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					 Lesson Four

Inaugural Address

   J. F. Kennedy
     Objectives of Teaching
1. To comprehend the whole text
2. To lean and master the vocabulary and
   expressions
3. To learn to paraphrase the difficult
   sentences
4. To understand the structure of the text
5. To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the
   passage.
       Aims
1. To know the features of a political speech.
2. To analyze the structure of this address
3. To appreciate the language features of
     Kennedy’s address
4.   To be acquainted with some English
     speeches
     Teaching Contents
1.    J.F. Kennedy
2.    The characteristics of a political speech
3.     Detailed study of the text
4.    Organizational pattern
5.    Language features
6.    Exercises
7.    English speech
  Time allocation
1. John Kennedy (15 min.)
2. The characteristics of a political
   speech (10 min.)
3. Detailed study of the text (100 min.)
4. Structure analysis (15 min.)
5. Language appreciation (15 min.)
6. English speeches (25 min)
  John Fitzgerald Kennedy
    *4image-1,2,3*
Kennedy, 35th president, Democrat, was
 born on May 29 1917 in Brookline, Mass,
 the son of Joseph P. Kennedy, financier,
 who later became ambassador to Great
 Britain.
He entered Harvard, received a BS from
 Harvard 1940. He served in the Navy and
 won the Navy and Marine Corps Medal.
 John Fitzgerald Kennedy
He wrote "Profiles in Courage", 《勇敢
 者传略》which won a Pulitzer prize.
   1947-1952   served as representative in the
    congress
   1952    elected to the senate
   1960 He won the Democratic nomination for
    president and defeated Richard M. Nixon,
    Republican
 John Fitzgerald Kennedy
Kennedy family --- fully engaged in
 politics
   Joseph   Patrick Kennedy -- father (1888-
    1969)
   US ambassador to Britain

   born in Boston

   graduated from Harvard
Joseph Patrick Kennedy
*4image-4 Joseph Kennedy*
  He engaged in
    banking
   shipbuilding
   investment banking
   motion-picture distribution
   a millionaire at 30 years old
  John Fitzgerald Kennedy
1. 35th President of the U.S.(1961-1963)
2. a democrat, an eloquent speaker
3. the youngest man ever elected to the
  presidency
4. born in Massachusetts, inherited a
  background of politics wealth and
  determination
5. a Catholic
  John Fitzgerald Kennedy
6. As president, he faced the Civil Rights
  problem at home and Cuba crisis of 1962.
7. His assassination at Dallas in November
  1963 was a shock from which the U.S. has
  found it hard to recover and the murder is
  still a riddle.
*www.usconstitution.com/
  JohnKennedy.htm *
  Strange coincidences between President
  Lincoln and President Kennedy


Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846.
John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946.
Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.
John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960.
  Lincoln and Kennedy


The names Lincoln and Kennedy each
 contain seven letters.
 Both were particularly concerned with
 civil rights.
 Both wives lost their children while living
 in the White House.
 Both Presidents were shot on a Friday.
 Both were shot in the head.
  Lincoln and Kennedy

Lincoln's secretary was named Kennedy.
  Kennedy's secretary was named Lincoln.
  Both were assassinated by Southerners.
  Both were succeeded by Southerners.
  Both successors were named Johnson.
  Lincoln and Kennedy

Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was
born in 1808.
Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, was
born in 1908.
John Wilkes Booth, accused of assassinating
Lincoln, was born in 1839.
Lee Harvey Oswald, accused of assassinating
Kennedy, was born in 1939.
  Lincoln and Kennedy

Both assassins were known by their three
 names.
 Both names comprise fifteen letters.
 Booth ran from the theatre and was
 caught in a warehouse.
 Oswald ran from a warehouse and was
 caught in a theatre.
 Booth and Oswald were both
 assassinated before their trials.
 John Fitzgerald Kennedy
contributions:
   1. His most important act was his
    successful demand on Oct.22. 1962 that
    the Soviet Union dismantle its missile
    bases in Cuba. *4image-5map*
   2. He established a quarantine of arms
    shipments to Cuba and continued
    surveillance by air.
contributions:

