Mary John, 1997, Prince George, BC

“Some of those who are intent on learning the language feel frustrated at the lack of
opportunity to use it and find that they are not able to progress past a certain point without
the chance for more language immersion experiences.”

Jan Hill, Mowhawk (Freeman, et al., 1995, p. 63)

“To reverse this influence of English, families must retrieve their rightful position as the
first teacher of our languages. They must talk our language everyday, everywhere, with
everyone, anywhere. But if they are going to relinquish this teaching responsibility to the
schools, then they must be supportive.”

Richard E. Littlebear (Cantoni, Ed., 1996, p. xiv)

“ The Aboriginal community must be the central decision-maker in any initiative on
Aboriginal language maintenance…(and also) the support of the majority culture and the
particularly policy makers, is essential in making Aboriginal language policies work.”

Barbara Burnaby (1996, p. 33)

“Over and over, people who have come to our communities to get information, go away and
write up and interpret and when we see it, we don’t recognize it. Which person? Which
family? Which village was involved in developing the materials? We prefer our own way of
learning.”

Mary John, Prince George, BC

Summary
The quotations in this section are intended to illustrate the vast wisdom of Aboriginal
Elders as “keepers of knowledge” and as educators within a traditional system of
learning. The Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) acknowledges the necessity of guidance
from the Elders if this document is truly to reflect Aboriginal perspective. However, this
section of the document is only the beginning. Each community wishing to establish a
culture and language program must turn to its own Elders for guidance. It is only with


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


Elder support that Aboriginal language and culture programs can succeed in achieving
the goal of language revitalization.

Laws of Relationship
Our Relationship with the Natural World

People are not greater than the things in nature. The natural world has its own laws,
which must be respected if people are going to be sustained by it.

People are identified by the land they have historically inhabited and on which they have
learned to survive.

Even today, it is necessary to live with the laws of nature and to feel a part of it.

Our Relationship with One Another

Agreement on rules enables cooperation and group strength, which is greater than
individual strength.

Identity comes from being in respectful relationships with others, particularly in the
family/clan community and nation.

Our Relationship with Ourselves

Each person is born sacred and complete.

The Creator has given each person the gift of their body and the choice to care for and
use their bodies with respect.

The Creator has given each person the capacity and choice to learn.

The Creator has given each person talents and strengths to be discovered and the choice
to develop and share the gifts.

Colonization and Reconstruction

In the early contact period, the relationship between the European and Aboriginal
populations was one of mutual respect.

The forces of contact created much dislocation in the lives of the Aboriginal people.

The Indian Act of 1876 ands the subsequent amendments had the effect of destroying
Aboriginal values and identity.

Despite the many negative effects of colonization, the perspectives and values of the
Aboriginal people were maintained.


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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




Aboriginal people work to maintain their identity as nations within Canada.

The mainstream culture has begun to explore, appreciate and apply Aboriginal
perspectives for their inherent value.

In recent times, the Aboriginal nations and people have worked toward decolonization
and partnership with mainstream society.

Aboriginal Education
Perspectives-Based Culture and Language Education

The Aboriginal perspective is as useful as it was in the past in helping people live with
integrity, especially as people relocate into urban areas or away from kin.

The Aboriginal perspective will guide young people into making choices, which will
prepare them for their future as capable adults.

The Aboriginal perspective helps in understanding the value or purpose of things, or in
making personal decisions.

The Aboriginal perspective helps people to be empowered.

Language and culture are inseparable. Both are necessary to instill identity in its fullest
sense.

Aboriginal Rights

There is a need and an inherent right to maintain the Aboriginal languages of our
culture.

Young people represent the future of our culture.

The Aboriginal children will benefit from being taught the language and culture of their
people.

Local Control

Past efforts have not been sufficient in stabilizing or revitalizing the Aboriginal
languages and cultures.
Communities and schools must work together to strengthen the languages and cultures of
the Aboriginal nations.

Local communities must be the ones to create and control language and culture
programs to suit their particular needs.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




Denesuline10A                            100 hours = 1 credit                        Instructional Approaches:             Common Essential Learnings:

Months: August to January                Time allocation:                            Direct Instruction                    C – Communication
                                                                                     Indirect Instruction                  N – Numeracy
Themes: Fall, Freeze-up and              Fall – 40 hours                             Independent Study                     PSSV – Personal Social Skills and Values
         Winter                          Freeze-up – 30 hours                        Experiential Learning                 TL – Technological Literacy
                                         Winter – 30 hours                           Interactive Instruction               IL – Independent Learning
                                                                                                                           CCT – Critical and Creative Learning



                                                                                  Theme: Fall
Concepts/Topics         Length           Objectives                                             Instructional Approaches   Resources           Evaluation        CEL’s
Rationale and           3 hours          Students will discuss the objectives of the            Brainstorm                 Video: Hawaiian     Written           C, IL, CCT,
Introduction                             Denesuline Language and Culture Program.                                          Immersion           assignment        PSSV
                                                                                                Structured Overview        (SICC),
                                                                                                                           Denesuline
                                                                                                                           Language
                                                                                                                           Festival (LLIRB
                                                                                                                           Libraries)
    Daily Routine       20 minutes per   Students will review daily routine: greetings,         Direct Instruction         Calendar            On-going          C
                        day - Daily      commands/verbs - 2 words per lesson increase                                      Word List/Bank      anecdotal
                        routine          accordingly, calendar, seasons, weather, sound         Drill & Practice           Posters: Seasons,   notes
                                         chart.                                                                            weather
                                                                                                Communicative Approach                         Oral and
                                                                                                                                               written quizzes

Dialects                10 hours         Students will learn about the 3 dialects and the       Direct Instruction         Standard Roman      Oral and          C, IL,
Sound System                             local sound system.                                                               Orthography         written quizzes
                                                                                                Independent Study          Chart
                                         Students will learn the Standard Roman
                                         Orthography.

Elders Protocol         3 hours          Students will learn proper protocol upon invitation    Discussion                 Resource People     Student           C, PSSV, CCT
                                         to an Elder/Resource person.                                                                          Feedback
                                                                                                Role Play
                                                                                                                                               On-going
                                                                                                                                               anecdotal
                                                                                                                                               notes
Storage and             2 hours          Students will learn the kinds of natural material      Direct Instruction         Collect natural     Assignments       C, PSSV, CCT,
Preservation of                          available for harvesting and learn the proper                                     material listed                       IL
Natural Material                         storage and preservation methods.                      Independent Study

                                         Example: spruce roots, birch bark, red willows,        Experiential Learning




                                                                                       Page 61
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                   moss, pine cones, lichen, etc.




                                                                         Page 62
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                                                                  Theme: Fall
Concepts/Topics         Length           Objectives                                              Instructional Approaches       Resources           Evaluation        CEL’s
Traditional             7 hours          Students will learn the kinds of medicinal plants       Experiential Learning:         Local Resource      Research          C, PSSV, TL, IL,
Herbs/Medicine Unit                      for harvesting and learn the proper storage and         Field trip and observations    Person/teacher to   Assignment on     CCT
                                         preservation methods.                                                                  teach the uses of   traditional
                                                                                                 Interactive Instruction:       traditional         plants
                                         Students will learn the inclusion of scientific         Circle of knowledge            medicinal plants.   Example:
                                         knowledge of aboriginal peoples.                                                                           booklet,
                                                                                                                                                    poster, and/or
                                         Example: rat root, mint, spruce gum, labrador tea,                                                         flashcards.
                                         rose hips, tree sap,

Traditional Craft       10 to 12 hours   Students will learn how to make traditional crafts      Students will be given a       Local Resource      Participation     C, PSSV, IL,
Unit                                     and clothing: mittens, moccasins, moss bag, fur         choice to create a project     Person/teacher to                     CCT
Other sample Units:                      hats, shields (wall hanging) and vest.                  from previous units of study   teach how to        Completed
willow basket making,                                                                                                           make traditional    project: i.e.
tamarack goose decoy                                                                             Direct Instruction:            crafts and          mittens,
unit, duck unit and                                                                              Structured Overview,           clothing.           moccasins,
moose unit.                                                                                      Explicit Teaching,                                 moss bag, fur
                                                                                                 Demonstration                   Resource Books:    hats, shields
                                                                                                                                How make            (wall hanging)
                                                                                                 Independent Study:             mittens, mukluks    and vest.
                                                                                                 Learning activity package      and tamarack
                                                                                                                                goose decoys
                                                                                                 Interactive Instruction:       (Lac La Ronge
                                                                                                 Cooperative Learning Groups    Indian Band
                                                                                                                                Curriculum
                                                                                                                                Resource Unit)
Review and              2 hours          Teachers will review and organize the assessment            Evaluation should imply   Student             Oral and
assessment                               process according to the instructional approaches            not only the testing of   Evaluation: A       written quizzes
                                         used and objective requirements.                             the students but also     Teacher
                                                                                                      assessment of the         Handbook (Sask.
                                                                                                      language/culture          Ed)
                                                                                                      program.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                                                            Theme: Freeze-up
Concepts/Topics      Length            Objectives                                               Instructional Approaches   Resources           Evaluation         CEL’s
Daily Routine and    10 minutes per    Students will review daily routine: greetings,           Direct Instruction:        Calendar            On-going            C, PSSV, CCT,
Journal Writing      day – Daily       commands/verbs - 2 words per lesson increase             Drill & Practice           Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes     N
                     routine           accordingly, calendar, seasons, weather, sound                                      Posters: Seasons,
                                       chart.                                                   Interactive Instruction:   weather             Oral and written
                     15 minutes per                                                             Cooperative Learning                           quizzes
                     day - Journal     Students will write in their journals topics of their
                     writing           choice starting with teacher initiated sentences.
                                       Example: I ate eggs this morning.
                                       Duhu k’abi egheze begha shesti.

