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Training Report (L&T)

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					                                  2012
                                  Larsen & Toubro Ltd.,
                                  Hazira

                                  AKASH KUMAR




  “It’s all about Imagineering”




[TRAINING REPORT]
                                                              Training Report                                                                 2012




Contents
PREFACE ....................................................................................................................................... 4
Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 5
History............................................................................................................................................. 6
Current Scenario ............................................................................................................................. 7
L&T Profile ..................................................................................................................................... 8
Networks of Offices and Works ..................................................................................................... 9
Products and Services ................................................................................................................... 10
L&T Hazira Works Profile ........................................................................................................... 11
Hazira location advantages ........................................................................................................... 11
Product Range ............................................................................................................................... 13
       BIGLIFT: .............................................................................................................................. 13
       ROLLDOCK: ........................................................................................................................ 13
Clients of L&T .............................................................................................................................. 14
TYPES OF VESSELS: ................................................................................................................. 15
There are various systems in a Vessel: ......................................................................................... 17
1. BILGE SYSTEM ...................................................................................................................... 18
Sewage Treatment system............................................................................................................. 20
     2. COOLING WATER SYSTEM: ........................................................................................ 24
3. LUBRICATION SYSTEM:...................................................................................................... 26
3.1 Engine Lubricating System Components ........................................................................ 26
4. EXHAUST SYSTEM ............................................................................................................... 30
        4.2 Marine engines ............................................................................................................ 30
5.      WATER BALLAST SYSTEMS: ......................................................................................... 31
     INTRODUCTION: ................................................................................................................... 31
      LAYOUT OF SINGLE WATER BALLAST TANK: ...................................................... 33
6.      FUEL SYSTEM: ................................................................................................................... 34
6.1        Fuel system for an in line pump .................................................................................... 34
       Fuel transfer pumps ........................................................................................................... 38
6.3 Fuel Storage and Handling Systems: ............................................................................... 39
Conclusion & Bibliography .......................................................................................................... 42


Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                                                                            Page 2
                                    Training Report                                2012



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT


      First of all I would like to thank L&T, Hazira (Ship Building) for providing me
      this wonderful opportunity for working in PIPING SYSTEMS as an In Plant
      Trainee.

      My project guides Mr.Shrinag R Shettigar (BIGLIFT PMG) and Mr Jaspert
      Koster (COFELY GDF SUEZ) For playing the most pivotal role in completion of
      my project and also providing a deep insight about the industrial and technical
      aspects of L&T in great details.

      I would also like to thank Mr. Bhavesh Nikumbh, Mr Anand Parmar , Mr
      Sankalp Patil, Mr Saumil B Bhatt, Mr Rajiv, for being helpful throughout my
      training in many aspects.

      I would also like to thank Mr. Krupal Vijekar & Mr. Hemant (H. R.
      Department) for providing me this great opportunity in Serving in SHIP
      BUILDING.

      My Heartiest Gratitude to all who shaped my great efforts in this project and gave
      me right direction from the best of their knowledge and experience.

      The things that I have learned here gave me a vision of better tomorrow that will
      help in shaping of a better future.

      The kind of Exposure that I have acquired here shall help me in Aspiring for
      further studies in the technical field.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                  Page 3
                                       Training Report                                   2012




PREFACE

       It is very important to understand the practical way of doing work in an
organization; the real philosophy of doing work in an organization may be more fruitful
way of learning. The project work provides student, the opportunity to get exposure of
the real essence of working in an organization and thereby to correlate the theoretical and
practical aspects of working in a real life situation, inevitable for one’s career.
      The present report contains the details of the details of my work at the L & T
during my training period. This report also contains the information about the Various
Systems used in Ship which I have visited during my training period.
      I realized the essence of the Industrial training while undergoing this training
program. I have also understood the need of practical knowledge for a fresh engineer
along with the theoretical knowledge.
       It is necessary for an engineer to develop technical, analytical skills so as to enable
him to become competitive and distinguished from the others.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                        Page 4
                                      Training Report                                   2012




Introduction




“It’s all about Imagineering”

L&T, a brand name known to the whole world for its marvelous extraordinary service is
a dream for many. “It’s all about Imagineering” the new tag line of L&T is the blend of
two words Imagine and Engineering and L&T makes something that one can only
imagine.

In this age of cutting edge technologies, the scenario of the race for the technology is like
the more we try to chase the horizon; the more difficult it becomes to maintain the pace.
And till they hope to overrun the horizon survives, newer technologies will keep on
emerging.

Prior to this, the tag line was “We make the things that make India Proud”. They
really make those things that our motherland is proud of. This organization has excelled
in every field be it Engineering, Construction, IT, Machinery, Electrical etc. and now
they are stepping ahead with Ship Building.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                       Page 5
                                     Training Report                                 2012


History




                                      Figure 1




       What began in 1938 with two Danish engineers and a dream is today India’s
largest multi–dimensional engineering and Construction Company.

       In 1938, Henning Holck Larsen and Soren K. Toubro set up a partnership in a
small office in downtown Mumbai (then Bombay). They marked Danish dairy
equipments. A year later, when World War II broke out, the fledging Company’s genius
for innovation came to the fore. It began to make the products it used to import.

       In 1945, L&T was appointed dealer of Caterpillar, the American earthmoving
machinery giant. In 1946, the firm became a limited company, and soon a nationwide
network of office was set up. The wheels of growth, which would propel the company to
its position of distinction, had been set into motion. And long before mission statements
became industry buzzwords, L&T had set out a charter for itself, the company would
meet the needs of India’s emerging core sector. Side by side, the business philosophy laid
emphasis on customer service.

        ‘In Service Lies Success’ was enshrined as a corporate motto. L&T steadily
climbed the list of the top 200 Indian companies – from 72 in 1966 to 25 in 1973. By
then, it had developed a vast repertoire of skills and a reputation for high quality goods
and services.



Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                    Page 6
                                      Training Report                                  2012


       Over the years this partnership firm started growing, driven by the vision of its
founders. It got converted into a private limited company in 1946 and later acquired the
status of a ‘limited’ company in 1950. During the year 1974, Mr. Henning Holck-Larsen
handed over the company’s baton to its first Indian CEO & MD, Mr.N.M.Desai.



Current Scenario

       L&T have now come a long way from little office in Mumbai of 1938. Presently,
their offices are spread around the globe. During the last 3 decades, the company
maintained its robust growth and grew from strength to strength. It presently has a strong
reputation for the quality of its products and reliability of its services. It enjoys market
dominance, and holds a leadership position in India in most of the areas in which it
operates. In India, they have a visible and vibrant presence. Some of India’s most
complex industrial equipment carries the L&T mark of excellence. But some things
haven’t changed. Their core values and unshakable belief was that if we keep adding
value to the customer, he would keep coming back to us.

      Larsen & Toubro Limited is India's largest engineering and construction
conglomerate with additional interests in IT, cement and electrical business. It is a
technology-driven engineering and construction organization, and one of the largest
companies in India's private sector. In April 1999, the present CEO& MD,
Mr.A.M.Naik took over the reins of the Company.

        With factories and offices located around the country, further supplemented by a
comprehensive marketing and distribution network, L&T enjoys an image and equity in
virtually every district of India.

       The Company has an international presence, with a global spread of offices and
joint ventures with world leaders. L&T’s large technology base and pool of experienced
personnel enable it to offer integrated services in world markets.

        L&T is consistently expanding the magnitude, scope and range of its operations to
offer value-addition to client and shareholder alike. With its unique strengths –
technological sophistication, quality consciousness, and top-class manpower – L&T
strides into the future, confident of conquering the challenges ahead.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                      Page 7
                                      Training Report                                2012


L&T Profile

      Market capital: Rs 50,000 crore
      Turnover: Rs 20,000 crore
      Manufacturing facilities: 20 locations
      Sales office: Countrywide

L&T is engaged in six principle business segments, and enjoys market dominance in all
of them-


      Engineering and construction
      Electrical and electronics equipments
      Construction equipments.
      Heavy engineering
      Communication
      Information technology
      Ship Building



    L&T distribution and service outreach underlines its strong customer orientation. The
network extends to virtually in the country. Business activities are organized under four
self-reliant Strategic Business Units (SBU’s), each specializing in the different products
lines. They meet the needs of vital industries: chemical, petrochemical, refinery,
fertilizer, oil and gas, power, steel and manmade fiber. Plant and equipment are designed
and manufactured to customers’ specifications and various international codes.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                    Page 8
                                     Training Report                                2012




Figure 2




Networks of Offices and Works

      The presence of L&T nationwide can be observed here. It covers almost the whole
of India. L&T has manufacturing facilities at 20 locations in India. Continuing
investment in upgrading facilities has resulted in a technology base on par with the best

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                   Page 9
                                    Training Report                           2012


in the industry worldwide. All the factories have secured ISO 9001 and other
certifications of the highest class.



Products and Services

L&T manufactures products and provides services related to the following:
      Aerospace Equipment
      Bulk Material Handling
      Cement & Allied Machinery
      Chemical Plants
      Cogeneration and Captive Power
      Construction Equipment
      Construction Services
      Control & Automation Systems
      Cutting Tools
      Electrical & Electronics
      Eutectic & Welding
      Fertilizer, Petrochemical & Heat Transfer Equipment
      Hydrocarbon & Related Projects
      Hydraulic Equipment
      Industrial Valves & Allied Products
      Information Technology
      Iron & Steel Castings
      Mining & Construction Machinery
      Nuclear Power Plant Equipment
      Oil & Gas & Special Projects
      Power




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                             Page 10
                                     Training Report                                 2012




L&T Hazira Works Profile


       This new manufacturing facility, covering an area of 200 acres, was created on the
banks of river Tapti at the outskirts of Surat city, 6 kms upstream of Arabian Sea, during
November 1987 with an initial investment of Rs.41 Cr. At Hazira Works (HZW), HED
has three Production Centers, PC-1, PC-2, and Large Equipment Manufacturing Facility
(LEMF). The first two Production Centers are under covered manufacturing shops. A
fourth production Centre - Modular Fabrication Facility (MFF) under E&C (Operating
Division) is meant for manufacture of equipment for Offshore Oil & Gas installations.
       L&T's Hazira Works is equipped to manufacture extra-large and very heavy
equipment for power projects, chemical, refinery, petrochemical and fertilizer industries,
oil exploration, and marine related sectors




Hazira location advantages

    Water front access for shipment of large & heavy products.

    Global network by V-SAT, facilitating exchange of information.

    295KM North of Mumbai, 21KM from Surat on the right bank of river Tapti.
     Unimpeded passage to Arabian Sea, 8KM away.

    Proximity to Surat - a prominent city, well connected by rail and road to all parts
     of the country.
    Rail - Broad gauge railway siding 5Km away.

    Road - located on state highway. National highway 26Km away

    Infrastructure advantage due to rapid industrialization of Hazira belt.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                   Page 11
                                       Training Report                                    2012


SHIPBUILDING Overview

L&T's Shipbuilding facility has been created at Hazira Works to cater to the needs of
growing global demand for construction of specialized oceangoing vessels.

The Shipbuilding facility recently set up for construction of high tech vessels and the
facilities at the shipyard include prefabrication facilities such as shot blasting and priming
, CNC cutting machine, semi panel line fabrication, unit assembly bay, block assembly
and a slipway to launch the vessels along with a jetty for outfitting jobs for the ships
under                                                                             construction.

The shipyard is geared up to take up construction of niche vessels such as specialized
Heavy lift Cargo Vessels, CNG carriers, Chemical tankers, defense & para military
vessels          and           other          role          specific          vessels.