 3.   He defied Soviet attempts to force the
 Allies out of Berlin.*4image-6,7,8*
 4.   He made the steel industry rescind a
 price rise.
contributions:
 5.He backed
   a> civil rights
   b> a mental health program
   c> arbitration of railroad disputes
   d> expanded medical care for the aged
   e> astronaut flights and satellite orbiting
 Inauguration Day
On January 20 since 1937
On April 30,1789, George Washington
 stepped onto a balcony of Federal Hall
 in New York City, placed his hand on a
 Bible and swore to "preserve, protest
 and defend the constitution of the United
 States".
  Inauguration Day
He then read an earnest speech, calling
 for "united and effective government".
 Thus began a unique American
 institution --- Inauguration Day ---
 those dramatic hours when a new
 president faces the people for the first
 time. He must tell the people what he's
 going to do as president.*4iamge-9*
 Inaugural Address
 Memorable words have been uttered
 in inaugural address. It is a speech,
 lecture officially made by a person on
 taking office.
  the purpose of a political speech
 to persuade
 to explain
 to convince people
       to accept his point of view,
       to accept what he says so as to
   support him
  Characteristics:
1. The order is clear.
   Each   para. has its own topic.
2. The tone is appropriate.
   He   uses different tone to different people.
  Characteristics:
3. The style is rigid.
     is made beforehand. So it is a sort of
   It
    written language.
4. The language is rhetorical.
   parallelism,metaphor, antithesis,
    balanced structure, repetition of words
    and phrases --- for force, vividness and
    emotional appeal.
  General analysis of a political
  speech
1. He must try every possible means to
  arouse the feelings of audience. What
  he says represents the interests of the
  whole people.
   successful   appeal to the emotion of the
    audience
  General analysis of a political
  speech
2. specific policy
   Thespeech must have high-sounding
    words and empty promises
3. The speech must be concise and short
  General analysis of a political
  speech
4. clever-choice of words to convey
  different meanings/tones.
5. the use of biblical style to make it
  formal/ rigid.
6. the use of a lot of rhetorical devices to
  make his address as powerful/
  impressive as possible.
 The social background
In what period in history did Kennedy
 become president?
     in 1960's
  The social background
Cold war is sth. which marks the
 situation in 1960's. The world is
 mainly divided into two hostile camps.
  1) socialist camp -- headed by the Soviet
    Union
  2) capitalist camp -- headed by the US
   The camps opposed each other politically.
 John Fitzgerald Kennedy
 The text
* Kennedy’s address 音频*
 Detailed study of the text:
Para1 opening paragraph
   importance / significance of his election
   as president of the US

  1. observe
  2. celebrate
freedom --
We  celebrate freedom. People in
 the US are free to choose their
 president.
  antithesis:
end -- the end of Eisenhower's presidential
 term
beginning -- the beginning of Kennedy’s
 presidential term
renewal ---- the continuation of presidency
 and office of president
change -- the change from Eisenhower to
 Kennedy
as well as
 ---   well balanced structure in Para.1
 solemn
  --- refer almost exclusive to an extremely
  formal and inspiring religious ritual.
  ( grave ) very serious.
 a ~ oath 庄严的誓言

 a ~ dedication to the cause of freedom 为
  自由事业而始终不渝的献身
prescribe --- set down / impose
 What  punishment does the law prescribe
 for this crime?
 Government schools must work for a
 prescribed number of days each year.
 Good citizens do what the laws prescribe.
 Someone who behaves as foolishly as
 you have no right to prescribe how others
 should behave.
  Para.2
 the general situation of this world
   topic sentence --- The world is very
    different.
   In what way is the world different?
   The world is different in the way of
    science and technology. People have
    modern and advanced science and
    technology.
 the power --
the power of science and technology
   with   the help of science and technology
    1. People can become very rich.
    2. People can be exterminated.
   Science can be used to get rid of poverty.
   Science can be used to destroy all human
    beings.
 revolutionary belief ---
human rights
   All men were created equal and God had
    given them certain unalienable rights
    which no state or ruler could take away
    from them.
   see: Note 3
  generosity, benevolence, good will,
  kindness, unselfishness