  Local Tree Unit    5 hours           Students will learn the names of local tree and          Direct Instruction:        Posters             Oral and written    C, TL, IL,
                                       parts of the trees.                                      Structured overview                            quizzes             CCT
                                                                                                Demonstration              Samples
                                       Students will develop a follow-up activity: i.e.                                                        Class
                                       poster, book, flashcards, video.                         Experiential Learning:     Resource Person     assignments
                                                                                                Field trip                 (if necessary)
                                                                                                Field observation                              Projects




    Survival Unit    5 hours –         Students will learn bush survival skills through         Experiential Learning:     Resource Person     Participation       C, PSSV, CCT
                     Survival Skills   observation and experience.                              Field trip                 (if necessary)
                     Unit                                                                       Field observation                              Anecdotal
                                       Students will learn bush survival skills i.e. identify   Culture Camp               Video               records
                                       proper material required to build a shelter and
                                       campfire.                                                                                               Observation
                                                                                                                                               Checklist
 Traditional Foods   5 hours           Students will learn the ingredients in Dene orally       Direct Instruction:        Ingredients/        Participation       C, PSSV, IL,
                                       and in written form.                                     Demonstration              Cooking Ware                            CCT, N
                                                                                                Explicit teaching                              Anecdotal
                                                                                                                           Resource Person     records
                                                                                                Interactive Instruction:   (if necessary)
                                                                                                Cooperative Learning                           Observation
                                                                                                                           Books: Grandma      Checklist
                                                                                                Experiential Learning:     Let’s Make
                                                                                                Field trip                 Bannock (NLSD)
                                                                                                Field observation
                                                                                                Culture Camp




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                                                       Theme: Freeze-up
Concepts/Topics     Length         Objectives                                            Instructional Approaches       Resources          Evaluation        CEL’s
Language Arts       10 hours       Students will select a topic from the area of study   Direct Instruction:            Resource Books:    Oral and          C, PSSV, TL, IL,
Project                            and develop a Denesuline Language Arts Project.       Demonstration                  Indian Languages   written quizzes   CCT
                                                                                         Explicit teaching              Resource Books,
                                   Students will be given a choice to create a project                                  ESL/ESD (Sask.     Group or
                                   from previous units of study and develop a project:   Interactive Instruction:       Ed)                individual
                                   i.e. poem, short story and/or song.                   Cooperative Learning                              assessment
                                                                                                                        Videos:
                                                                                                                        Denesuline         Presentations
                                                                                                                        Language Arts
                                                                                                                        Festival           Class
                                                                                                                        (La Loche)         assignments
                                                                                                                        Resource Person:
                                                                                                                        Mr. Ed Cook
                                                                                                                        Elders
Review and          2 hours        Teachers will review and organize the assessment          Evaluation should imply   Student            Oral and          C, PSSV, TL, IL,
assessment                         process according to the instructional approaches          not only the testing of   Evaluation: A      written quizzes   CCT, N
                                   used and objective requirements.                           the students but also     Teacher
                                                                                              assessment of the         Handbook
                                                                                              language/culture          (Sask. Ed)
                                                                                              program.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                                                              Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics       Length           Objectives                                              Instructional Approaches   Resources           Evaluation         CEL’s
Daily routine and     10 minutes per   Students will review daily routine: greetings,          Direct Instruction:        Calendar            On-going            C
journal writing       day - Daily      commands/verbs - 2 words per lesson increase            Drill & Practice           Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes
                      routine          accordingly, calendar, seasons, weather, sound          Demonstration              Posters: Seasons,
                                       chart.                                                                             weather             Oral and written
                      15 minutes per                                                           Interactive Instruction:                       quizzes
                      day - Journal                                                            Cooperative Learning
                      writing                                                                  Circle of knowledge


Local Fish Unit       10 hours         Students will learn the names of local fish and         Direct Instruction:        Local Resource      Participation      C, PSSV, IL,
                                       general internal organs.                                Demonstration              Person/teacher to                      CCT, N
                                                                                               Structured overview        teach the           Anecdotal
                                       Students will learn how to create an art project                                   terminology of      records
                                       using fish scales, fish bones and fish identification   Interactive Instruction:   local fish and
                                       project.                                                Cooperative Learning       preparation.        Observation
                                                                                               Circle of knowledge                            Checklist
                                       Involvement between students and                                                   Posters: fish
                                       teacher/resource person in fish preparation.            Experiential Learning:     available at        Oral and written
                                       Follow-up: Cook and eat fish. Encourage use of          Ice-Fishing/Net Fishing    SERM                quizzes
                                       oral language throughout all activities. Example:       Field observation          Flashcards
                                       fish preparation learn the terminology of all parts     Culture Camp               (NLSD)
                                       of the fish and conversation during meal time                                      Elders


Denesuline            5 hours          Students will learn basic conversational dialogue.      Direct Instruction:        Denesuline Story    Participation      C, PSSV, IL,
Conversational Unit                                                                            Demonstration              Books                                  CCT, N
                                       Students will develop a story sequence to be role       Structured overview                            Class
                                       played in preparation for drama unit.                                              Video:              assignment
                                                                                               Interactive Instruction:   Denesuline
                                                                                               Cooperative Learning       Language            Performance
                                                                                               Role Playing               Festival or         Test Items
                                                                                               Discussion                 Aboriginal
                                                                                                                          Drama
                                                                                                                          Presentations




                                                                                      Page 66
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                                                                         Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics     Length         Objectives                                              Instructional Approaches       Resources          Evaluation        CEL’s
Drama Unit          10 hours       Students will learn to use the oral and written         Direct Instruction:            Denesuline Story   Participation     C, PSSV, IL,
                                   language through role play.                             Demonstration                  Books                                CCT, N
                                                                                           Structured overview                               Class
                                   Students will learn common terminology and                                             Video:             assignment
                                   gestures used on a daily basis.                         Interactive Instruction:       Denesuline
                                                                                           Cooperative Learning           Language           Performance
                                   Students will be able to present their drama/play to    Circle of knowledge            Festival or        Test Items
                                   an audience i.e. Christmas concert and/or                                              Aboriginal
                                   Denesuline Language Festival.                           Experiential Learning:         Drama
                                                                                           Field trip                     Presentations
                                   Students will be required to use Denesuline             Field observation              Elders
                                   language.

                                   Sample activities: Song, cultural presentation
                                   and/or poetry, dialogue.

Final Review and    5 hours        Teachers will review and organize the assessment            Evaluation should imply   Student            Oral and          C, PSSV, IL,
evaluation                         process according to the instructional approaches            not only the testing of   Evaluation: A      written quizzes   CCT, N
                                   used and objective requirements.                             the students but also     Teacher
                                                                                                assessment of the         Handbook (Sask.
                                                                                                language/culture          Ed)
                                                                                                program.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




Denesuline10B                          100 hours = 1 credit                       Instructional Approaches:             Common Essential Learnings:

Months: January to May/or June         Time allocation:                           Direct Instruction                    C – Communication
                                                                                  Indirect Instruction                  N – Numeracy
Themes: Winter, Spring, Break-up and   Winter – 30 hours                          Independent Study                     PSSV – Personal Social Skills and Values
Summer                                 Spring – 30 hours                          Experiential Learning                 TL – Technological Literacy
                                       Break-up and Summer – 40 hours             Interactive Instruction               IL – Independent Learning
                                                                                                                        CCT – Critical and Creative Learning




Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics            Length                Objectives                                  Instructional Approaches   Resources           Evaluation         CEL’s
Rationale and              3 hours               Students will discuss the objectives of     Brainstorm                 Video: Hawaiian     Written            C, IL, CCT,
Introduction                                     the Denesuline Language and Culture                                    Immersion           assignment         PSSV
                                                 Program.                                    Structured Overview        (SICC),
                                                                                                                        Denesuline
                                                                                                                        Language
                                                                                                                        Festival
                                                                                                                        (La Loche)
Daily Routine              20 minutes per day    Students will review daily routine:         Direct Instruction:        Calendar            On-going           C, IL, PSSV
                                                 greetings, commands/verbs - 2 words         Drill & Practice           Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes
                                                 per lesson increase accordingly,            Demonstration              Posters: Seasons,
                                                 calendar, seasons, weather and sound                                   weather             Oral and written
                                                 chart.                                      Interactive Instruction:                       quizzes
                                                                                             Cooperative Learning
                                                                                             Circle of knowledge

        Dialects           10 hours              Students will learn about the 3 dialects    Direct Instruction:        Standard Roman      Oral and written   C, IL
Sound System                                     and the local sound system.                 Drill & Practice           Orthography         quizzes
                                                                                             Teacher Talk               Chart
                                                 Students will learn the Standard Roman                                                     Classroom
                                                 Orthography.                                Independent Study:                             assignment
                                                                                             Homework




                                                                                    Page 68
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Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics            Length          Objectives                                   Instructional Approaches        Resources          Evaluation         CEL’s
  Research Skills Unit     4 hours         Students will learn about documentation      Direct Instruction:             Computers and      Classroom          C, CCT, IL,
                                           through use of technology i.e.               Drill & Practice                related material   assignment         TL,PSSV
                                           photography equipment, audio/video           Demonstration                   and equipment
                                           recording, printing and research
                                           equipment.                                   Interactive Instruction:        Library
                                                                                        Cooperative Learning            Resources

                                                                                        Independent Study:              Resource People:
                                                                                        Computer Assisted               Curriculum
                                                                                        Instruction                     Material
                                                                                                                        Developers


Elders Protocol            3 hours         Students will learn proper protocol upon     Discussion                      Resource People    Student            C, PSSV, CCT
                                           invitation to an Elder/Resource person.                                                         Feedback
                                                                                        Role Play
                                           Students will appreciate that the                                                               On-going
                                           teachings of the Elders are valued and                                                          anecdotal notes
                                           important.
Local History and          8 hours         Students will listen to stories as told by   Students will develop a         Cassette and/or                       C, PSSV, IL,
traditional life styles.                   an Elder or local historian.                 questionnaire to be used for    video recorder                        CCT
                                                                                        interviews.