Construction of specialized mid size vessels is being undertaken and capacity is being
augmented by additional infrastructure such as ship lift system and additional outfitting
workshops to extend the activities to ship repairs.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                       Page 12
                                     Training Report                                2012




Product Range


      BIGLIFT:

BigLift Shipping is one of the world’s leading heavy lift shipping companies, specialized
in worldwide ocean transportation of heavy lift and project cargoes, with a history going
back to 1973. BigLift strives for innovation, excellence and operational reliability,
adhering to high standards of Health, Safety, Environment and Quality and operating to
strict time schedules.


      ROLLDOCK:

RollDock is the can-do company for Roll on Roll Off / Load on Load Off shipping
problems. RollDock is a new company, with new vessels and new solutions for a new
age of heavy lift shipping.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                  Page 13
                                    Training Report                               2012




Clients of L&T

    Customers of L&T Shipbuilding basically fall into two categories.
    Sector: These generally consist of Refineries, petrochemicals, Fertilizers and Oil
      & Gas sectors. Till a few years ago most of our customers for such equipments
      were located in India –
    Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL)
    Bharat Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (BPCL)
    Hindustan Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (BPCL)
    Reliance Industries Limited (RIL)
    Krishak Bharti Corporation (KRIBHCO)
    IFFCO
    TATA Chemicals Limited
    Essar Steel Limited
    Gujarat Alkalies And Chemicals Limited
    Chennai Petrochemicals Limited
    But since last few years L&T has made its name across the globe. Customers from
      other countries are: -
    Exxon-Mobil Refineries in UK, USA, Canada and Europe
    Saudi Polyolefin- Saudi Arabia
    Petrobras Refineries-Brazil
    Bunduq – UAE
    TOSCO Refineries – Syria
    Petrocanada- Canada
    DOW Chemicals, USA




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                Page 14
                                      Training Report                                  2012


TYPES OF VESSELS:

Cargo ships/freighters can be divided into four groups, according to the type of cargo
they carry. These groups are:

   1.   General Cargo Vessels
   2.   Tankers
   3.   Dry-bulk Carriers
   4.   Multipurpose Vessels

General Cargo Vessels carry packaged items like chemicals, foods, furniture, machinery,
motor vehicles, footwear, garments, etc.

Tankers carry petroleum products or other liquid cargo.

Dry Bulk Carriers carry coal, grain, ore and other similar products in loose form.

Multi-purpose Vessels, as the name suggests, carry different classes of cargo – e.g. liquid
and general cargo – at the same time.

Specialized types of cargo vessels include container ships and bulk carriers (technically
tankers of all sizes are cargo ships, although they are routinely thought of as a separate
category). Cargo ships fall into two further categories that reflect the services they offer
to industry: liner and tramp services. Those on a fixed published schedule and fixed tariff
rates are cargo liners. Tramp ships do not have fixed schedules. Users charter them to
haul loads. Generally, the smaller shipping companies and private individuals operate
tramp ships. Cargo liners run on fixed schedules published by the shipping companies.
Each trip a liner takes is called a voyage. Liners mostly carry general cargo. However,
some cargo liners may carry passengers also. A cargo liner that carries 12 or more
passengers is called a combination or passenger-cum-cargo line.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                      Page 15
                                  Training Report                              2012




      BIGLIFT


      BigLift Shipping is one of the world’s leading heavy lift shipping
      companies, specialized in worldwide ocean transportation of heavy lift
      and project cargoes, with a history going back to 1973. BigLift strives
      for innovation, excellence and operational reliability, adhering to high
      standards of Health, Safety, Environment and Quality and operating to
      strict                         time                           schedules.

      A great variety of heavy and over-sized cargoes of long-standing clients in
      the oil & gas, mining and power generating industries, is carried worldwide
      by its modern fleet of thirteen specialized heavy lift vessels.

      All vessels are equipped with their own gear with capacities ranging upto
      1400 mt and some with ro-ro capability for loads up to 2500 mt.
      Furthermore, five multi-purpose heavy lift carriers with lifting capacity of 2
      * 400 mt and deadweight of 17,250 mt were recently added to our fleet. Two
      more vessels, with lifting capacities up to 1800 mt in tandem, will join the
      fleet                                in                                 2013.

      A team of dedicated, highly skilled professionals, with years of experience
      and the mindset to think creatively, enables us to offer innovative and safe
      solutions for clients’ technically and logistically complex requirements.
      Careful planning, engineering, coordination and supervision to ensure safe
      transportation       are       all       in       a        day's      work.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                             Page 16
                                  Training Report                                2012


There are various systems in a Vessel:

                                      Vessel




           Mechanical                     Piping                    Electrical

We have taken a project on the various piping systems as listed below:

   1. Bilge system
   2. Sewage Treatment system
   3. Water Ballasting
   4. Fuel system
   5. Lubrication system
   6. Exhaust system
   7. Cooling water system
          a. Fresh water cooling system
          b. Sea water cooling system




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                            Page 17
                                      Training Report                                 2012


1. BILGE SYSTEM


1.1 Introduction

The bilge is the lowest compartment on a ship where the two sides meet at the keel.
Bilge system is basically the system wherein we remove water accumulated in various
areas of the ship. For this, bilge tanks are constructed so that water getting collected is
pumped through suction lines with the help of bilge pumps.

             BILGE PUMPS:

             A bilge pump is a water pump used to remove bilge water. Since fuel
             can be present in the bilge, electric bilge pumps are designed to not
             cause sparks. Electric bilge pumps are often fitted with float switches
             which turn on the pump when the bilge fills to a set level. Since bilge
             pumps can fail, use of a backup pump is often advised. The primary
             pump is normally located at the lowest point of the bilge, while the
             secondary pump would be located somewhat higher. This ensures that
             the secondary pump activates only when the primary pump is
             overwhelmed or fails, and keeps the secondary pump free of the debris
             in the bilge that tends to clog the primary pump.

             Points To Remember:

   a. All suction pipes up to the connection with the bilge pumps are to be
      independent from any other piping system of the ship.
   b. Non-return valves are to be fitted on:
         o Direct and emergency suctions in machinery spaces.
         o The pipe connections to bilge distribution boxes.
         o The suctions of pumps having also connections from the sea or from
            compartments normally intended to contain liquid.
         o The direct suctions connected to independent bilge pumps, where
            required.
   c. All compartments are to be provided with at least one suction on each side.
      However, in the case of short and narrow compartments, a single suction
      ensuring an efficient draining may be accepted.