These words refer to a well wishing
 friendliness or concern for the needs
 and desires of other people.
  benevolence –
It has the widest range of any of these words
   suggesting an expansive and good-humored
    tolerance and sympathy for others
     对别人善意的宽容与同情
   Working   conditions were sought as a right, not as
    a ~ of their employer.
     寻求良好的工作环境是权利,而不是雇主的恩赐。
generosity ---
 focuses   exclusively on the aspect of
  giving
 referring to an unstintingly helpful act or
  habit
 the generosity with which he shared his
  toys with other children
  比较
benevolence -- an unacted-upon feeling
generosity -- actual behavior
   eg. He was a plantation owner who looked on
    his slaves with benevolence but could hardly be
    accused of treating them with generosity.
     他是一个以仁慈之心看待他的奴隶而谈不上慷慨
      厚待他们的庄园主。
  good will –
good will --- referring primarily to
 feeling
kindness --- to action
   He insisted that he wanted only her good
    will, not her kindness.
     他坚持只领她的好意,而非她的帮助
      (怜悯)。
unselfishness --
 pointto a generosity that is based on a
 lack of self-concern , where generosity
 may emphasize the quantity given,
 possibly for ostentatious reasons,
 unselfishness stress the effacing personal
 sacrifice required --- even if a lessen
 amount is given.
  强调具备自我牺牲和自我埋没的行动
unselfishness --
 Itwas the tax deduction involved, rather
  than unselfishness, that prompted his
  generosity to the charity drive.
   促使他对慈善事业大施援手的动力不是
    无私之心而是为了减税。
  at issue ---
undecided , in dispute
   The  point at issue is whether you are
    willing to go abroad or not .
   That is not the point at issue.

without issue –
    to die without children
   He   died without issue.
 Para.3
general policy of the US

human rights
  torch
This refers to the privilege and burden
 of leading the nation being passed to a
 new generation. The original reference
 is to the Olympic games before which
 a torch is carried from runner to runner.
 The flame of the torch eventually lights
 a fire that signals the opening of
 Olympics.
  torch ---- metaphor
duty
revolution
responsibility --- of keeping human
 rights
  heritage
 --- all the qualities, traditions or
 features of life that have been
 continued over many years and passed
 on from one generation to another,
 used especially to refer to things that
 are of historical importance or that
 have had a strong influence on society.
  heritage
Peking opera is part of our cultural
 heritage.
This building is part of British national
 heritage.
  inheritance ---
1. money or property which you
 receive from someone who is dead
2. a situation or state of affairs which
 has been influenced by a particular
 event, person, book etc.(heritage)
 commit ---
commit oneself to (doing) sth
   be committed to sth/ doing sth ---
    promise/ pledge to do /support sth
   Allan has been committed to staying
    there for a long time.
commit --
 He  has been committed to equal rights for
  women.
 Deeply committed to his religion, he has
  often spoken out against greed and
  misuse of power.
 Nobody committed themselves to a
  definite answer.
 general policy of the US
   People in the US must keep and defend
   human rights not only in the US but also
   in the world as well.
Para.4 strong determination
   Kennedy  puts the US to the leader, so he
   says in order to keep human rights, we
   shall....
survival and the success of liberty
 1. the survival and the success of "free
  democratic countries".
 2. the newly independent third world
  countries
Para 5. transition
A  one sentence paragraph that functions
 as a transition from the general to the
 specific. In the following paragraphs he
 will be addressing different specific
 groups of nations. This much we promise
 to do and we promise to do more.
  Para. 6
the specific policy toward his friends
 and would-be friends
 allies ---
ally. Britain, Canada, New Zealand,
 Australia,/ West European countries
  acountry that has a treaty or an
   agreement to help and support another
   country, esp. during a war.
allied --- adj.
 the Allied and Associated Powers
     协约国 WWI
 the Allied Military Government