                                                                                        Instructional
                                                                                        Strategies/Methods:
                                                                                        Interactive instruction,
                                                                                        Cooperative Learning

                                                                                        Students will conduct an
                                                                                        interview in pairs or
                                                                                        independently.
Review and assessment      2 hours         Teachers will review and organize the         Evaluation should imply       Student            Oral and written   C, PSSV, IL,
                                           assessment process according to the                not only the testing of   Evaluation: A      quizzes            CCT, N
                                           instructional approaches used and                  the students but also     Teacher
                                           objective requirements.                            assessment of the         Handbook (Sask.
                                                                                              language/culture          Ed)
                                                                                              program.




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                                                                     Theme: Spring
Daily Routine and      Daily routine 15    Students will review daily routine           Direct Instruction:             Calendar            On-going          C, PSSV, CCT,
Journal Writing        minutes per day     greetings, commands/verbs - 2 words          Drill & Practice                Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes   N
                                           per lesson increase accordingly,             Interactive Instruction:        Posters: Seasons,
                                           calendar, seasons, weather, sound chart.     Cooperative Learning            Weather
       Dance Unit      5 hours             Students will learn the local dances i.e.    Students will learn the         Metis dances kit    Participation     C PSSV, CCT,
                                           Square Dancing, Red River Jig and/or         different steps and types of    – Gabriel           and observation   N
                                           Drum Dances. Students will learn the         dances.                         Dumont Institute    checklists
                                           terminology related the dance activities.                                    or local library
                                                                                        Students will be involved in
                                                                                        experiential and cooperative    Local Recordings
                                                                                        learning.                       ie:square dances

                                                                                                                        Buffalo River
                                                                                                                        Dene Drummers

                                                                                                                        Local Resource
                                                                                                                        person

Winter Festival Unit   6 hours             Students will learn about the events that    Students will participate in    Equipment           Participation     C PSSV, CCT,
                                           take place during a local winter festival.   planning an in-school winter    necessary for       and observation   N
                                           Emphasis will be on Denesuline               festival.                       each event.         checklists
                                           terminology and practical methods of         Sample activities: log
                                           events.                                      sawing, bannock making, tea
                                                                                        boiling, nail pounding,
                                                                                        portage event, snowshoe,
                                                                                        traditional handgames,
                                                                                        firemaking, flour packing,
                                                                                        dog races etc.
Kinship Unit           7 hours             Students will learn the kinship              Students will identify and      Family              Student           C PSSV, CCT
                                           terminology and extended family              produce their personal family   photographs,        Feedback
                                           relationships.                               tree.                           Elders
                                                                                                                        knowledgeable       On-going
                                           Students will create family trees.           Students will identify family   about local         anecdotal notes
                                                                                        relations locally.              family relations,




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Birch Tree Unit         7 hours            Students will recognize and appreciate      Direct Instruction:             Human resources     Participation      C, PSSV, IL,
                                           contributions made by aboriginal            Structured Overview             Elders              Anecdotal          CCT.N
                                           cultures.                                   Demonstration                   The Elder’s Kit     Records
                                                                                       Interactive Instruction:        Resource books      Observation
                                           Students will learn the proper              Cooperative Learning            Crafts              Checklists
                                           harvesting and storage of the bark.         Experiential Learning:
                                                                                       Field Trip
                                                                                       Culture camp
Review and assessment   2 hours            Teachers will review and organize the        Evaluation should imply       Student             Oral and written   C, PSSV, TL,
                                           assessment process according to the               not only the testing of   Evaluation: A       quizzes            IL,
                                           instructional approaches used and                 the students but also     Teacher                                CCT, N
                                           objective requirements.                           assessment of the         Handbook
                                                                                             language/culture          (Sask. Ed)
                                                                                             program.

Theme: Break-up/Summer
Daily Routine and       Daily routine 15   Students will review daily routine:         Direct Instruction:             Calendar            On-going           C, PSSV, CCT
Journal Writing         minutes per day    meetings, commands/verbs 2 words per        Drill & Practice                Word List/Bank      anecdotal
                                           lesson increase accordingly, calendar,      Demonstration                   Posters: Seasons,   records
                                           seasons, weather, sound chart.                                              Weather
                                                                                       Interactive Instruction:
                                                                                       Cooperative Learning
                                                                                       Circle of knowledge

Traditional Food Unit   10 hours           Students will learn to practice and         Direct Instruction:             Northern and        Participation      C, PSSV, CCT
                                           promote healthy lifestyles and good         Demonstration                   traditional food    and observation
                                           conservation practices.                     Structured overview             guide               checklists
                                                                                       Interactive Instruction:        Resource people
                                           Students will learn safe use and proper     Cooperative Learning            Health resource
                                           handling of traditional foods.                                              people
                                                                                       Experiential Learning:
                                                                                       Field trip
                                                                                       Culture Camp
Camping Unit            10 hours           Students will learn outdoor skills and      Direct Instruction:             Resource People:    Checklists on      C, CCT, PSSV
                                           other related tasks i.e. how to set up      Structured overview             Conservation        skills required
                                           camp, kinds of wood to burn, fire           Demonstration                   officer             Observation
                                           safety, how to dress properly, how to                                       Certified           checklists
                                           make a campfire, how to cook over a         Experiential Learning:          Instructors
                                           campfire, natural environment               Field trip
                                           preservation, canoeing, etc.                Field observation




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Mini Cultural Gathering   10 hours         Students will organize and plan a         Interactive Instruction:       Resource people,   Checklists on      C, PSSV, TL,
Unit/Language Festival                     cultural day and promotion of language.   Cooperative Learning           Chaperones,        skills required    IL,
                                                                                     Experiential Learning:         Elders             Observation        CCT, N
                                                                                     Field trip                                        checklists
                                                                                     Culture Camp                   Denesuline
                                                                                                                    Cultural
                                                                                                                    Gathering
                                                                                                                    Recordings
                                                                                                                    (La Loche,
                                                                                                                    Buffalo River,
                                                                                                                    Fond Du Lac)
Final review and          5 hours          Teachers will review and organize the         Evaluation should imply   Student            Oral and written   C, PSSV, TL,
evaluation                                 assessment process according to the            not only the testing of   Evaluation:        quizzes            IL,
                                           instructional approaches used and              the students but also     A Teacher                             CCT, N
                                           objective requirements.                        assessment of the         Handbook
                                                                                          language/culture          (Sask. Ed)
                                                                                          program.




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Denesuline 20A                     100 hours = 1 credit                    Instructional Approaches:     Common Essential Learnings:

Months: August to January          Time allocation:                        Direct Instruction            C – Communication
                                                                           Indirect Instruction          N – Numeracy
Themes: Fall, Freeze-up and        Fall – 40 hours                         Independent Study             PSSV – Personal Social Skills and Values
         Winter                    Freeze-up – 30 hours                    Experiential Learning         TL – Technological Literacy
                                   Winter – 30 hours                       Interactive Instruction       IL – Independent Learning
                                                                                                         CCT – Critical and Creative Learning




Theme: Fall- 40 hours
Concepts/Topics         Length    Objectives                               Instructional Approaches    Resources               Evaluation           CEL’s
Rationale / History     3 hours   Students will become aware of the        Brainstorming.              Aboriginal              Interactive          C, CCT,
of the Denesuline                 importance of learning and retaining     Direct Instruction.         language map of         instruction.         PSVS
language                          Denesuline.                              Information teaching.       Canada and United       Share orally
Review of routine                 Students will learn about the state of                               States.                 knowledge
activities.                       Aboriginal languages in Canada.                                      -State of               about
                                                                                                       Aboriginal              Aboriginal
                                                                                                       languages survey        Languages.
                                                                                                       reports                 Discussion
                                                                                                       Sociolinguistic         Debatea
                                                                                                       survey of
                                                                                                       Saskatchewan.
Review/Pre-test         2 hours   Students will be pre-tested on           Direct Instruction          Information             Review sounds        C, IL
                                  previous knowledge such as daily         List and practice sounds    worksheets              Check oral and
                                  routines, calendar activities,           Independent study           Quizzes                 written quizzes,
                                                                                                       Worksheets              classroom
                                                                                                                               assignments




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Dialects:             4 hours    Students will study the dialects of the   Interactive instruction        Map of dialects        Observation        C, IL,
Athapaskan                       Athapaskan regions of Canada.             Discussion-assigned                                   Student            PSVS.
Linguistic groups                Students will review the sound            questions                                             participation
Overview of the                  system                                    Discussion panels                                     Research
Sound System                     Students will become aware of             Independent study                                     assignment
                                 linguistic families.



Introduction to the   4 hours    Students will develop an appreciation     Direct Instruction             Denesuline             Oral and written   C, IL,
history of the                   for Aboriginal languages.                 Independent study and          Language               assessment
Denesuline language              Students will learn about the history     research.                      Structures: Various    Transliterating
in comparison of                 of the Denesuline language.                                              Dene Gathering
oral, syllabics and              Students will compare the                                                Recordings
orthography                      Denesuline historical writing                                            Discussions
                                 systems.

