Crime and Social Groups by jolinmilioncherie

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 48

									                             Crime
Today
•Continue groups
•Crime versus Deviance
•Causes of crime (functionalism, symbolic
interactionism, conflict theory)
•Real world connection
•About assignment #5
due next class
Types of groups
                 Primary group
• Intimate, small, personal

Family Friends Co-workers

• Serve expressive needs -
  provide emotional
  support, sense of
  belonging
             Secondary Groups
• Formal, large, impersonal
classmates          teachers   employees


• Serve instrumental
  needs, accomplish
  a specific task
                 Reference Groups
• Groups that individuals compare
  themselves to regularly                 Pussycat Dolls
                                          “When I Grow Up”

• Can have positive or negative effects

• influence self-evaluation and
  therefore self-esteem
                   In group vs. Out group
                          Us vs. Them
W.I. Thomas

• Attribution Theory: Whether we
  see someone as part of our in or
  out groups can distort our
  perceptions of their motives,
  capabilities, and actions

• Attributions errors: wrong
  assumptions we make about a
  group
              Crime vs. Deviance
Crime                    Deviance

Breaking the laws of a   Breaking the norms of a
society                  society
   How do we get info about crime?
• Official statistics
• Victimization surveys
• Self-report offender surveys
  Problems With Official Statistics
• Many crimes are not reported.
• Rates may be exaggerated.
  What causes criminal behavior?
1)Biological theories
2)Psychological theories
3)Sociological theories

* When choosing a crime article for assignment 5, avoid crimes
that seem more psychologically based
   What causes criminal behavior
      Sociological theories
Structural Functionalism
1. Strain theory
2. Crime can be functional
Symbolic Interactionism
3. Control theory
4. Labeling theory
5. Deterrence theory
6. Differential Association
7. Conflict Perspective
         Structural Functionalism
Deviance occurs because the structure of society
makes it impossible for some people to achieve
success in legitimate ways
              Structural Functionalism
                           Robert Merton
               Strain Theory/Theory of Anomie

Strain theory: when people believe a goal is important
but do not have legitimate means to attain it,
they experience strain

state of anomie-a sense of normlessness



Merton created a list of the modes of adaptation to a state of
anomie
                       Robert Merton
                 Strain Theory/Theory of Anomie

Cultural goal = goal that most people in society feel is important
  financial success

Institutionalized means = legal and approved way of attaining the goal
 go to college and apply for a high paying job
 work hard to perfect your talent and receive a high pay for it

                      Society’s Goals: ___
                      Society’s Way: ___
                 Merton- Strain Theory
1. Innovation- accept society’s goal but find their own
  means of attaining it                Society’s Goals: yes
                                          Society’s Way: no

                                Example: Drug Dealer
                  Merton- Strain Theory
2. Ritualism- do not buy into the goals of society but
  follow the routines                            Society’s Goals: no
                                                     Society’s Way: yes




Example: an apathetic high school student
                Merton- Strain Theory
3. Retreatism- reject the goals of society and retreat from
  society
                                               Society’s Goals: no
  Example: drug addict                         Society’s Way: no
                 Merton –Strain Theory
4. Rebellion- rejecting the values of society substitute a
  new set of values.
                            Society’s Goals: no, makes own goals
                            Society’s Way: maybe


                          Example:
                          Animal rights activist
                    Merton- Strain Theory
           Those who don’t feel strain/anomie conform:
5. Conformity- individuals who accept society’s goals as well
   as society’s way of attaining these goals.
                                    Society’s Goals: yes
                                    Society’s Way: yes




 Example: Business owner
         Other structural functionalist
                  viewpoints
Crime is functional for society
• Strengthens group cohesion: people
  unite to express outrage over a criminal violation.
• Punishment reiterates boundaries of
  what is considered right or wrong
• May inspire social change
Structural functionalist Review
emphasize how deviants are products of society

                     Deviance occurs because
                     the structure of society
                     makes it impossible for
                     some people to achieve
                     success in legitimate ways
         Symbolic Interactionism
                  Control theory
A strong social bond between individuals and
society keeps most individuals from violating social
norms.
      Can you match the labels to the photograph?
librarian sex offender lawyer teacher surgeon student CEO