1.2 Draining of machinery spaces




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                    Page 18
                                     Training Report                               2012


   a. Machinery spaces of ships with double bottom, or where the rise of floor is less
      than 5°, are to be provided on each side with one bilge suction connected to the
      bilge main.
   b. Machinery spaces of ships without double bottom, or where the rise of floor
      exceeds 5°, may be provided with only one bilge suction located in the
      centerline and connected to the bilge main.
   c. In addition to the bilge suctions required in items a) and b), machinery spaces
      are to be provided with a direct suction, which is to be led direct to an
      independent power bilge pump and so arranged that it can be used
      independently of the bilge main.

1.3 Emergency bilge suction

   a. The emergency bilge suction is to be led directly from the drainage level of the
      machinery space to the greater capacity sea water pump. The emergency bilge
      suction is to be located at the lowest possible level in the machinery spaces.
   b. The diameter of emergency bilge suction pipes is to be at least the diameter of
      the suction connected to of the sea water pump in normal operation.
   c. The high of the hand-wheels of the non-return valves controlling emergency
      bilge suctions are to rise at least 450 mm above the maneuvering floor.
   d. If the requirement mentioned in d) cannot be verified, the height of the hand-
      wheels of the non-return valves is to be the minimum height to permit the easy
      operation of the valve.

1.4             Draining            of          refrigerated           spaces
Refrigerated spaces are to be provided with drainage arrangement allowing the
continuous drainage of condensates.

1.5 Draining of fore and aft peaks

   a. Fore and aft peaks, where not used as tanks, are to be fitted with a bilge suction
      connected to the bilge main.
   b. Peaks of small dimensions may be drained by means of a hand pump provided
      that the suction lift is well within the capacity of the pump and in no case
      exceeds 7,30 m.

1.6         Draining       of        double         bottom         compartments
Double bottom compartments, where not used as tanks, are to be provided with bilge
suctions. However, if deemed acceptable by the Society, the cofferdams fitted
between two different compartments of the double bottom may be provided with one
bilge suction only.


Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                 Page 19
                                     Training Report                               2012


1.7 Draining of other compartments

   a. Provision is to be made for the drainage of chain lockers and other fore spaces
      by means of hand or power pump suctions or hydraulic ejectors.
   b. Provision is to be made for the drainage of the steering gear compartment and
      other spaces located above the aft peak by means of suctions connected to the
      bilge main or by means of hand pumps or hydraulic ejectors.
   c. These spaces may, however, be drained by means of scuppers discharging to
      the shaft tunnel, provided that the discharge pipes are fitted with self-closing
      valves situated in easily visible and accessible positions.
   d. Fish processing spaces are to be fitted with drainage means, the capacity of
      which is four times the normal feed water flow in the space.


Sewage Treatment system

           Introduction
           Raw sewage in water needs oxygen to break down naturally. This sewage
           when disposed to the sea absorbs excessive oxygen and thus reduces the
           requisite amount of oxygen needed by the fishes and marine plants.
           Bacterias present in the sewage produces hydrogen sulfide gas which
           produces acrid smell. Human waste has E. Coli bacterias which are found in
           the intestine. The amount of E.Coli bacteria in a water sample indicates the
           sewage content of that sample.

           Sewage treatment plants on ships are of two types:

                 Chemical sewage treatment plant
                 Biological sewage treatment plant

               Different systems for the disposal of sewage may be found on ships
                 such as -
           (a) Collecting system: discharge from the toilet bowls into drains collecting
all such
           discharges which are led to the ship’s side and overboard through storm
           valves;
           (b) Collecting and storage tank system (with or without aeration facilities):
           sewage is
           collected as above but is led into storage tanks, where it is retained for
           disposal ashore or at sea.


Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                                 Page 20
                                    Training Report                          2012


         (c) Sewage treatment systems: a combination of collecting and treatment
         tanks, with
         processes designed to break down the sewage into effluent suitable for
         discharge into the sea without harmful effects.
(d) Vacuum collecting systems: where the system is maintained at reduced
pressure and operation of a valve at the toilet pan causes air, sewage and
flush water to be drawn through piping to the holding tank. (Treatment tanks
are generally at atmospheric pressure).
    When sewage is flushed from toilet pans it enters the drainage pipelines
     and storage tanks where it is broken down by naturally occurring
     bacteria; this is an aerobic process which strips oxygen from the water,
     producing more water, carbon dioxide and new bacteria. If sufficient
     oxygen is not present, alternative bacteria become dominant and the
     process becomes anaerobic with the production of gases including
     hydrogen sulphide, methane, ammonia, etc. These gases have highly
     toxic and flammable properties, inparticular, hydrogen sulphide is toxic
     to humans in concentrations as low as 10 parts per million and its
     flammable vapours are heavier than air so that potentially lethal pockets
     of gas may accumulate in enclosed spaces.
               Safety Parameters:
    The generation of toxic and explosive gases in the event of anaerobic
     conditions is present to different degrees in each system. It is evident
     from the foregoing that anaerobic conditions in sewage systems leading
     to the production of toxic and flammable gases are an unacceptable
     hazard within the confined boundaries of a ship.
    Various safety features can be incorporated in the design and operation
     of a sewage system. These are described below, but in general barriers
     between the sewage gases such as the water traps of the toilet bowls,
     ventilation of the pipework and tanks, etc., should only be considered
     only as providing secondary measures of protection: the prime safety
     feature is to prevent the production of hazardous gasses within the
     system in the first place.



