Vocabulary and Grammar in Context - English Online by zkbUE6XQ

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									English Teacher’s Network Workshop


  Vocabulary & Grammar
       in Context

  David Quartermain & David Sansom
            March 2012
What problems do your students have learning, remembering and using
vocabulary and grammar in English?
Here’s what you said on the Englishonline blog:
“It’s difficult to make vocabulary   “Students can memorise words but
teaching vivid and interesting”      they still can’t use them”
“How can I make boring words         “Most students think vocabulary
look interesting?”                   and grammar are very boring”



      British Council           Help students remember
    questionnaires to           Help students understand
    teachers in China           Increase student motivation
   about grammar and            Create meaningful context
  vocabulary in context:        Provide methods & activities
                      Memorising words is not the same as
                      remembering words!

Short-term memory:               Long-term memory:
 • No connection with             • New words connected
   existing knowledge               to existing knowledge
• Little opportunity to
                                  • New words are put to work
  use new words
• Easily forgotten                 • New words regularly
                                     recycled
context                                  [‘kɒn tekst]
  noun
1.the parts of a written or spoken statement that precede or
follow a specific word or passage, usually influencing its
meaning or effect:
    The Language Context

2. the set of circumstances or facts that surround a
   particular event, situation, etc.
   The Situation Context



  http://dictionary.reference.com/
                       Meaning depends on context

1) book

   Do you have a book about England?
  I want to book a hotel room in Beijing.

2) bank
    I’m going to the bank to borrow money.
    Let’s go to the river bank for our picnic.

3) present
  Thank you for the birthday present.
  David will present today’s workshop.
   Context lives inside the head of the student
A teacher asks a student, “If I give you 2 rabbits, then give you 2
more rabbits, how many rabbits do you have?”

The students answers, “Five.”

The teacher asks again: “Listen. I give you 2 rabbits. Then 2 rabbits.
How many rabbits do you have?”

“Five,” replies the student.

“How can 2 rabbits plus 2 rabbits equal 5?!” shouts the teacher.

“Because,” says the student, “I’ve already got one rabbit at home.”
           Meaningful
A meaningful context is relevant to:

• the place you are using language in
• what you are using the language for
• the person who is using the language
                                Vocabulary + Context



The more common vocabulary is, the greater the need for
  context to help students find out meanings and uses
                  e.g. apple, fire, can…

           This means the need is greatest
            at Primary and Junior levels


       So how do we bring context into
                 teaching?
                 Words go together       1.   
                             组合词 Collocations




FLTRP Junior High Module 2
          组合词 Collocations 2.       

          a chance



           notes
an exam                    a rest


                     the bed
                   Take …       2.   

          a chance



           notes
an exam                     a rest


                      the bed
                   Make …       2.   

          a chance



           notes
an exam                     a rest


                      the bed
               Break …         2.   

          a chance



           notes
an exam                    a rest


                     the bed
                  组合词 Collocations

How often do you…?
Break the law
              Break a promise
Make a complaint
                  Make a list
 Take a chance

                Take a holiday
                 Provide a
              personal context
                                 3.   
Find Someone Who…
1) Has been to Macau        ………….

2) Has ridden a camel        ………….

3) Has seen a ghost         ………….

4) Has kissed an Englishman…………
                                                      • Months
                                                      • Seasons
                                                      • Weather

                      Summer
             A.   Something you do
             B.   Something you see
Spring       C.   Something you eat or drink      Autumn
             D.   An adjective

                        Winter
                              Relevant
                  = things that are related to your
                    situation and your students



PEP Primary G5B – Unit 3
                                          A.   Play tennis
                                          B.   Olympic Games
A.   Carry an umbrella                    C.   Beer
B.   Rain              Summer             D.   Wet
C.   Easter egg
D.   Wet             In London…
              Spring                 Autumn
                                     A.   Play football
A.   Catch a cold       Winter       B.   Fallen leaves
B.   Rain and snow                   C.   Beer
C.   Christmas cake                  D.   Damp (wet + cold)
D.   Freezing (wet and very cold!)
                         Provide a
                         Meaningful
                          context

                    Polar Bear Story
www.teachingenglish.org.uk/language-assistant/primary-tips/polar-bear-story
                                   Have I got………?
                      A baby polar bear asks his mother, “Mummy have I
                      got polar bear ears?” His mother says, “Yes, of
                      course”.
                      He then asks, “Have I got polar bear paws?” and
                      “Have I got polar bear fur?”, and both times his mother
                      says “Yes, of course”.
                      He then asks his father, “Have I got polar bear ears?”
                      “Of course.” “Have I got polar bear paws?” “Of course.”
                      “Have I got polar bear fur?” “Of course,” says his
                      father for the third time.
                      “Then why do I feel so cold?!” says the baby polar
                      bear!