    联合国民政府 WWII
cultural and spiritual origins ---
 1. speak the same language /belong to the
  some language family
 2. have the same religious belief
 antithesis --
United we can do everything.
Divided we can do nothing.
   ---   the importance of unity
a powerful challenge --
a  strong, powerful threat posed by the
  socialist camp
 If we are quarreling and split apart, we
  can not compete with the strong,
  powerful enemy in front of us.
 Para. 7
Whom did he address?
   ---   some newly independent countries
  Para. 7
1) He promises to aid (support) the
 newly independent countries so that
 they can remain free and independent.
  ranks of the free --
the community of free and
 independent nations
a far more iron tyranny --- a
 communist dictatorship
"riding the back of a tiger" --
Compare "seeking the aid of socialist
 countries" to "riding he back of a tiger"
  Para. 7
2) Those countries which foolishly seek the
 aid of socialist countries will end up by
 losing their independence as many other
 countries did in the past.
   Itis dangerous to ride the back of the tiger. If
    you do, you will be swallowed up by the tiger.
   You will lose your power and independence .
  Para 8
Whom did he address?
   the   developing countries
half the globe --
   thecontinents of Africa and Asia
   constitute almost one half of the land
   surface of the globe.
bonds -- chains, fetters (pl)
 1. chains, ropes that are used to tie down
  a prisoner
 2. (fig) a feeling, duty or custom that
  forces you to behave in a particular way
help them help --
 We   pledge to help them on condition that
 they do their best and do what we ask
 them to do.
 Para. 9
He is speaking to Latin American
 countries.
   Usuallythe US regards the Latin
   American countries as the backyard of
   the US, for it has special interest in these
   countries.
sister --
 careful choice of word, implying equal
  relationship, one family
 mutual good relations

 peaceful revolution = a new alliance for
  progress
prey -- metaphor
 comparing   "peaceful revolution" to an
  animal which might fall victim to enemy
  nations.
 We will not allow any enemy country to
  subvert this peaceful revolution which
  brings hope of progress to all our
  countries.
  Para. 9
1. He offered special pledge that all
 Latin American countries to work
 together to make progress.
2. He warned the enemies not to
 interfere in the internal affairs of these
 countries, because we are master of
 this hemisphere.
  Para.10
 He is addressing the United Nations.

The UN is our last and best hope of
 survival in a world where the
 instruments of war have far surpassed
 and exceeded the instruments of peace.
 Para.10
instruments of war-- weapons, bombs,
 for waging wars
instruments of peace -- machines,
 tools for producing goods
Para.10
 1) to prevent the UN from becoming an
  assembly where people just criticize, insult and
  abuse each other
 2) to strengthen the power of UN to protect the
  newly independent and weak nations
 3) to enlarge the area in which its authority and
  mandate would continue to be in effect or in
  force
  Para.11

He is speaking to the enemies,
 especially the Soviet Union.
make themselves our adversary --
 clever choice of words
 This phrase throws the blame for
  confrontation and world tension on the
  other party. The US has done nothing to
  create enemies. It's the other side that is
  challenging the US.
  not pledge -- not promise
but a request -- but asking the other
 side to consider his proposal
1) point out danger
           self destruction ( the Third
   danger--
    World War)
   Advanced weapons will destroy the
    whole mankind
     whether intentionally or accidentally
  Para.11
anew -- again, in a new or different
 way
quest -- a search or attempt to find
   The   quest for gold was long and difficult.
engulf -- (of the earth, the sea) to
 destroy by swallowing up
   The   stormy sea engulfed the small boat.
  Para.12
2) point out position of strength
   We  must be very strong. If we are weak, they
    would attract us. We dare not be weak because
    it might tempt the enemy to take rash actions.
tempt -- attract
   The  warm sun tempted us to go swimming.
   a tempting meal
  Para.13
3) point out needs / situation (find no
 comfort in present situation)
       cold war / hostile confrontation
   a) Both sides are feeling the great
    financial burden of the arms race.
   b) Both are made conscious of the
    gradual spread of the terrible atom bombs.
Para.13
   Both sides are trying to change this
 c)
 uncertain balance of this terrible military
 power which restrains / prevent each
 group from launching the Third World
 War.
  Para.14-18
4) point out co-operation / different
 proposals