1                     2                       3




4
            5             6               7
  librarian                           CEO
                        teacher




sex offender
               lawyer      surgeon   student
            Labeling Theory
Society creates deviants by labeling those who
have been apprehended as different
• Self-fulfilling prophecy
• Example: “Spurters”
  Other symbolic interactionist views
              Differential Association Theory
Interaction with others teaches
individuals:
• values and attitudes associated
   with crime
• techniques and motivations for
   criminal behavior
Some say the interaction can be virtual
(through video games, movies, music)

What do you think? Can video games
or violence in movies increase criminal
behavior?
   Differential association theory
argue that certain groups or subcultures have
  criminal acts woven into the texture of life
               Deterrence Theory
People commit crimes if the perceived
  consequences do not outweigh the potential
  benefit


  Example:
  Cheating
  Plagiarism
          Symbolic Interactionism Review
  emphasizes the importance of labels, group influence,
                   and consequences




Deviance is learned through
• groups we interact with
• the labels we acquire
• choice is based on cost/benefit assessment
Conflict theory emphasizes how the criminal
justice system is controlled by a small group
          of people who have power

                             •Sees the law as an
                             instrument of
                             oppression
Conflict theory real world example
In 2002, Firestone executives let faulty
tires remain on U.S. vehicles, even though
they were recalling the tires in Saudi
Arabia and Venezuela.
More than 200 Americans died from
accidents
Firestone- manufacturing defective tires,
Ford- equipping vehicles with tires that
were too small

No Firestone or Ford Executive
went to jail




                                             (Henslin, 2006)
Conflict theory
real world example


Hughes Electronics
Boeing Satellite Systems

2003, two leading U.S. aerospace companies, were accused of illegally
exporting missile technology to China.
The technology allowed China to improve its delivery system for
nuclear weapons, therefore placing the United States at risk.
The two companies pled guilty and paid fines.

No executives from Hughes or Boeing went to jail. (Henslin, 2006)
Whites, Latinos, and Blacks arrested for      Percentages of Marijuana Use, by
Marijuana Possession in New York City         Race/Ethnicity: 2000




                                           Source: The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
                                           http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/YouthMJuse/YouthMJuse.htm
           White Collar Crime
Crimes committed in course of employment
• Occupational - individuals commit crimes in
  the course of their employment.
• Corporate - corporations violate law to
  maximize profit.
                Conflict Theory Review

   Social inequality leads to crimes as a means of
    economic survival.

   Those in power define what is criminal.

   Law enforcement penalizes those without power
    (often racial minorities or those of lower
    socioeconomic status) and benefits those with
    power.
             Real World Connections
Read the crime/news incident

ANSWER THE QUESTIONS WITH YOUR GROUP

Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?


(There is NOT one right answer)
1. Always introduce yourself when working with new students
2. Every group member must contribute
3. Allow others to complete their thoughts
4. Ask others for input
5. Be respectful
6. Focus and put in your best effort
-Not a time to check cell phones
-Not a time for restroom breaks
7. Stop talking when buzzer goes off
8. Listen when other groups share
  Parents of Dead Mexican Teenager
        Sue U.S. Government
A) Summarize the incident

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
    Bronx Woman Arrested for Illegal
          Breast Enlargements
A) Summarize the incident

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
       Jailed For Switching Her Daughters School
                         District

A) Summarize the crime

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
       Paralyzed After Tased By 2 Cops
A) Summarize the crime

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
     Boyfriend Arrested After Girl Dies Following
        Knife Attack at California High School

A) Summarize the crime

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
    5 Charged in Drug Ring Police Call
             Gang-Related
A) Summarize the crime

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
     LAPD Defends Officers Who Shot
          Man During Struggle
A) Summarize the incident

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
  Drug mule caught with almost a kilo of cocaine
        inside his body at Brazilian airport

A) Summarize the crime

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
       Gold's High Price Leads to Brazen Necklace
                        Robberies

A) Summarize the crime

B) Which sociological explanation of deviance best explains the crime?

Why?




               Real World Connections
                         Coming up
• Due Monday A #5
• Look for an article about a recent crime in the news (local or
  global).
• Write a paragraph summarizing the crime and describe which
  sociological explanation of deviance you think best explains this
  crime and explain why.
• Include the news source and date of crime.
• More details on website.
• 8 points
• Must be typed
         Black men in the United States are 6.6 times more
         likely than white men to be incarcerated. More
Latino
         than 10% of all Black males ages 25 to 39 were in
         prison or jail as of June 30, 2008. (Humanrightswatch.org April 09)

								
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