               Storage and Treatment Tanks:
       (a) Sewage may be collected in storage tanks, either for holding prior
to transfer to a treatment unit, or for later discharge. Any tank used for holding
sewage is a potential source of anaerobic activity, and the resultant

Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                           Page 21
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production of toxic and flammable gas. The design of a tank may include
features for maintaining an adequate oxygen level in the liquid so as to
eliminate anaerobic conditions. These are based on direct air injection, or by
air entrainment into the liquid whilst pumping through an injector nozzle.
(b) When not equipped with an active aeration feature the conditions within
the storage
tanks should be monitored. They should be completely emptied and flushed
through at
intervals not exceeding 24 hours unless some other treatment is used which
maintains
satisfactory conditions.
(c) Where treatment systems use the aerobic digestion process, or other
means to purify
the effluent the manufacturer’s recommendations for operation and
maintenance should be followed to ensure satisfactory operation at all times.
All tanks and associated systems
should be subjected to a thorough inspection when unsatisfactory conditions
prevail, or at
not less than annual intervals. Such inspections should include the -
(i) Removal of tank inspection covers and cleaning out any deposits, paying
particular
attention to areas behind internal tank division;
(ii) Inspection of tank structure, internal divisions, pipework and internal
coatings to ensure they remain in satisfactory condition;
(iii) Checking of sensing instruments, level measuring devices and valves to
ensure they
are operating correctly;
(iv) Confirmation that air distribution systems are free from leaks and any
nozzles or
diffuser elements used to introduce air are in satisfactory condition;
(v) Check that any systems used to transfer tank contents are operational;
(vi) Inspection of any air blowers fitted including a check on whether the
discharge



Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                          Page 22
                                  Training Report                         2012


pressure is within allowable limits and if any relief valve fitted they are not
leaking;
It is recommended that any alarms fitted to air blower systems operate on
sensing of air
pressure rather than on the monitoring of electric motors, otherwise failure of
fan belts
Between fans and electric motors may not be detected.




Larsen & Toubro Limited, Hazira                                         Page 23
                                  Training Report                           2012


         2. COOLING WATER SYSTEM:

             A. Fresh water cooling system

Treated freshwater is used for internal cooling of diesel engines, thus avoiding
corrosion problems associated with seawater. Auxiliary diesel engines on
board ship generally have self-contained cooling systems using an engine-
driven pump to circulate freshwater through the jacket for cylinder cooling,
through the lubricating-oil cooler, and through the charge-air cooler.
Emergency-generator engines use an engine-driven, fan-cooled radiator
ducting air from the weather for rejecting heat. Auxiliary diesel-generator
engines usually use a seawater-to-freshwater heat exchanger.
For propulsion engines, the freshwater systems may be divided into
subsystems for charge-air cooling, lubricating-oil cooling, jacket-water cooling,
and sometimes, for fuel-injector cooling and piston cooling, as shown in Fig.
(a)




Figure (a): Freshwater cooling system
The jacket-cooling water has enough useful waste heat to be used as a heat
source for the ship's distiller. An expansion tank is installed, in a branch
connection to allow for expansion of the cooling water as it heats. An air
separator is installed in the line to ensure that the engine jacket does not

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become air-bound. Water losses are manually made-up to the expansion tank
from the freshwater system.
If pistons are water-cooled, as in some large, slow-speed, crosshead diesels,
the cooling water reaches the piston through telescoping tubes within the
crankcase. Most engines use oil to cool the pistons, making a separate
freshwater piston-cooling circuit unnecessary.

B. Sea water cooling system
On a ship the main propulsion engine is cooled by fresh water which is in turn
cooled by sea water in the huge central coolers.
The main propulsion & other auxiliary machineries generate heat due to the
combustion and other processes involved in performing of their operations.
This heat has to be transferred to some other medium, so that the
machineries can function properly within the safe operating parameters. The
ships main & auxiliary machineries are cooled by fresh water (as sea water
causes corrosion), and this fresh water is in turn cooled by the seawater in
huge heat exchangers. Thus the heat is extracted from the machineries and
heat balance is maintained. For the extraction of heat, the sea water has to be
conveyed at a particular pressure and volume. This is done by having 2 or
more main sea water pumps in the engine room. The sea water pumps
sufficiently cater the needs for the proper cooling of the fresh water and in turn
the machineries. Some of the components of the sea water system are:
1. High & Low Sea suctions.
2. Sea suction Filters and corresponding isolation valves.
3. Main sea water pumps.
4. Heat Exchangers.
5. Temperature adjusting valve (auto/manual) &
6. Overboard valve.




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3. LUBRICATION SYSTEM:


3.1 Engine Lubricating System Components

The following describes the function of components in an engine lubricating
system including:

 pumps
 relief and regulating valves
 full flow and bypass filters, magnetic filters
 heat exchangers and
 purifiers

3.2 Type of Pumps
                Oil pumps
                Gear type pump
                Rotor type pump
                Vane type pump

3.3 Type of Valves
      Relief valve
      Regulating valve

3.4 Type of Filters
      Full flow element type filter
The full flow filter requires all the oil to pass through it before entering the
bearings, etc. As all oil flowing to the engine must pass through this filter, a
by-pass valve is incorporated in the design to prevent oil starvation in the
event of the filter element becoming blocked.

The operation of the valve is that when the outlet pressure of the filter is below
that of the inlet pressure by a predetermined amount, the by-pass valve will
open allowing oil to continue to the bearings, etc. A typical opening pressure
would be 124 to 145 kPa (18 to 21 psi). Whilst the oil now flowing will not be

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filtered, this if preferable to insufficient oil. To prevent this undesirable
situation happening, change the filter element at the periods recommended by
the engine manufacturer or more regularly if operating conditions are not
normal.

      Bypass element type filter
The bypass filter continually filters a small portion of the lubricating oil that is
bled off and is returned to the sump. The main portion of the oil goes to the
engine. (Other types return the oil back into the flow to the cooler). Eventually
all of the oil passes through the filter.

      Centrifugal type filter
This filter is a unit which does not employ an element. It can be used by itself
or in conjunction with replacement element filters. These are centrifugal type
filters and may be driven by the oil pressure or direct from the engine. Any
solids in the oil are flung by a revolving drum to the sides of the rotor, where
they will remain until the unit is dismantled for cleaning. Washing in a suitable
cleaner is all that is required to put the unit back into service.