trying to find out specific field in
 which we can agree with each other.
sincerity is always subject to
proof --
 One's   sincerity must be proved by facts.
 People may say or promise all kinds of
 things but they must be proved by deeds.
 subject to –
depending on 取决于,尚待,
 在……的条件下
  They  have authority to decide, subject to
   the minister's approval.
  The treaty is subject to ratification. 认可,
   批准
  The plan is subject to confirmation.
  belabor –
set upon with too much talk or advice
 责备
   Ifyou belabor a point in a discussion or
    explanation, you keep talking about it or
    emphasizing it in a boring way.
   There is no need to belabor the point.
formulate -- work out
 If you formulate sth such as a plan or
  proposal, you invent it, thinking about the
  details carefully.
 1. We had formulated our own strategy.

 2. Both sides have the need to formulate a
  policy that will promote rather than
  hinder peace.
  inspection of arms --
   examining/ watching over carefully the
   limitation of arms
absolute --- without limit
absolute -- complete
tap the ocean depths
    draw upon or make use of the wealth
 ---
 that lies deep in the oceans
 mine the ocean beds for valuable metals
 etc.
  heed –
give attention to
   She   didn't heed my warnings.
"undo the heavy burdens..."
A Biblical quotation is used in keeping
 with his biblical style; in keeping his
 Catholic upbringing.
  What are the specific proposals?
1. control arms
2. use /develop science for peace purpose
 instead of the war purpose.
   explore  the stars
   conquer the desert
   eradicate disease
   tap the ocean depths
   encourage the art and commerce

3. enjoy human rights
  Para.19
point out purpose, object
   We must work together to make a new
    world order.
strong are just -- The strong nations do
 not bully the weak.
weak secure -- The weak nations feel
 safe.
  Para.20 conclusion
one hundred days -- historical allusion,
   famous period in American history, in
    President F.D. Roosevelt's presidential
    term
  one hundred days
During the famous “hundred days”
 ( Mar-Jun. 1933), Roosevelt‘s
 administration rushed through congress
 a flood of anti-depression measures
 (more than 70 bills for approval),
 which were generally known as
 Roosevelt’s “New Deal”. “新政”
 *4image-10,11*
 New Deal
Roosevelt 新政.doc
  one hundred days
Bills:
   “Banking    Act“ 《银行法》
     '' National Industrial Recovery Act"
         《国家工业复兴法》
     "Agricultural Adjustment Act"
         《农业调整法》
The proposals can not be completed in a
 short time, but let's try and begin.
Para.21-27
 Heappeals to his fellow Americans to
 support him and to do everything they
 can, even to sacrifice their lives for their
 country.
  Para.21-27
past --- Many Americans died for their
 country. They showed their loyalty to
 their country.
present --- Now our generation is
 called upon to face the challenge of the
 cold war, to struggle against poverty
 and disease.
  Para.21-27
twilight struggle --- not clear, abstract,
   Tyranny,  poverty, disease and cold wars
    are not bloody wars.
 “rejoicing in hope, patient in
 tribulation”
---忍受困苦,向往未来
  biblicallanguage
  to be happy when things look bright and
   hopeful
  to be patient in distress/ in trouble
  Para.23
Rhetorical questions are more forceful.
 assure ---
make sth. certain to happen
    try to cause sb to believe or trust in sth.
    to protect against death through money
   This will assure your comfort.
   The only way to assure success is to work
    hard.
   One more try will assure victory.
   Nothing can assure permanent happiness.
  assure ---
~ sb. that ---
   The  captain of the ship assured the
    passengers that there was no danger.
   I assure you this medicine cannot harm
    you
ensure ---
 1)  make sb. certain to get sth
 This medicine will ensure you a good
  night's sleep.
 2) try to cause to believe