Hunter Safety         4 hours    -Students will learn about hunting        Direct Instruction-            Video on Hunter        Quizzes            C, IL
                                 safety and about firearm safety           Presentation                   Safety, Hunter         Participation
                                 Students will develop understanding       Interactive Instruction –      Safety human
                                 about the proper use of guns.             questioning and discussion     resource.
                                                                                                          Resource guides.
                                                                                                          Elders
Hunting               8 hours    Students will learn how respect and       Direct Instruction-            Video: The             Participation      C, PSVS,
Conservation and                 conservation are associated in            Demonstration                  Caribou Hunters        and                IL, TL,
respect.                         hunting                                   Indirect Instruction           (NFB)                  observations       CCT,
                                 Students will develop appreciation in     Independent Study and          Nuhuneye: Our          Checklists to
                                 legends about hunting                     research                       Stories                assess
                                 Students will role-play events            Experiential Learning          La Loche Trapping      interviewing
                                 associated with hunting using             Field observations and field   School (APTN)          assignments
                                 Denesuline vocabulary.                    trips: Moose and duck          Human resources        Quizzes
                                                                           hunting                        such as elders and     Role-play
                                                                           Storytelling and drama         conservation           checklists
                                                                                                          officers & trappers.
                                                                                                          Resource Manuals




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Identifying Northern   3 hours   Students will review facts and           Indirect Instruction &          Identifying animal    Oral and written   C, N
Animal tracks that               information about Northern animals       Experiential Learning           tracks – guide book   assignments        IL,
are trapped.                     Students will learn the Denesuline       Field trip                                            Participation
                                 names for northern animals.                                              Elders                Completion of
                                 Students will review identification of                                                         Field guide
                                 animal tracks.



Preparing and          6 hours   -Students will learn terms related to    Direct Instruction-             Dictionary            Oral readings,     C, PSVS
cooking water fowl               the preparation/cooking of water         Presentation of vocabulary      Grammar               participation
and moose meat                   fowl and moose meat.                     terms. Indirect Instruction –   worksheets,           and observation
Verb Tenses                      Students will learn the future and       brainstorming. Experiential     Verb charts           checklists.
                                 past verb tenses and be able to tell     Learning / field                Human Resources       Translations.
                                 difference between each one.             observations & trips. Verb      – (to demonstrate
                                                                          tenses using verbs related to   the preparation and
                                                                          the preparation and cooking     cooking of water
                                                                          of water fowl and moose         fowl and moose
                                                                          meat                            meat.

Introduction to        3 hours   Students will learn the grammatical      Direct instruction              Generated word        Checklist.         C, IL, CCT,
Inanimate/Animate                structures of inanimate/animate          Interactive Instruction –       lists.                Discussion and     PSVS
Nouns.                           nouns.                                   discussions, brainstorming      Oral and written      presentation.
                                                                                                          assignments
Review and             2 hours
assessment
Theme: Freeze-up – 30 hours
Survival Skills/       8 hours   Students will learn about survival       -Direct Instruction/            Documents on          Checklists for     C, IL, CCT,
Making shelters,                 skills.                                  Teacher talk and                survival skills and   completed          N
how to make                      Students will learn how to build         demonstrations                  on starting and       Projects
campfires                        shelters                                 Experiential Learning           putting out           Group activity
                                 Students will learn how to make a                                        campfires             checklist –
Winter Survival and              fire and properly extinguish a fire.                                     Books on              (Students will
Safety Skills                                                                                             Camping safety        work in teams
                                                                                                          Human Resources       to build
                                                                                                          SERM                  shelters)




                                                                          Page 75
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                                                                                                                               Portfolios
Trapping- history      6 hours   -Students will learn about the history   Interactive Instruction        Documents on          Checklists for     C, PSVS,
and lifestyles.                  and developments of trapping with        Indirect Instruction -         trapping. Human       interviewing       TL, IL
Developments in                  the elders.                              Cooperative learning groups    Resources:            skills and
trapping                         Students will conduct interviews with    Resource based learning.       trappers, SERM,       presentations.
                                 human resources                          Inquiry                        internet              Anecdotal
                                 Students will do oral presentations on                                  Resource based        records.
                                 lifestyles and developments in                                          learning checklists
                                 trapping.                                                               and outlines.
Vocabulary- nouns,     7 hours   Students will write stories using noun   Interactive instruction –      Elders                Oral and written   C, IL, CCT,
verbs and tenses                 and verb word lists.                     brainstorming, discussions     Generated word        assignments        TL
related to Freeze up             Students will tell stories of trapping   Direct instruction- grammar    lists.
theme: trapping,                 lifestyles                               explanations                   Dictionaries
lifestyles, animal               Students will be able to spell, write
furs and tracks                  and express themselves by using the
                                 related trapping terms in sentences.


TrapSetting            4 hours   Students will develop understanding      Direct instruction             Documents on          Observation-       C, PSVS,
Kinds of traps                   about animal traps and the               Indirect Instruction/concept   trapping              anecdotal
Changes in trapping              recommended changes for various          formation Independent          Human resources       records.
                                 traps.                                   study                          such as trappers      Portfolios
                                 Students will understand and learn       Experiential learning –        SERM Videos on        Interview
                                 the skills of trapsetting                inquiry                        trapsetting – The     checklist
                                 Students will recognize the              Trapsetting demonstrations     Elder’s Kits          Presentation
                                 differences of types of traps.           Conducting interviews          Elders                skills checklist

Future conditional     3 hours   Students will learn the meaning of       Interactive instruction        Denesuline            Checking           C, IL
forms                            future conditional forms                 Small group work               language              Written
                                 Students will know what future           Direct instruction             grammar activity      assignments
                                 conditionals are by studying how the                                    sheets
                                 Cree view the world
                                 Students will say and write sentences
                                 using future conditionals.
Review and             2 hours   Students will review all units of        Direct Instruction             Notes                 Oral and written   C, IL,
assessment                       study.                                                                  Activity Handouts     assessment         PSVS
                                                                                                                               projects




                                                                          Page 76
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Theme: Winter – 30 hours
Fishing regulations     3 hours   Students will become aware of            Indirect instruction/case      Resource            Check written       C, CCT,
Rationale and                     regulations and reasons why they are     studies                        management          assignments.        PSVS
Developments.                     essential                                Interactive                    documents
                                  Students will learn about the            instruction/Cooperative
                                  developments in fishing industry.        learning groups                Elders
                                  Students will write paragraphs on
                                  fishing regulations.                                                    Fishermen
                                                                                                          Associations
Requirements for        3 hours   Students will develop an                 Direct instruction             Resource            Oral                C, N
preparation of a fish             understanding in preparation of a fish   Experiential learning          management          presentations on
net                               net.                                     Inquiry                        documents           the preparation
                                                                           Demonstration                  Elders              of a fish net

Legends about           2 hours   Students will enjoy listening to a       Interactive Instruction        The Huge            Checklist on        C, CCT
fishing                           legend about The Huge LakeTrout          Total Physical Response        LakeTrout legend    group role play
Ice fishing             3 hours   Students will become aware about         Direct Instruction             Fisherman/teacher   Observation:        C, PSVS
Ice safety                        two methods for ice fishing              Experiential Learning          Demonstrations,     Field trip where
Methods                           Students will learn about ice safety                                    equipment           all the students
                                                                                                                              will participate
                                                                                                                              in ice fishing.
Preparation for ice     3 hours   Students will develop an                 Direct Instruction             Human Resource      Writing and         C, CCT
fishing                           understanding about the preparation      Experiential Learning          support             illustration
                                  for ice fishing                                                                             assignment on
                                                                                                                              preparation of a
                                                                                                                              fish net
Setting and             7 hours   Students will develop an                 Direct instruction             Resource            Writing and         C, IL,
checking fish net                 understanding about the setting and      Experiential Learning: Field   Management          illustration        PSVS
Introduction of                   checking of a fish net                   Trip                           documents           assignment on
related terms                                                                                             Human Resource      checking and
                                                                                                          support             setting of a fish
                                                                                                                              net
                                                                                                                              Write 2
                                                                                                                              paragraphs in
                                                                                                                              Denesuline




                                                                           Page 77
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                                                                                                                   using related
                                                                                                                                   terms
Paragraphs using          4 hours   Students will learn to write              Direct instruction            Chart                  Taping of           C, PSVS
fishing related                     paragraphs in Denesuline using            Interactive instruction       Collaborative effort   students as they
terms: fish, fishing,               fishing related terms. Students will      Cooperative learning groups   with sample            express
net, ice, prepare, eat,             be able to express themselves in          Independent study             paragraph              themselves
fry, thick, boil,                   Denesuline by using the related terms                                   Tape recorder          while using the
checking and names                                                                                                                 related terms
of fish
Fish preparation          4 hours   Students will observe and learn how       Direct Instruction            Chart: Review of       Actual              C. PSVS,
Steps in preparing                  to prepare fish                           Demonstrations                steps in preparing     preparation of      IL
fish                                Students will observe and learn how       Observations                  for fish               fish with
Traditional cooking                 to cook fish in various ways              Experiential learning.                               students in pairs
of fish/recipes and                                                                                                                Cookbook
methods                                                                                                                            creation with
                                                                                                                                   recipes form
                                                                                                                                   each student

Arts and crafts with      4 hours   Students will enjoy and be creative in    Interactive Instruction       Local artist           Write and           C, PSVS
fish scales and fish                illustrating and writing about fish and   Brainstorming                 Fish                   illustrate short
illustrations                       making crafts using fish scales                                         Fish scales            fish stories
                                                                                                                                   Students in
                                                                                                                                   pairs create
                                                                                                                                   chants about
                                                                                                                                   fish
Review and                2 hours   Overview and review of content and        Direct instruction            Guide and              Oral and written    C, IL,
assessment                          skills                                                                  diagrams               assessment          PSVS.
                                                                                                                                   Projects