        The objective is for students to ask as many “Have I
       got…?” questions as they can. The story is providing a
           learning context for practising this structure.

www.teachingenglish.org.uk/language-assistant/primary-tips/polar-bear-story
                                          True for you?

“Yes” for me                “No” for me        “I don’t know”
 Raise both                  Cross your      Put both your hands
 your hands                    arms             on your head


  I’ve got a beautiful smile
    I’ve got lots of marking to do!
       I’ve got a headache
          I’ve got an i-phone
               I’ve got a daughter
                  I’ve got green eyes
                     I’ve got a husband
                                                   One Word Story

     Each student adds one word to create a group story. Despite the
                simplicity, it can be really challenging...”



                 saw                         three
                                                                     students
             I
                                                                       who
   Yesterday
                                                                          were

                                                                           ……

http://www.englishonline.org.cn/en/teachers/games/one-word-stories
       Look for context clues
       Context clues are bits of
       information from the text that
       allow you to decide the
       meaning of unknown words
       in the article you are reading.

內容提示是指一些從文本中所得的資料,以
便閣下判斷正在閱讀之文章中的一些未明單
詞之意思。
Definition Context clues
The baboon, like other apes, is a very social
animal.

Synonym Context clues
After seeing the picture of the hungry children,
we felt compassion or pity for their suffering.

Antonym Context clues
Da Wei was reluctant to accept the job.
However, Xiao Wei was very happy to be given
the role.
                     Context Clues   1.   




FLTRP Junior High Module 2
                             Text in Context

                 How good is your Portuguese?


1. How many of these animals escaped?
2. Which country is the story in?
3. What is the name of the hurricane (typhoon)
   that led to the animals escaping?
4. What is the name of the Governor in the
   State where this happened?
5. When did this happen?
                                                   4.   
                     Atualizado em 21 de setembro, 2010


Cerca de 280 crocodilos escaparam de um viveiro na
cidade mexicana de La Antigua (Estado de Veracruz),
devido a uma inundação causada pela passagem do
furacão Karl, no último fim de semana.

A informação inicial era que 400 crocodilos teriam escapado,
mas o número foi retificado nessa segunda-feira pelo
governador do Estado, Fidel Herrera Beltrán. “Estou
avaliando a situação com a Marinha, mas espero que não
haja maiores danos porque a água está baixando
consideravelmente”, afirmou.
                How did you know the answers?

Your knowledge of the world.
Your analysis of the questions.
Your knowledge of capital letters and names.
The text surrounding the answer.
Your knowledge of English.
Your ability to see similarities.
Your confidence in guessing.
         Context
      helps students
       predict new
        vocabulary




FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
When I was learning French at school…
Students read text.
Students did exercises on vocabulary.
Teacher corrected mistakes.
Students didn’t understand.
Students tried (and failed) to remember vocabulary.
An alternative method…
Teacher introduces context of text.
Students think about context for themselves.
Teacher guides students to key vocabulary.
Students develop understanding of text.
Students are better able to do exercises.
              Introducing the context of the text…




 The teacher asks the students:

Do you remember your first day at
          this school?
 How did you feel: happy, lonely?
    Did you speak to anyone?
 How did you make new friends?
                  Cough Dictation