 I tried to ensure that everybody
  understood the instruction.
 I can't ensure that he will be there in time.
 insure –
protect against loss of money , life,
 goods etc through money (by insurance)
   My  house is insured against fire and theft.
   The company will insure your house
    against fire.
   He has insured himself for $2000.
insure –
 assure sth
 assure sb. that --

 ensure sb sth

 ensure that ---
 para. 24
emphasizing the situation and
 responsibility
   He tries to arouse American people's
   emotions by saying you must be very
   proud and glorious, for you are born in
   this time and you are given such a great
   duty.
para. 24
 He deliberately exaggerates the sense of
 urgency and he wants to make people feel
 that they are sacrificing for an important
 and glorious cause.
 para. 24
freedom in its hour of maximum
 danger
   We are in the greatest danger of losing
   freedom
  para. 24
the energy; the faith the devotion =
 light, fire, glow
   The energy, the faith and the devotion
   that the Americans bring to this task will
   inspire not only the United States and her
   people but also the whole world.
  para 27 conclusion
   ask of = inquire of (formal)
   (of sb) demand

us ---- the president and members of
 his cabinet
you -- people of the US and the world
para 27 conclusion
 We  demand you to show high standards
 of strength and sacrifice and we also want
 you to demand us to show the same high
 standards of strength and sacrifice.
"with a good conscience... "
    Our reliable reward is only a good
    conscience.
"with history the final...."
        will finally judge whether we
 History
 have done our task well or not.
  para 27 conclusion
With God's blessing and help, let us
 start leading the country we love,
 knowing that on earth what we are
 doing is God's work (which is just)
 Organizational Pattern
4 sections.
          para.1-5 with para5 as a transition
   Sect.1.

    Introduction , the general statement of
     the basic policy of the US
        "We shall pay any price,....."
Organizational Pattern
Sect.2   para.6-10
  He addresses different groups of allied
   nations and would-be allied nations;
   friends and would-be friends.
Organizational Pattern
Sect.2   para.6-10
  His specific policy towards them.
    1. the allies

    2. the newly independent countries

    3. the developing countries

    4. the Latin American countries

    5. the UN
Organizational Pattern

Sect.3   para.11-20
   His specific policy toward the enemy.
   1. point out the danger
   2. point out he position of strength
  Organizational Pattern
3. point out the situation and need.
  Both sides feel uneasy.
   a) Both sides are overburdened with the
   cost of modern weapons.
   b) Both sides are anxious with the wide
   spread arms.
   c) Both sides try to change the uncertain
   balance of military power.
 Organizational Pattern
Proposals:
     1. control arms
     2. use science for peace purpose
     3. enjoy human rights
Object
   ---   to make a new world order
 Organizational Pattern
Sect 4 para.21-27
  conclusion
    He calls on the Americans to support
     him and to sacrifice their lives for their
     country. He calls on the people of the
     whole world to unit and work for the
     freedom of men.
 Language features
specific comment on the speech
   Kennedy   was an eloquent speaker. He is
    specially trained. This speech is very
    powerful and wonderful. He lays his
    emphasis on the successful appeals to the
    emotion of the listeners.
   well organized
   highly rhetorical
  Language features
1. highly rhetorical ---parallelism, antithesis,
 metaphor, simile, metonymy, hyperbole,
2. invoking the name of God, the use of
 biblical style
3. the use of key abstract words:
   faith, devotion, freedom, liberty, courage,
    loyalty, belief
   These abstractions are impossible to define
    precisely.
  Language features
4. the use of heroic-sounding verbs
   explore, conquer, dare, --- which are
    inspiring and emotional.
5. more repetition in the structure of
 paras, which gives the address a certain
 rhythm.
  fatal; deadly mortal lethal
fatal ---- It stresses inevitability and actual
 result of death, destruction and disaster
    Many  fatal diseases have been prevented by
    cleanliness and the proper medicine.
      清洁的习惯和正当的使用药物,防止了许多致命
       的疾病。
    Thispiece of news was fatal to his political
    future.
      这则新闻毁了他的政治前途。
  fatal; deadly mortal lethal
mortal ---It implies that death has
 occurred or is certain to occur.
   Allmen are mortal beings.
   She suffered from a mortal disease.
  fatal; deadly mortal lethal
deadly -- It implies an extremely high
 degree of probability rather than a certainty
 of death
   Both of the great and powerful groups of
    nations are alarmed by the steady spread of the
    deadly atom.
     两个强大的国家都对致命的原子力量的不断扩展
      感到震惊。
  A gun is a deadly weapon .枪是一种可怕的武
    器。
  fatal; deadly mortal lethal
deadly -- It implies an extremely high
 degree of probability rather than a certainty
 of death
   Both of the great and powerful groups of
    nations are alarmed by the steady spread of the
    deadly atom.
     两个强大的国家都对致命的原子力量的不断扩展
      感到震惊。
  A gun is a deadly weapon .枪是一种可怕的武
    器。
  fatal; deadly; mortal; lethal
lethal --- It implies the existence of sth
 is the condition of the cause of death.
   Cyanide   is a lethal poison.
      氰化物是一种致死的毒素。
  a   ~ weapon 凶器
     ~ gas 致死的毒气
  faithful; loyal; constant; staunch;
  resolute