                                                                              Page 78
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Denesuline 20B                         100 hours = 1 credit                     Instructional Approaches:     Common Essential Learnings:

Months: February to June               Time allocation:                         Direct Instruction            C – Communication
                                                                                Indirect Instruction          N – Numeracy
Themes: Spring, break-up               Spring: 30 hours                         Independent Study             PSSV – Personal Social Skills and Values
summer                                 Break-up: 30 hours                       Experiential Learning         TL – Technological Literacy
                                       Summer: 40 hours                         Interactive Instruction       IL – Independent Learning
                                                                                                              CCT – Critical and Creative Learning




Spring 30 hours
Concepts/Topics            Length     Objectives                                Instructional Approaches    Resources               Evaluation           CEL’s
Introduction of            2 hours    Students will understand the              Direct Instruction-         Overheads showing       Participation        C, PSSV,
spring, break-up,                     objectives of the Denesuline              Presentation                themes and              Observation          IL, CCT
summer activities                     language and culture program for          Interactive instruction –   grammar units to
and concepts                          spring, break-up and summer themes        discussion groups           be focused upon.
                                      Students will take part in an ice-                                    Introduction
                                      breaker and introduction dialogue                                     dialogue

Daily Routine and          15         Students will participate in              Interactive instruction     Journals                Checklist for        C, IL, CCT
journal writing            minutes    facilitating daily routines every         Facilitating skills         Calendar – ready        participation in
                           per day.   second day                                Drill and practice          made                    routine activity
                                      Students will write in their journals                                 Flashcards- various     Anecdotal notes
                                      every other day                                                       types                   Journals


Moose, deer and            8 hours    Students will learn Denesuline terms      Direct instruction          How to tan hides –      Participation in     C, IL,
caribou hides unit                    relating to tanning of moose,deer and     Interactive instruction     taken from the          activity             PSVS, TL
-Tanning method                       caribou hides. Students will learn the    Demonstration               Elder’s Kits-           Observations
-Preparation                          traditional methods of tanning hides.     Group work                  Lynda Holland and       and anecdotal
-vocabulary terms                     Students will observe and learn the       Dialogues and role-play     Lois Dalby.             records
-uses                                 procedures of tanning moose, deer         Experiential learning       Local resource
                                      and caribou hides.                                                    people                  Discussion
                                      Students will participate in tanning of                               Tanning Hides by
                                      hides during a cultural                                               the Buffalo River
                                      demonstration.                                                        Dene (video)
                                                                                                            Travel to culture




                                                                                Page 79
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




                                                                                                         camp to watch
                                                                                                         demonstration.
History and             3 hours   Students will write paragraphs and       Direct instruction            Dictionaries         Checklist for      C, IL,
importance of                     illustrations to discuss and show the    Interactive instruction-      Lecture notes        paragraph          PSSV,
tanning hides                     method used in preparing a moose,        discussion                    Video on             writing
Writing paragraphs                deer or caribou hide.                    Independent study             preparation of       Oral assignment
about procedures                  Students will understand the different                                 hides and why used   Checklist
tanning moose, deer               usages of tanned hides.                                                                     Anecdotal
and caribou hides.                                                                                                            records

                                                                                                                              Observation
Denesuline ways of      3 hours   Students will understand that gender     Direct Instruction            Elders               Participation in   C, IL,
knowing the                       refers to how the Denesuline classify    Information teaching on the   presentations        discussions        PSSV
gender classification             big game animals.                        Denesuline Ways of                                 Understanding
of big game animals               Students will know the gender of         knowing                       Activity sheets      terms – use
                                  nouns is important when using verbs      Indirect instruction                               checklists
                                  and pronouns in reference to big         Discussions
                                  game animals.                            Total Physical Response-
                                                                           using pictures and real
                                                                           objects.

Demonstrative           2 hours   Students will use pronouns with          Direct Instruction            Grammar              Oral assessment    C, IL,
Pronouns                          nouns relating to tanning of moose,      Interactive instruction       workbooks            Participation
                                  deer or caribou hides.                   Concept formation             Dictionaries
                                  Students will understand the concept     Cooperative learning          Terms related to
                                  of demonstrative pronouns and apply                                    tanning of moose,
                                  by using dialogue.                                                     deer or caribou
                                                                                                         hides
Interrogative           2 hours   Students will understand the concept     Direct instruction            Information          Oral and written   C, CCT, IL
pronouns                          of interrogative pronouns and will       Interactive instruction       Activity sheets      assessment and
                                  know the two ways of asking              Role-plays and dialogues      dialogues            participation
                                  questions in the Denesuline                                                                 Monitoring and
                                  language.                                                                                   checking for
                                                                                                                              understanding




                                                                           Page 80
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Introduction to:       4 hours    Students will know the differences       Direct instruction            Generated word          Oral and written   C, IL, TL
-Intransitive verbs               between intransitive and transitive      Indirect instruction          lists paragraphs        assessment
-Transitive verbs                 verbs.                                   Demonstrations and lectures   from previous           Correction of
- Modes                                                                    TPR verb phrases              lessons on              sentences
                                  Students will learn that Intransitive                                  procedures of           Completed verb
                                  verbs may be conjugated into three                                     tanning hides.          charts
                                  different modes.                                                       Information
                                                                                                         activity sheets
                                  Students will be able to write                                         Verb charts
                                  sentences using both transitive and                                    Computer with
                                  intransitive verbs.                                                    Denesuline fonts

Arts and crafts with   4 hours    Students will create images on hide.     Interactive instruction       Local artist            Completion of      C, CCT, IL
moose, deer or                    Students will construct various crafts   Brainstorming and             Hide –various           activities         PSVS
caribou hides                     using hide.                              Demonstration                 types, paints, other    Participation in
                                                                                                         art supplies            dialogues

Review and             2 hours    Overview and review of content and       Interactive instruction       Completed oral and      Oral and written   C, CCT
assessment                        skills                                   Independent study             written tests           tests
                                  Student will complete oral and           Discussions                                           Hand in all
                                  written tests                                                                                  required
                                                                                                                                 assignments
                                                         Theme: Break-up : 30 hours
Introduction of        1 hour     Students will brainstorm knowledge       Interactive instruction       Books on canoeing       Participation      C, CCT
topic- canoeing and               and information about canoeing           Mental jogging                and on water safety     Observations
canoe safety                      Students will generate lists of words    Brainstorming                                         and anecdotal
History of canoeing               to be used for this unit of study                                                              records
                                  Students will study the types of
                                  canoe uses.
Canoeing               10 hours   Students will learn all terms related    Direct instruction            Local resource          Participation      C, IL,
Safety precautions                to canoe safety                          Interactive instruction       people                  Checklists
Terms related to                  Students will participate in a           Demonstrations                Certified and           Anecdotal
canoeing                          canoeing clinic                                                        trained people to       records
                                  Students will practice safety                                          teach canoeing
                                  precautions while practicing                                           skills, canoes,
                                  canoeing skills Students will learn                                    paddles, life jackets




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                                 proper paddle strokes
Locatives and       3 hours      Students will learn that locatives and    TPR                            Information          Participation      C, CCT, IL
prepositions                     prepositions show location.               Direct instruction             worksheets           Assignments
                                 Students will learn the rules for using   Interactive instruction        Real examples of
                                 locatives                                 Role plays                     objects
                                 Students will role-play situations that   Independent study
                                 demonstrate locatives, nouns and
                                 prepositions using TPR.
Noun possession     8 hours      Students will understand what the         Indirect instruction –         Noun possession      Written            C, IL, TL,
                                 noun possession paradigm means.           concept formation              paradigms            assignments        CCT
                                 Students will make up dialogues           Role plays                     Denesuline           Oral
                                 using noun possession                     Discussions                    Language             presentations
                                 Students will use kinship terms to                                       Structures           Participation in
                                 practice the conjugation of                                              Word list of nouns   role plays and
                                 possessives                                                                                   discussions
                                 Students will role play events using
                                 noun possession
Canoe safety        6 hours      Students will learn the terms related     Indirect Instruction, Guided   Canoe, paddle,       Participation in   C, CCT
                                 to canoe safety                           imagery                        human resources,     guided imagery,
                                 Students will role play and dramatize
                                 a canoe expedition

Review and          2 hours      -Overview and review of content,          Interactive Instruction        Notes and            Oral and written   C,IL
assessment                       skills and vocabulary.                    Independent Study              assignments          tests


Theme: Summer 40 hours
Water safety        4 hours      Students will become aware of water       Indirect instruction/case      Resource             Check written      C, CCT,
Introduction                     safety rules                              studies                        management           assignments.       PSSV
                                 Students will generate word lists on      Interactive                    documents
                                 topic of water safety.                    instruction/Cooperative
                                 Students will write paragraphs on         learning groups
                                 importance of water safety.
Terms for water     3 hours      Students will learn terms related to      Direct instruction             Resource             Participation      C, CCT
safety/stories                   water safety.                             Experiential learning          management           Anecdotal          PSVS




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                                 Students will practice water safety     Role plays                documents
                                 precautions by role-plays               Interactive Instruction   Elders