“When I cough, tell your partner what you
think the missing word (or words) could be.”
(The teacher reads the first part of the text, coughing on
certain words. Students have their books closed, and guess
together what the missing word(s) were…)
                                               5.   
   When I was 13 years old, a boy gave me an
                            (1)…smile…
   important gift. It was a (1)……………
   It was early autumn of my first year at a (2) ………
                                                 Junior
   school, and my old school was far away. As a As
   High school, and my old school was far away.
   a result, (3)…………… knew who II was. II was
             (3) ..nobody.. knew who was. was
   result, (3)…………… knew who I was. I was very
   very (4)………………., and afraid to make
         (4)……lonely…..,         afraid to make
   (4)………………., and afraid to make (5)………….
   with anyone. with anyone.
   (5)..friends…
   (5)…………. with anyone.
   Every time I heard the other students talking and
       ………………., I felt my heart (7)………………
   (6) ...laughing…, I felt my heart (7)……………… . .
                                      (7)…..break……
   I couldn’t talk to anyone about my problem, and I
                               (8)…..worry……
   didn’t want my parents to (8)……………… about
   me.
FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
                         The teacher continues reading the text, and
                         this time the students predict the final words
                         of this passage….


   Then one day, my classmates talked happily with
   their friends, but I sat at my desk unhappily as
   usual.
   At that moment, a boy entered the classroom.
   I didn’t know who he was. He passed me and then
   turned back. He looked at me and, without a word,
   smiled.
   Suddenly, I felt the touch of something bright and
   friendly. It made me feel (happy, lively and warm.)


FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
                         Now the students can start using some the
                         new vocabulary from the text….




  That smile changed ……..my life
                          my life
                          the other students
                         the other students
  I started to talk with ………
                                     everyone
                                    everyone
  Day by day, I became closer to ……..
                                           my best friend
  The boy with the lucky smile became my………...
                                           but he couldn’t
  One day, I asked him why he smiled, …………….
  remember smiling at me!
  Now I believe that the world is …………………….
                                   what you think it
  If youI think you are lonely, ……………………..…. is
  Now believe that the world is …………………….
  If you think the are lonely, you’ll always be alone
  So smile at you world and ………………………….
                                …………………..….
                               and it will smile back
  So smile at the world and ………………………

FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
           And the students can start making their own
           personal, relevant sentences with the key
           vocabulary and grammar structures….

                 18
a) When I was …………………..
    my brother
b) …………………. gave me a gift
            a book
c) It was ………………….
          book
d) That …………….. changed my life
                    read more
e) I started to ………………………
              interested in studying
f) I became ……………………..
        I went to university
g) So ……………………..
                             Taking the language off the page


                        And the students can use the key vocabulary
                        and grammar from the text in a
                        communicative activity….



                                          … smile?
     How often
                                        …feel lonely?
     do you…
                                 …give someone a gift?
                                …feel your heart break?
                                      …worry about your
                                        classmates?
                                  …make new friends?


FLTRP Junior High Grade 2B Module 2
Students have thought about the context

Students have guessed vocabulary in context

Students have a clear idea of general meaning

Students have seen vocabulary used in context

Students have used key vocabulary in context
                          Stories provide a context


                     “Money Story”

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/lesson-plans/vocabulary-lesson-money



      Tip:
      Find some good pictures to help your students understand
      any new vocabulary, e.g. to steal, ATM, to withdraw money,
      broke, save money, etc.
                                              “Money Story”
Using the pictures to stimulate students’ imagination, and to help explain
the meaning of new words, the teacher reads the following story:


                          Money Vocabulary Story

Da Wei works in a factory and earns 1,000 RMB a month. His brother Xiao Wei
is a business man in Beijing and makes 1,000 RMB a day! Da Wei saves nearly
all of his wages and only spends a little on food. Sometimes, he invests money
in shares.
Xiao Wei wastes all his money on gambling. Last week, Xiao Wei lost all his
money playing cards. Now he’s totally broke!
He often borrows money from Da Wei, but never pays him back so now he
owes him a fortune.
Da Wei is really lucky and he found 10,000 RMB next to a cashpoint machine
last week, when he was withdrawing some money.
He invited Xiao Wei to his house to celebrate, but when he was there, Da Wei
saw him stealing money from his wallet.
Da Wei decided never to lend Xiao Wei money again.
           Money Verbs

• Lend      • Earn
• Save      • Make
• Spend
            • Owe
• Invest
            • Find
• Waste
             • Withdraw
• Lose
• Borrow     • Steal
                                Money Verbs