      Magnetic filter
A magnetic oil filter is used to remove small particles of metal usually from the
result of wear. A new or overhauled engine will shed minute particles of metal
until it beds in. A magnetic filter is therefore beneficial in this instance. Regular
inspections of the filter may also draw early attention to a problem.

The magnetic filter cannot be used on its own as it will not filter out the non-
metallic foreign particles.

The filter is a full flow type without a by-pass valve. It is so designed that metal
particles fill horizontal gaps between the iron rings from the top and working
downwards but still leave vertical spaces for the oil to flow.

The element consists of a permanent magnet enclosed by a non-magnetic
cylinder. A number of iron rings fit over and are attached to the cylinder. There
are small gaps between the iron rings to attract the metallic particles. The
element is situated in a non-magnetic casing.

The oil flow into the top of the filter and out at the bottom. Metallic particles are
attracted and fill the horizontal gaps between the iron rings.



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To clean the filter, the cover is taken off and the element is removed. One half
of the iron rings are removed at a time to avoid demagnetisation and cleaned.

3.5 Purifier




Where a large quantity of lubricating oil is used in an engine, it is not cost
effective to carry out oil changes. A purifier is therefore piped into the system
to remove impurities and water so it is possible to use the oil practically
indefinitely.

Oils used in a purifying system are usually non-detergent oils as the purifier
removes the detergent as well as the impurities.

It is preferable to install the purifier in a continuous by-pass system. The oil is
drawn from the lowest part in the system, heated up to approximately
80° C, passed through the purifier and returned to the system. Heating the oil
helps to separate the water from the oil.

The purifier works on centrifugal action. It has a high speed revolving bowl
filled with cone shaped metal discs with holes in them. The oil is fed into the
bowl at the top, and flows down the centre of the discs. Due to centrifugal
force, the heavier solids are thrown out to the side of the bowl. The water and
lighter solids move between the discs to their outer edge and are discharged.
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The clean oil, being lighter than the water, passes through the discs holes to
the clean oil discharge.

The heavier solids build up on the side of the bowl and regular cleaning is
required. Most purifiers these days are of the self-cleaning type.

In the purifier, provision is made to water wash the oil. Hot water together with
the oil is fed into the purifier. When it passes through the water seal of the
bowl, the two are separated and in doing so, a washing action occurs. Water
washing rids the oil of acids which are then discharged with the water.



3.6 Lubrication of a marine diesel engine
The purpose of lubricating oil is to prevent metal to metal contact. This is
achieved by providing a thin film of oil between moving parts.
It removes heat caused by friction.
It overcomes wear caused by friction.
It overcomes drag caused by friction.
It carries away some of the heat caused by the combustion process.
It acts as a detergent by removing metal dust and carbon and keeps them in
suspension so the filter removes them.
It assists the piston rings to seal on the cylinder liner walls, especially on the
compression and power strokes where higher pressures are involved.
It prevents the metal parts from rusting which is caused by corrosive gas or
moisture.




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4. EXHAUST SYSTEM

An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide reaction exhaust
gases away from a controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. The entire
system conveys burnt gases from the engine and includes one or
more exhaust pipes. Depending on the overall system design, the exhaust
gas may flow through one or more of:
     Cylinder head and exhaust manifold
     A turbocharger to increase engine power.
     A catalytic converter to reduce air pollution.
     A muffler (North America) / silencer (Europe), to reduce noise.


4.1 Design criteria
An exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic and/or noxious
gases        away       from       the       users     of     the        machine.
Indoor generators and furnaces can quickly fill an enclosed space with carbon
monoxide or other poisonous exhaust gases if they are not properly vented to
the outdoors. Also, the gases from most types of machine are very hot; the
pipe must be heat-resistant, and it must not pass through or near anything
that can burn or can be damaged by heat. A chimney serves as an exhaust
pipe in a stationary structure. For the internal combustion engine it is important
to have the exhaust system "tuned" (refer to tuned pipe) for optimal efficiency.
Also this should meet the regulation norms maintained in each country. In
European countries, EURO 5, India BS-4 etc.,
4.2 Marine engines
With an onboard diesel engine below-deck on marine vessels:-
     Lagging the exhaust pipe stops it from overheating the engine room
      where people must work to service the engine.
     Feeding water into the exhaust pipe cools the exhaust gas and thus
      lessens the back-pressure at the engine's cylinders' exhaust ports and
      thus helps the cylinders to empty quicker.




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   5. WATER BALLAST SYSTEMS:

INTRODUCTION:

When a large vessel such as a container ship or an oil tanker unloads cargo,
seawater is pumped into other compartments in the hull to help stabilize and
balance the ship. During loading, this ballast water is pumped out from these
compartments. Many new high performance racing and cruising sailboats are
being manufactured with built-in rigid internal water ballast tanks to improve
their upwind performance, without sacrificing downwind performance. This is
accomplished by filling the windward ballast tank with water while going
upwind to stabilize the sailboat, and emptying the ballast when going
downwind for less weight. Reducing the angle of heel not only increases
performance but also increases comfort and safety similar to sailing down
wind. The cockpit is much more comfortable and you have a safer working
platform, especially on the fore deck. Below deck tasks such as cooking,
using the head or sleeping (in improper sea berths) are made safer and easier
in heavy seas. Reefing is also minimized by stabilizing the boat in moderate
conditions and not having to depower the sails.
Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on
the sail. Insufficiently ballasted boats will tend to tip, or heel, excessively in
high winds. Too much heel may result in the boat capsizing. If a sailing vessel
should need to voyage without cargo then ballast of little or no value would be
loaded to keep the vessel upright. Some or all of this ballast would then be
discarded when cargo was loaded. A vessel may have a single ballast tank
near its center or multiple ballast tanks typically on either side. A large vessel
typically will have several ballast tanks including double bottom tanks, wing
tanks as well as forepeak and aftpeak tanks. Adding ballast to a vessel lowers
its center of gravity, and increases the draft of the vessel. Increased draft may
be required for proper propeller immersion.
    ADVANTAGES AND                   DISADVANTAGES              OF      USING
     BALLAST SYSTEMS:
          A ballast tank can be filled or emptied in order to adjust the
           amount of ballast force. Ships designed for carrying large
           amounts of cargo must take on ballast water for
           proper stability when travelling with light loads and discharge
           water when heavily laden with cargo. Small sailboats designed to
           be light weight for being pulled behind automobiles on trailers are