Swimming activity     5 hours    Students will participate in a          Experiential learning     Chaperones,        Participation,     C, PSSV,
                                 swimming experience                     Dialogues                 lifeguard,         observation –      TL, IL
                                 Students will initiate conversation-                              swimming pool or   anecdotal
                                 using vocabulary and dialogues                                    a body of water    records
                                 learned throughout unit.                                          /beach
Review of all         10 hours   Students will learn and make up         Indirect instruction –    Dictionaries and   Presentation       C, CCT,
vocabulary learned.              conversational dialogues                interviewing techniques   word lists         Oral fluency       PSSV, TL,
Review of all                    Students will present these dialogues   Cooperative learning      Notes              Check lists        IL
grammar                          in pairs.
explanations and                 Students will apply grammar rules
paragraph writing                and explanations to paragraph
                                 writing
Presentations         10 hours   Students will research and present a    Indirect Instruction      Local Resources,   Checklists for     C, CCT,
-Applications of                 topic of their choice that relates to   Independent learning      Resource books,    presentation       PSVS, IL,
content and                      20B Denesuline cultural content         Resource based learning   Pictures           skills and         TL, N
concepts                                                                 Information technology    Elders and human   Oral fluency
                                                                         Interviewing techniques   resources          and accuracy of
                                                                                                                      projects
Review and            4 hours    Overview and review of content and      Direct instruction        Guide and          Participation      C, IL,
assessment                       skills                                                            diagrams           and                PSVS.
                                                                                                                      observations
Assessment            4 hours    Students will complete oral and         Direct Instruction        Oral and written   Results from       C, IL
                                 written examinations to cover all                                 tests              oral and written
                                 topics in Denesuline 20 B                                                            assessments




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Denesuline 30A                            100 hours = 1 credit                       Instructional Approaches:             Common Essential Learnings:

Months: August to January                 Time allocation:                           Direct Instruction                    C – Communication
                                                                                     Indirect Instruction                  N – Numeracy
Themes: Fall, Freeze-up and               Fall – 40 hours                            Independent Study                     PSSV – Personal Social Skills and Values
         Winter                           Freeze-up – 30 hours                       Experiential Learning                 TL – Technological Literacy
                                          Winter – 30 hours                          Interactive Instruction               IL – Independent Learning
                                                                                                                           CCT – Critical and Creative Learning



                                                                                  Theme: Fall
Concepts/Topics         Length            Objectives                                            Instructional Approaches   Resources           Evaluation        CEL’s
Rationale and           5 hours           Students will review the objectives of the            Brainstorm                 Handouts and        Written           C, IL, CCT,
Introduction                              Denesuline Language and Culture Program.                                         notes               assignment        PSSV
                                                                                                Structured Overview
                                          Students will examine the status of Aboriginal
                                          languages in Canada.


    Daily Routine       30 minutes per    Students will review daily routine and be             Direct Instruction         Calendar            On-going          C
                        day - Daily       encouraged to write complex sentences on a daily                                 Word List/Bank      anecdotal
                        routine and       basis.                                                Drill & Practice           Posters: Seasons,   notes
                        journal writing                                                                                    weather
                                          Teacher initiated mini lesson on grammar.             Communicative Approach     Dene Dictionary     Oral and
                                          Example: prepositions, animate/inanimate, nouns,                                                     written quizzes
                                          pronouns, demonstrative, interrogative, verbs,
                                          proverbs, noun-verb, verb classification, verbs
                                          tenses, intransitive verbs,
                                          perfective/imperfective/optative, conditional
                                          forms, verbs modes .
Dialects                5 hours           Students will review about the 5 dialects and the     Direct Instruction         Standard Roman      Oral and          C, IL, TL
Sound System                              major linguistic families.                                                       Orthography and     written quizzes
                                                                                                Independent Study          Syllabic Charts
                                          Students will review the Standard Roman
                                          Orthography utilizing the Denesuline fonts on the
                                          computer.

                                          Students will practice and develop the syllabic
                                          writing system.
Elders Protocol         3 hours           Students will use appropriate protocol to invite an   Discussion                 Resource People     Student           C, PSSV, CCT
                                          Elder/resource person. They will plan the activity                               Elders              Feedback
                                          and choose the topics for discussion or traditional   Role Play
                                          skills.                                                                                              On-going




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                                                                                                                                                    anecdotal
                                                                                                                                                    notes

Storage and             2 hours          Students will apply their previous knowledge on         Direct Instruction             Collect natural     Assignments      C, PSSV, CCT,
Preservation of                          natural material available for harvesting and                                          material listed                      IL
Natural Material                         demonstrate the proper storage and preservation         Independent Study
                                         methods.
                                                                                                 Experiential Learning
                                         Example: berries, spruce roots, birch bark, red
                                         willows, moss, pine cones, lichen, etc.

                                                                                  Theme: Fall
Concepts/Topics         Length           Objectives                                              Instructional Approaches       Resources           Evaluation       CEL’s
Traditional             10 hours         Students will apply their previous knowledge on         Experiential Learning:         Local Resource      Research         C, PSSV, TL, IL,
Herbs/Medicine Unit                      natural material available for harvesting and           Field trip and observations    Person/teacher to   Assignment on    CCT
                                         demonstrate the proper storage and preservation                                        teach the uses of   traditional
                                         methods.                                                Interactive Instruction:       traditional         plants
                                                                                                 Circle of knowledge            medicinal plants.   Example:
                                         Students will learn the inclusion of scientific                                                            booklet,
                                         knowledge of aboriginal peoples.                                                                           poster, and/or
                                                                                                                                                    flashcards.
                                         Students will identify and appreciate basic
                                         medicinal plants by learning preparation, uses
                                         and protocol – dependent upon the availability
                                         of local expertise.

                                         Example: rat root, mint, spruce gum, labrador tea,
                                         rose hips, tree sap,
Traditional Craft       10 to 12 hours   Students will learn how to make traditional crafts,     Students will be given a       Local Resource      Participation    C, PSSV, IL,
Unit                                     toys and clothing: mittens, moccasins, moss bag,        choice to create a project     Person/teacher to                    CCT
Other sample Units:                      fur hats, shields (wall hanging), beading using a       from previous units of study   teach how to        Completed
willow basket making,                    loom, embroidery, whistles, bows and arrows,                                           make traditional    project: i.e.
tamarack goose decoy                     slingshots, and vests.                                  Direct Instruction:            crafts and          mittens,
unit, duck unit and                                                                              Structured Overview,           clothing.           moccasins,
moose unit.                                                                                      Explicit Teaching,                                 moss bag, fur
                                                                                                 Demonstration                   Resource Books     hats, shields
                                                                                                                                and videos: How     (wall hanging)
                                                                                                 Independent Study:             make traditional    and vest.
                                                                                                 Learning activity package      crafts.

                                                                                                 Interactive Instruction:
                                                                                                 Cooperative Learning Groups




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Review and          2 hours          Teachers will review and organize the assessment        Evaluation should imply   Student             Oral and
assessment                           process according to the instructional approaches        not only the testing of   Evaluation: A       written quizzes
                                     used and objective requirements.                         the students but also     Teacher
                                                                                              assessment of the         Handbook (Sask.
                                                                                              language/culture          Ed)
                                                                                              program.




                                                                       Theme: Freeze-up
Concepts/Topics     Length           Objectives                                          Instructional Approaches       Resources           Evaluation         CEL’s
Daily Routine and   10 minutes per   Students will review daily routine and be           Direct Instruction:            Calendar            On-going            C, PSSV, CCT,
Journal Writing     day – Daily      encouraged to write complex sentences on a daily    Drill & Practice               Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes     N
                    routine          basis.                                                                             Posters: Seasons,
                                                                                         Interactive Instruction:       weather             Oral and written
                    20 minutes per   Teacher initiated mini lesson on grammar.           Cooperative Learning                               quizzes
                    day - Journal    Continue with grammar from Fall theme.
                    writing




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  Local Tree Unit   5 hours           Students will learn and identify trees, name parts     Direct Instruction:        Posters           Oral and written   C, TL, IL,
                                      of the tree and research uses.                         Structured overview                          quizzes            CCT
                                                                                             Demonstration              Samples
                                      Sample projects: miniature cabins, paddles,                                                         Class
                                      birchbark canoes, snowshoes, etc.                      Experiential Learning:     Resource Person   assignments
                                                                                             Field trip                 (if necessary)
                                      Students will develop a follow-up activity: i.e.       Field observation                            Projects
                                      poster, book, flashcards, video.



   Survival Unit    10 hours –        Students will learn bush survival skills through       Experiential Learning:     Resource Person   Participation      C, PSSV, CCT
                    Survival Skills   observation and experience.                            Field trip                 (if necessary)
                    Unit                                                                     Field observation                            Anecdotal
                                            Identify and name all forms of wildlife,        Culture Camp               Video             records
                                             edible and domestic plants in their region
                                             and some species will include special terms     Direct Instruction:                          Observation
                                             for animals according to age, sex, type.        Demonstration                                Checklist
                                            Demonstrate ability to call different forms     Explicit teaching
                                             of wildlife – ducks, moose, etc….
                                            Demonstrate and explain different methods       Interactive Instruction:
                                             to hunt, trap, snare, fish, or gather edible    Cooperative Learning
                                             plants – medicines.
                                            To prepare – gut, clean, or preserve
                                             animals/plants they harvest.
                                            Identify and name the anatomy of animals
                                             and plants.
                                            Describe and demonstrate the various uses
                                             and preparation methods of fish, game and
                                             plant parts.
                                             Optional – Students will describe,
                                             demonstrate ways to trap different wildlife.
                                            Demonstrate the skills of how to make a
                                             fire during the winter.
                                            Identify and learn the winter survival skills
                                             such as: ice safety, shelter




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                                                                      Theme: Freeze-up
Concepts/Topics     Length         Objectives                                            Instructional Approaches       Resources           Evaluation        CEL’s
Language Arts       10 hours       Students will select a topic from one area of study   Direct Instruction:            Resource Books:     Oral and          C, PSSV, TL, IL,
Project                            and develop a Denesuline Language Arts Project.       Demonstration                  Indian Languages    written quizzes   CCT
                                                                                         Explicit teaching              Resource Books,
                                   Students will be required to present a project from                                  ESL/ESD (Sask.      Group or
                                   previous units of study. i.e. poem, short story,      Interactive Instruction:       Ed)                 individual
                                   song, drama or another activity.                      Cooperative Learning                               assessment
                                                                                                                        Byron Story
                                                                                                                        Book Series:        Presentations
                                                                                                                        Byron Through
                                                                                                                        The Seasons         Class
                                                                                                                        Byron And His       assignments
                                                                                                                        Balloons

                                                                                                                        Dene Children’s
                                                                                                                        Songs: Anne
                                                                                                                        Toutsaint-Gordon
                                                                                                                        and Elaine Hay

                                                                                                                        Leonard Adam’s
                                                                                                                        Traditional Songs

                                                                                                                        Buffalo River
                                                                                                                        Dene Drummers
Review and          2 hours        Teachers will review and organize the assessment          Evaluation should imply   Student             Oral and          C, PSSV, TL, IL,
assessment                         process according to the instructional approaches          not only the testing of   Evaluation: A       written quizzes   CCT, N
                                   used and objective requirements.                           the students but also     Teacher             projects
                                                                                              assessment of the         Handbook
                                                                                              language/culture          (Sask. Ed)
                                                                                              program.