          Matching Exercise


1. Withdraw money         a. To get money by working
                          b. The opposite of win or find
2. Earn money             c. To take money out of a bank
3. Waste money               account
                          d. To spend money on things you
4. Lose money                don’t need
                                      Money Verbs

Now the students can
use some of this          Which company
vocabulary to ask and    would you like to
answer real, relevant,   invest money in?
personal questions…


                                             How much money
  What did you last                          would you like to
  waste money on?                            earn each month?
                                       Creating a Story
 • Wake up

 • Get dressed
                                Any text or story in
 • Have a cold                  the course book can
                                be used like this. The
                                students listen to the
 • Sore throat
                                story, make their own
                                stories using the key
 • Loud sneeze                  vocabulary, and then
                                ask and answer real
                                questions.
 • Take medicine

  • Feel better



Vocabulary from: Success with English Unit 4 & 5
                                      Stories provide context
                                        … so do dialogues!


                  He feels tired



                                         What should we
                                             do??



                               Let’s ……



Taken from: ‘Go for it’ Unit 2 &‘Success with English’ Unit 4
                                      Stories provide context
                                        … so do dialogues!


       He feels ……..
        (adjective)                           Use the vocabulary already in
                                              the book, e.g. adjectives (cold,
                                              hot, tired, worried…), and the
                                              students can create their own
                                              dialogues, using the key
    What should we                            vocabulary and structure, and
        do??                                  helping each other to provide a
                                              learning context and remember
                                              the meaning and use of the
                                              words.
         Let’s ……
       (suggestion)


Taken from: ‘Go for it’ Unit 2 &‘Success with English’ Unit 4
                                 Grammar & Context



   Grammar can also
   be taught in context


         Make it into a
           task…




PEP Primary G5-B (Unit 3 p.33)
                                                 Grammar & Context

                                 Students work in pairs to ask and
                                 answer questions about their real lives:
   Key vocabulary:
       birthday              1. When is your birthday?
      computer               2. Do you like to use a
         card
          like                      computer?
         have                3. Do you like to send cards?
         send
                             4. Who do you send cards to ?
                             5. Do you have a computer?
                             6. Do you send e-cards?

PEP Primary G5-B (Unit 3 p.33)
                                         Grammar & Context


             Class survey
         In this class, how many          Here’s another activity
         people…..                        to get students using,
                                          thinking about, and
         … send e-cards?                  learning the key
                                          vocabulary and
         … use a computer every day?      grammar – completing
         … have a birthday this month?    a simple survey of their
         … like to receive e-cards?       classmates in groups.
         … have a computer at home?
         … make cards?


PEP Primary G5-B (Unit 3 p.33)
                                Text and grammar   6.   




Go for it! Junior High G2B – Unit 3 p.20
                                Text and grammar   6.   
       Target language:
       Past continuous with when and while

   I had a very unusual experience yesterday evening.
                  watching TV
   I was at home ………………………………..….
   (what were you doing?)
                  I heard a loud noise… .
   When suddenly ………………………….…….
   (what happened)



Go for it! Junior High G2B – Unit 3 p.20
                                Text and grammar

       Target language:
       Past continuous with when and while

    What were you doing …..?

      …at 10 o’clock yesterday evening?


      …at 9am last Monday?




Go for it! Junior High G2B – Unit 3 p.20
                  “The major difference between the new textbook and past
                  teaching materials is to leave room for imagination for the
                                            students”


                                        Teachers no longer “teach textbooks”
                                             but “teach with textbooks”

                      “They should use the textbooks in a more flexible and
                    creative way according to the actual needs of the students
                                        and classroom ”


Liu Daoyi 刘道义
人民教育出版社课程教材研究所顾问
Liu, Daoyi (2005). On evaluation criteria of English teacher materials. FLC Journal, 2(6), Nov 2005, pp14-17, 23
                What have we learnt?

Students have problems memorising and using vocabulary
Without context, vocabulary can be meaningless
Words go together
We must consider both a language context
As well as a personal context
Provide a meaningful context
Grammar can also be taught in context
Building a context helps students predict new vocabulary
Look for context clues
Stories provide a context
So do dialogues

								
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