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             often designed with ballast tanks that can be emptied when the
             boat is removed from the water. Pumps can also be used to
             empty the leeward ballast tank and fill the windward tank as the
             boat tacks, and the quantity of ballast can be varied to keep the
             boat at the optimum angle of heel. On empty cargo vessels water
             is added to ballast tanks to increase propeller immersion, to
             improve steering, and to control trim and draft.
          A disadvantage of water ballast is that water is not very dense
           and therefore the tanks required take up more space than other
           forms of ballast. Some manufacturers offer flexible ballast bags
           that are mounted outboard of the hull on both sides, and pumps
           that use the boat's speed through the water for power. When
           under way, the pump can be used to fill the windward side, while
           the lee side is allowed to drain. This system, while not very
           attractive, does allow significant gains in righting force with no
           modifications to the hull.

A trick commonly used on boats with water ballast is to link port and starboard
tanks with a valve pipe. When preparing to tack, the valve is opened, and
water in the windward tank, which is higher, is allowed to flow to the lee side,
and the sheet is let off to keep the boat from heeling too far. Once as much
water as possible has been transferred to the lee side, the boat is brought
about and the sail sheeted in, lifting the newly full windward tank. A simple
hand pump can then be used to move any remaining water from the lee to the
windward tank.




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    LAYOUT OF SINGLE WATER BALLAST TANK:




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   6. FUEL SYSTEM:



      6.1 Fuel system for an in line pump
            The following description applies to free standing fuel tanks, a
multi element (in line) injector pump, and to engines on flexible mountings.
There will be variations, especially if the fuel tanks form part of the vessel’s
structure but the principles and safety features remain the same.

    Vent pipe - is fitted to the top of the fuel tank at the highest point when
     the vessel is in normal trim. This is to prevent an air lock developing. An
     air lock is when the tank is being filled, air or vapours become trapped in
     the top of the tank, are compressed, and when the pressure exceeds
     the filling pressure, fuel is forced out of the vent or filling pipes and a
     spill occurs. The smaller vent pipes terminate in a gooseneck, the end
     of which must be higher than the filling point. The end of the vent pipe
     has anti-flash wire gauze fitted to it. If the fuel vapours from the vent
     pipe ignite, the flames cannot penetrate the gauze and ignite the
     contents in the tank providing the size of the holes in the gauze are not
     too large.

             The purpose of the vent pipe is to:

               1.      Allow the escape of air and vapours when the tank is being
filled so it is not pressurised;

            2.   Allow air into the tank when fuel is being consumed so a
partial vacuum is not placed on the tank thereby stopping the engine;
and.

           3.    Allow normal expansion and contraction of the fuel due to
temperature change.

    Filling pipe - is fitted to the top of the tank and it is preferable that it be
     piped continuously to deck level. It does not have to be piped to the
     deck, if in the event of an overflow, the fuel will not run onto a hot
     surface and ignite. The end of the pipe is to be fitted with a sealed cap
     or plug.




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    Drain valve - is fitted to the lowest part of the tank. Its purpose is to
     drain water or sediment from the tank. A plug or cap is fitted so, if the
     valve vibrates open, the fuel is not lost or causes a fire risk.

             Water can be in the tank:

             1.     via coming with the fuel supply;

            2.    condensation due to the level in the tank being kept low for
a lengthy period;

           3.     through the deck fitting due to it not being secured and rain
or a wave entering; and

             4.     being mistaken for a water tank.

             6.2 Fuel contents gauge - There are a number of methods in
which to measure the amount of fuel in the tank. If the tank is fitted with a
gauge glass, the cocks or valves must be of the self closing type. To take a
reading, open the cocks or valves against a spring or lift a weighted handle
and, on letting go, it will automatically close. If the glass breaks or the plastic
tube perishes, it prevents all the fuel in the tank running into the bilges or in
the case of a fire, prevents all the fuel in the tank feeding the fire.

           If a sounding rod is used, a striking pad must be fitted to the
bottom of the tank to prevent damage to the tank itself through repeated
soundings.

             Inspection opening - is fitted in a position or a number may be
fitted to provide access to the whole tank. It allows the tank to be cleaned and
inspected.

              Baffle - They are fitted to prevent free surface effect. This affects
the stability of the vessel and in extreme cases can cause vessels to capsize.

             Fuel pick up - is fitted above the bottom of the tank. This is to
allow a safety margin so as to reduce the amount of any water or sediment
flowing to the fuel filter. A valve or cock must be fitted directly to the tank.




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                 Emergency fuel shut off - This is fitted to allow the fuel to
                  be shut off outside the engine room in the case of an
                  emergency. It can be fitted anywhere in the metallic fuel
                  line. It cannot be fitted after the flexible fuel line. Where fuel
                  tanks are fitted outside the engine room and the fuel shut
                  offs are easily accessible, emergency shuts offs are not
                  required.

          An extended spindle can be fitted to the fuel shut off valve so it
can be operated from outside the engine room. The fuel shut off and the
emergency fuel shut off are then the one valve.

                 Filter/water trap - They can be a combined unit or separate
                  units. The unit provides a secondary means of filtering the
                  fuel from sediment and impurities while the water trap
                  removes any moisture or water. The fuel pump and injectors
                  have very small clearances and any impurities or water in
                  the fuel will cause them to seize. (The fuel acts as a
                  lubricant). In addition, moisture could cause corrosion to
                  those finely machined components.

             Sometimes additional filters are fitted to the system.