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                                                                           Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics     Length           Objectives                                             Instructional Approaches   Resources         Evaluation         CEL’s
Daily routine and   10 minutes per   Students will review daily routine and be              Direct Instruction:        Calendar          On-going           C, IL,CCT,
journal writing     day - Daily      encouraged to write complex sentences on a daily       Drill & Practice           Word              anecdotal notes    PSSV
                    routine          basis.                                                 Demonstration              List/Bank
                                                                                                                       Posters:          Oral and written
                    20 minutes per   Teacher initiated mini lesson on grammar.              Interactive Instruction:   Seasons,          quizzes
                    day - Journal    Continue with grammar from Fall theme.                 Cooperative Learning       weather
                    writing                                                                 Circle of knowledge


Local Fish Unit     10 hours         Students will learn the names of local fish and        Direct Instruction:        Local Resource    Participation      C, PSSV, IL,
                                     internal organs.                                       Demonstration              Person/teacher                       CCT, N
                                                                                            Structured overview        to teach the      Anecdotal
                                     Students will participate in a discussion with a                                  terminology of    records
                                     conservation officer on fish conservation,             Interactive Instruction:   local fish and
                                     preservation and environment.                          Cooperative Learning       preparation.      Observation
                                                                                            Circle of knowledge                          Checklist
                                     Prepare and plan a local fish feast. Encourage                                    Invite resource
                                     participants to use oral language.                     Experiential Learning:     officer to talk   Oral and written
                                                                                            Field trip                 about             quizzes
                                     Students will participate and learn how to set a net   Field observation          conservation.
                                     using a jigger, chisel, line, etc.                     Culture Camp
                                                                                                                       Posters: fish
                                     Students will learn how to make and use the                                       available at
                                     proper knots used when fishing.                                                   SERM

Conversational      5 hours          Students will expand on their knowledge on basic       Direct Instruction:        Dene Story        Participation      C, PSSV, IL,




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Dialogue Unit                      conversational dialogue.                                 Demonstration              Books                               CCT, N
                                                                                            Structured overview                        Class
                                   Students will develop and expand on language-                                       Dene Legends    assignment: story
                                   home-school relationship by participating in an          Interactive Instruction:   Videos:         telling and oral
                                   oral interview with a family/or community                Cooperative Learning       Aboriginal      interview
                                   member.                                                  Role Playing               Drama
                                                                                            Discussion                 Presentations   participation
                                   Students will interview family/or community                                                         checklist
                                   member in terms of lifestyle changes throughout
                                   generations.

                                   Students will participate in oral story telling.




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                                                                          Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics     Length         Objectives                                              Instructional Approaches       Resources         Evaluation        CEL’s
Drama Unit          10 hours       Students will learn to use the oral and written         Direct Instruction:            Byron Story       Participation     C, PSSV, IL,
                                   language through role play.                             Demonstration                  Books Series      Checklist         CCT, N
                                                                                           Structured overview
                                   Students will learn common terminology and                                             Dene Lengends     Class
                                   gestures used on a daily basis.                         Interactive Instruction:                         assignment
                                                                                           Cooperative Learning           Video:
                                   Students will be able to present their drama/play to    Circle of knowledge            Denesuline
                                   an audience i.e. Christmas concert and/or                                              Language
                                   Denesuline Language Festival.                           Experiential Learning:         Festival or
                                                                                           Field trip                     Aboriginal
                                   Sample activities: Song, cultural presentation and/or   Field observation              Drama
                                   poetry, dialogue.                                                                      Presentations

Final Review and    5 hours        Teachers will review and organize the assessment            Evaluation should imply   Student           Oral and          C, PSSV, IL,
evaluation                         process according to the instructional approaches            not only the testing of   Evaluation: A     written quizzes   CCT, N
                                   used and objective requirements.                             the students but also     Teacher
                                                                                                assessment of the         Handbook (Sask.
                                                                                                language/culture          Ed)
                                                                                                program.




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Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30




Denesuline 30B                          100 hours = 1 credit                       Instructional Approaches:             Common Essential Learnings:

Months: January to May/or June          Time allocation:                           Direct Instruction                    C – Communication
                                                                                   Indirect Instruction                  N – Numeracy
Themes: Winter, Spring, Break-up and    Winter – 30 hours                          Independent Study                     PSSV – Personal Social Skills and Values
Summer                                  Spring – 30 hours                          Experiential Learning                 TL – Technological Literacy
                                        Break-up and Summer – 40 hours             Interactive Instruction               IL – Independent Learning
                                                                                                                         CCT – Critical and Creative Learning




Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics            Length                 Objectives                                  Instructional Approaches   Resources           Evaluation         CEL’s
Rationale and              5 hours                Students will review the objectives of      Brainstorm                 Video: Hawaiian     Written            C, IL, CCT,
Introduction                                      the Denesuline Language and Culture                                    Immersion           assignment         PSSV
                                                  Program.                                    Structured Overview        (SICC), Dene
                                                                                                                         Language
                                                  Students will examine the status of                                    Festival (SIFC
                                                  Aboriginal languages in Canada.                                        Library)
Daily Routine              10 minutes per day –   Students will review daily routine and      Direct Instruction:        Calendar            On-going           C, IL, PSSV
                           oral activity          be encouraged to write complex              Drill & Practice           Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes
                                                  sentences on a daily basis.                 Demonstration              Posters: Seasons,
                           20 minutes - Journal                                                                          weather             Oral and written
                           Writing                Teacher initiated mini lesson on            Interactive Instruction:                       quizzes
                                                  grammar. Example: prepositions,             Cooperative Learning
                                                  nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs,            Circle of knowledge
                                                  demonstrative/interrogative,
                                                  animate/inanimate nouns/verbs, verb
                                                  classification, future tenses, modes
                                                  perfective/imperfective/optative .
        Dialects           5 hours                Students will review the three dialects     Direct Instruction:        Standard Roman      Oral and written   C, IL
Sound System                                      and the major linguistic families.          Drill & Practice           Orthography         quizzes
                                                                                              Teacher Talk               Syllabic Chart
                                                  Students will the Standard Roman                                                           Classroom
                                                  Orthography utilizing the Dene font on      Independent Study:                             assignment
                                                  the computer.                               Homework

                                                  Students will practice and develop the
                                                  syllabic writing system by writing
                                                  paragraphs, short stories, poetry, etc.




                                                                                     Page 92
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Theme: Winter
Concepts/Topics            Length          Objectives                                  Instructional Approaches   Resources          Evaluation        CEL’s
  Research Skills Unit     5 hours         Students will continue to develop           Direct Instruction:        Computers and      Classroom
                                           research skills on documentation            Drill & Practice           related material   assignment
                                           through use of technology i.e.              Demonstration              and equipment
                                           photography equipment, audio/video
                                           recording, printing and research            Interactive Instruction:   Audio visual
                                           equipment.                                  Cooperative Learning       equipment

                                                                                       Independent Study:         Library
                                                                                       Computer Assisted          Resources
                                                                                       Instruction
                                                                                                                  Resource People:
                                                                                                                  Curriculum
                                                                                                                  Material
                                                                                                                  Developers


Elders Protocol            3 hours         Students will review proper protocol        Discussion                 Resource People    Student           C, PSSV, CCT
                                           upon invitation to an Elder/Resource                                                      Feedback
                                           person. They will participate in            Role Play
                                           planning an Elders visit.                                                                 On-going
                                                                                                                                     anecdotal notes
                                           Students will appreciate that the
                                           teachings of the Elders are valued and
                                           important.
Local History and          10 hours        Students will interview an Elder or local   Interactive instruction    Cassette and/or    Elder
traditional life styles.                   historian in pairs or independently.        Peer practice              video recorder     Bibliography
                                                                                       Interviewing
                                           Students will develop a bibliography of     Cooperative Learning       Audio visual
                                           an Elder.                                                              equipment

                                           Students will develop a questionnaire to     Independent
                                           be used for interviews.
                                                                                           Study
                                           Students will be required to present        Assigned questions




                                                                              Page 93
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                                           information collected to peers, and staff.



Review and assessment   2 hours            Teachers will review and organize the           Evaluation should imply   Student           Oral and written   C, PSSV, IL,
                                           assessment process according to the              not only the testing of   Evaluation: A     quizzes            CCT, N
                                           instructional approaches used and                the students but also     Teacher
                                           objective requirements.                          assessment of the         Handbook (Sask.
                                                                                            language/culture          Ed)
                                                                                            program.




                                                                               Page 94
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                                                                     Theme: Spring
Daily Routine and      Daily routine 30    Students will review daily routine and       Direct Instruction:        Calendar            On-going          C, PSSV, CCT,
Journal Writing        minutes per day     be encouraged to write complex               Drill & Practice           Word List/Bank      anecdotal notes   N
                                           sentences on a daily basis.                  Interactive Instruction:   Posters: Seasons,
                                                                                        Cooperative Learning       Weather
                                           Teacher initiated mini lesson on
                                           grammar. Continue with grammar from
                                           the Winter theme
Winter Festival Unit   10 hours            Students will learn about the events that    Interactive instruction    Equipment           Participation     C PSSV, CCT,
                                           take place during a local winter festival.   Peer practice              necessary for       and observation   N
                                           Emphasis will be on Denesuline               Cooperative Learning       each event.         checklists
                                           terminology and practical methods of
                                           events.
                                                                                         Experiential
                                           Students will participate in planning an
                                           in-school winter festival.                     Learning
                                           Sample activities: log sawing, bannock
                                           making, tea boiling, nail pounding,
                                           portage event, snowshoe, hand games,
                                                                                            Direct
                                           flour packing, dog races etc.                  Instruction
                                                                                        Demonstration

Kinship Unit           10 hours            Students will review and expand their        Interactive instruction    Family              Student           C PSSV, CCT
                                           knowledge of the kinship terminology         Peer practice              photographs,        Feedback
                                           and extended family relationships.           Cooperative Learning       Elders
                                                                                                                   knowledgeable       On-going
                                           Students will identify and produce their                                about local         anecdotal notes
                                           personal family tree and extended                Direct                 family relations,
                                           family in other communities.                                                                Family Tree
                                                                                          Instruction
                                                                                        Demonstration




                                                                               Page 95
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Birchbark Unit           5 hours            Students will review the proper            Direct Instruction:            Human resources     Participation      C, PSSV, IL,
                                            harvesting, conservation techniques and    Structured Overview            Elders              Anecdotal          CCT.N
                                            storage of the bark.                       Demonstration                  The Elder’s Kit     Records
                                                                                       Interactive Instruction:       Resource books      Observation
                                            Students will participate in a project.    Cooperative Learning                               Checklists
                                            Sample activities: collecting birch sap,   Experiential Learning:
                                            making birch syrup, birch bark biting,     Field Trip
                                            birch bark baskets,                        Culture camp



Review and assessment    2 hours            Teachers will review and organize the          Evaluation should imply   Student             Oral and written   C, PSSV, TL,
                                            assessment process according to the             not only the testing of   Evaluation: A       quizzes            IL,
                                            instructional approaches used and               the students but also     Teacher                                CCT, N
                                            objective requirements.                         assessment of the         Handbook
                                                                                            language/culture          (Sask. Ed)
                                                                                            program.

Theme: Break-up/Summer
Daily Routine and        Daily routine 30   Students will review daily routine and     Direct Instruction:            Calendar            On-going           C, PSSV, CCT
Journal Writing          minutes per day    be encouraged to write complex             Drill & Practice               Word List/Bank      anecdotal
                                            sentences on a daily basis.                Demonstration                  Posters: Seasons,   records
                                                                                                                      Weather
                                            Teacher initiated mini lesson on           Interactive Instruction:
                                            grammar. Continue with grammar from        Cooperative Learning
                                            the Winter theme.                          Circle of knowledge

Traditional Food Unit:   10 hours           Students will continue to practice and     Direct Instruction:            Northern and        Participation      C, PSSV, CCT
Caribou                                     promote healthy lifestyles and good        Demonstration                  traditional food    and observation
Moose                                       conservation practices.                    Structured overview            guide               checklists
Deer
Duck                                        Students will learn the terminology of     Interactive Instruction:       Resource people
Goose                                       traditional foods.                         Cooperative Learning           Health resource
Chickens                                                                                                              people
Rabbit                                      Students will learn safe use and proper    Experiential Learning:
Muskrat                                     handling of traditional foods.             Field trip                     Traditional Food
Beaver                                                                                 Culture Camp                   Recipes
                                            Students will participate in traditional
                                            methods of cooking.
Camping Unit             10 hours           Students will plan outdoor skills and      Direct Instruction:            Resource People:    Checklists on      C, CCT, PSSV
                                            other related tasks i.e. how to set up     Structured overview            Conservation        skills required
                                            camp, kinds of wood to burn, fire          Demonstration                  officer             Observation and




                                                                                Page 96
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                                           safety, how to dress properly, how to       Experiential Learning:                            Participation
                                           make a campfire, how to cook over a         Field trip                                        Checklists
                                           campfire, and review natural                Field observation
                                           environment preservation.

                                           Review bush survival skills. (see 30A)
Historical Perspective on   10 hours       Students will participate in a discussion   Interactive Instruction:       Resource people    Checklists on      C, PSSV, TL,
Northern Economy                           on northern economy and the                 Cooperative Learning           Elders             skills required    IL,
                                           infrastructure i.e. fishing, wildrice                                                                            CCT, N
                                           harvesting, trapping, gathering of food,    Experiential Learning:         Book: A            Observation and
                                           and other economic development.             Field trip                     Transformation     participation
                                                                                       Culture Camp                   published by       checklists
                                           Use of oral Dene is strongly encouraged                                    Northern Affairs
                                           in all presentations and discussions.
                                                                                                                      Oral
                                                                                                                      Presentation:
                                                                                                                      choice of one of
                                                                                                                      the northern
                                                                                                                      economy

Final review and            5 hours        Teachers will review and organize the           Evaluation should imply   Student            Oral and written   C, PSSV, TL,
evaluation                                 assessment process according to the              not only the testing of   Evaluation:        quizzes            IL,
                                           instructional approaches used and                the students but also     A Teacher                             CCT, N
                                           objective requirements.                          assessment of the         Handbook
                                                                                            language/culture          (Sask. Ed)
                                                                                            program.




                                                                              Page 97
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30



                             References and Resources


                          Aboriginal Languages Resources
Pattern Books: (repetitive, predictable, sing along, counting, etc…)

1.   Senses – Taste
2.   Senses – Touch
3.   Senses – Smell
4.   Senses – Sight
5.   Senses – Hear

6. The beaver is eating, What about the squirrel?

7. Counting Book – Book 1
8. Counting Book – Book 2

9. These are my clothes
10. (Repetitive/Winter/Summer Clothing)

11. My eyes, My Mouth, My nose

12. Grandma, What Do You Use When You Do Beadwork

13. Kinship Terms – (Repetitive)

14. Winter Clothes – (Sing along to the tune: “The Farmer in The Dell

15. I Am Grateful To You My Relatives – Kinship terms: (Sing along to the tune “The
    More We Get Together”)
16. Seasons – Autumn
17. Seasons – Winter
18. Seasons – Spring
19. Seasons – Summer

Resource Books (vocabulary books, units & supplementary books, sentence
patterns, teacher’s visual resources)

1. Classroom Objects – Interrogatives
2. Classroom Objects – Demonstrative Pronoun
3. Household Objects – Possessives

4. A Unit On Clothing – Color
5. A Unit On Transportation



                                             Page 98
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


6. Vocabulary Resource Book
7. Animal – Visual Resource
8. Classroom Objects – Visual Resource
9. Clothing – Visual Resource
10. Household Objects – Visual Resource
11. Outdoor Equipment – Visual Resource
12. Transportation – Visual Resource

Visual Aides (Illustration with Cree & Dene Terminology and/or Sentences)

1. Alphabet Frieze In Color
2. Animal Flash Cards
3. Animal Terms
4. Animal Puzzles
5. Animal Puzzles – Cassette Tape
6. Berries – Flash Cards in Color
7. Calendar Months/Terms only in Color
8. Classroom Objects Flash Cards
9. Clothing Flash Cards
10. Colorful Illustrations & Sentences – (Animals & Birds)
11. Color Terms
12. Commands/Imperatives in Color
13. Household Objects Flash Cards
14. Inanimate Color Flash Cards
15. Northern Fish Flash Cards

16. Money Booklet – Penny to $1000
17. Penny Booklet – 1 to 10
18. Money Terminology
19. Outdoor Equipment Flash Cards
20. Transportation Flash Cards

                                          Songbooks

1. Songs and Poems – Woodland Cree and Dene

                                          Storybooks

1.   It Was a Perfect Christmas
2.   The Hunter/Omaciw
3.   Sihkos Wants To Go Netfishing
4.   Where is My Gum?
5.   Grandma, Lets Make Bannock
6.   I Went Up North
7.   We Stayed At Clearwater
8.   Rabbit Soup and Isaac School



                                             Page 99
Denesuline Language – A Locally Developed Program Level 10, 20, and 30


9. Feelings
10. Let’s Set A Net
11. The Toothless Beaver

                                  Cultural Reference Books

1. Survival Camp
2. In The Bush
3. Where Do Berries Grow?

                                  Wall Charts and Posters

1. Calendar Package
2. Cree/Dene Numbers – 8 ½ x 14
3. Traditional Calendar


1. Indian Languages: A Curriculum Guide for Kindergarten to Grade 12 by
   Saskatchewan Education, Training and Employment – August 1994
2. Dene Zhatie – Education: A Dene Perspective by Northwest Territories Education
   Culture and Employment. 1993
3. The Common Curriculum Framework for Aboriginal Language and Culture
   Programs. Kindergarten to Grade 12




                                             Page 100

				
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