                 Fuel return - Excess fuel from the injectors is returned to
                  the tank. It is good practice to operate from one tank at a
                  time and the excess fuel returned to this tank. In this case,
                  the fuel return valve of the tank not being used must be
                  closed. In small vessels it is not practical to operate off one
                  tank as the vessel would develop a list, therefore engines
                  receive their fuel from the port and starboard fuel tanks.

                 Fuel lift pump - Unless there is a day tank where the fuel is
                  fed by gravity to the engine, it will be necessary to have a
                  fuel lift pump to get the fuel from the tanks to the fuel pump.
                  A fuel lift pump can be a gear, diaphragm or plunger type.

                 Fuel injection pump - It accurately meters the fuel and
                  delivers it under high pressure at a precise moment to the
                  spray nozzle of the fuel injector.



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                 Fuel injector - It is a spring loaded valve located in the
                  cylinder head and allows the fuel, under pressure from the
                  fuel pump, to enter the combustion space. It enters in an
                  atomised form to allow it to mix completely with the hot
                  compressed air so that ignition can take place with efficient
                  combustion. Excess fuel is returned to the tank.




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                 Fuel transfer pumps

            Unless the vessel’s fuel tanks are positioned above the level of
the engine or a day tank is installed at sufficient height, fuel cannot be gravity
fed to the engine’s fuel injection pump. To assist in drawing fuel from the
tank/s a fuel transfer pump is fitted between the tank/s and the fuel injection
pump. Fuel transfer pumps are also commonly referred to as transfer, lift and
charge pumps.

       Diaphragm type transfer pump

       Plunger type transfer pump

       Gear type transfer pump

       Vane type transfer pump




              Fuel injection pump element

       Barrel         and Each barrel is locked into the housing in such a
       delivery valve     way that the upper section, which contains two
                        ports placed at 180 degrees and known as intake

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                         port and spill port, is completely immersed in fuel
                         supplied by the fuel lift pump.
                         The barrel is closed at its upper end by a spring
                         loaded pressure valve known as a delivery
                         valve. An injector pipe is connected between here
                         and the injector.

     Plunger             The plunger which operates within the barrel is
                         driven on its upward stroke by a roller tappet
                         operating on a camshaft. Contact is kept between
                         the plunger and the tappet by means of a spring
                         which operates in a similar fashion to an inlet or
                         exhaust valve spring. The plunger has a slot and a
                         helix cut into it near the top.

6.3 Fuel Storage and Handling Systems:


    Components of a fuel system
The components of a fuel system are:

 the fuel tanks
 piping
 valves and fittings;
 pumps (power or hand)

    Fuel tanks
Fuel tanks may form part of the hull structure, be free standing and
substantially constructed of carbon steel, stainless steel, copper or marine
grade aluminium.

Their function is storage of the fuel or as a daily service tank/s topped up from
the storage tanks. The tanks shall be provided with a manhole or hand hole to
enable the tank to be cleaned and inspected.

Each tank needs to have ventilation pipe of a size to prevent generation of
pressure in the tank.


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    Piping
Comprises the system of pipes installed to take fuel on board, transfer the fuel
between tanks and supply the main auxiliary engines

    Valves
Valves are located on the fuel tanks and at strategic parts in the piping system
and are opened and shut as required to allow the fuel to be pumped between
tanks and to the engines.

Valves on fuel tanks have to be capable of remote operation from a safe place
outside the machinery space so that the fuel can be shut off if a fire occurs in
the machinery space. A drain valve is also fitted on each tank to remove any
water that may have accumulated in the tank.

Fittings
Filters uses are self explanatory.

Gauge glasses or fuel indicators fitted to tanks provide an indication of the
amount of fuel in a tank. Gauge glasses shall be fitted with self closing valves
or cocks. This is to prevent the tank draining through the cock into the bilges if
the glass is broken.

Pumps
Pumps are used for transferring fuel between tanks. There may be a separate
pump to supply fuel at pressure to the engines. Stop valves are to be provided
on the suction and delivery sides of power operated pumps.

If the closed discharge pressure exceeds the maximum design pressure of the
system a relief valve discharging back to the suction side of the pump shall be
fitted.

Pumps located below decks shall be provided with a means to stop the pump
from a safe place outside the space.




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    Loading Fuel
The USL Code requires all fuel filling stations to be fitted outside of the
machinery spaces and so arranged that any overflow cannot come into
contact with any hot surface.

Fuel is normally supplied to small vessels from road tanker/s. Therefore the
amount of fuel required can be measured by the fuel meter in the tanker
discharge line, and spillage should not be a problem.

The basic precautions to be carried out are :

No smoking signs to be placed on the ship and on the wharf in the vicinity of
the ship and tanker.

When filling has been completed a container should be supplied to catch
spillage when the fuel supply line is disconnected. This action is not required if
both the tanker and the ship have non drip "camloc" fittings on their piping
connectors.

    Venting
As noted previously each tank shall have ventilation pipe of a size to prevent
generation of pressure in the tank.

    Transferring fuel
The piping system should be as flexible as possible in being able to pump fuel
direct from any one tank to another and therefore the system of pump/s,
piping and valves should be designed to this end.

    Draining
Draining can only be carried out if there is space in other fuel tanks to take the
fuel from the tank being drained, or it is to be pumped a shore reception
facility. If the tank is a double bottom tank or deep tank, it can only be drained
to the height the end of the suction pipe is above the tank bottom. For tanks
whose bottom is clear of any structure (eg. free standing), the valve for
draining water from the bottom of the tank can be opened and the remaining
fuel drained into a receptacle.

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Conclusions:




In the training period of 1 Month (from 14th May 2012 to 15th June 2012), we
have successfully completed the study of basic designing of piping systems
used in the Making of BIG LIFT HAPPY SKY. We have made various
Isometric views of piping network of various systems.Our analysis comprised
from checking of various materials used for making piping networks to
installation and final verification.




Bibliography

http://www.wikipedia.org
http://www.larsentoubro.com
http://www.howstuffworks.com
http://www.bigliftshipping.com




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