faithful---
   Itimplies a firm and unswerving
    adherence to a person or thing to whom
    or to which one is united by some ties as
    marriage, friendship, honor, or allegiance.
     指对婚姻,友谊,荣誉,或政治需要体
      现出忠心和忠诚。
  faithful; loyal; constant; staunch;
  resolute

faithful---
   He  has been a faithful friend to me for
      many years
       多年来他一直是我忠实的朋友。
     A husband should be faithful to his wife.
  faithful; loyal; constant; staunch;
  resolute

loyal ---
   Itrefers faithful to one's pledged word or to the
    country, the leader, the institution or the
    principle to which one feels oneself mortally
    bound.
     指受良心,正义感的影响对祖国,团体,事业表
      现出的忠心忠诚
   We  are loyal to our beautiful country.
   He is loyal to his cause.
  faithful; loyal; constant; staunch;
  resolute

constant --- means unchanging faith to love
 or cause.对事业,爱情的坚定,坚贞
   We  are constant to the communist ideals.我们
    对共产主义理想坚定不移。
   He has been constant in his devotion to
    scientific studies.
     他坚毅地致力于科学研究。
   She   is constant to love.她对爱情忠贞不渝。
  faithful ; loyal constant staunch
  resolute

staunch --
   indicates loyal or firm to political belief and
    religious belief
   对宗教,政治信念表现出的毫不动摇的意志
    和决心
   Mary is a staunch Christian. 玛丽是一个虔诚
    的基督徒。
   He is a staunch supporter of his political party.
    他是一位忠诚的政党拥护者。
  faithful ; loyal constant
  staunch resolute
resolute --
   steadfastness and emphasize the determination
    which cannot be broken down as a quality of
    character. 强调决心无法动摇
   He was resolute in his decision to give up
    smoking.
   The soldiers are resolute for victory. 战士们决
    心争取胜利。
 English Speech
Many people emphasize the 3S’s in
 English speech
   Stand up
   Say what you have to say

   Sit down
 English Speech
Three ways to make a speech
    memorized speech
    extempore speech (notes)
    impromptu speech
 English Speech
Speech must by informative
   appealing
   entertaining

Basic organization:
   introduction
   themain body
   conclusion
How to deliver a speech?
 Show  good manners (clothes, posture etc)
  “natural”
 Don’t deliberately beat about the bush
  “I don’t know how to speak”.
  “Being asked so abruptly to speak. I feel
   very nervous. I don’t have any preparations.”
How to deliver a speech?
 That’s  a waste of time. If you must
  express your feeling of excuse, you only
  need to say:
 “ I am not much of a public speaker.”

 “ I feel there is no way I can get out of
  making a speech.”
How to deliver a speech?
 3.When  you make a mistake, you don’t
 need to say “excuse me”. Only “well, let
 me see …” “what I mean is …” will do.
  Don’t scratch your head.
  Don’t stick your tongue out.
How to deliver a speech?
   All speeches may be started by “Ladies
 4.
 and Gentlemen:” if on a rather formal
 occasion , you should first say “Mr.
 Chairman” and then “ Ladies and
 Gentlemen:”
Welcome
 1.  Welcome to China.
 2. We are delighted to see you again.

 3. It is my special pleasure to welcome
  you all here today.
Welcome
 4. I take great pleasure in bidding you all
  a hearty welcome to our company.
 5. On behalf of all my fellow students, I
  wish to say a word of hearty welcome to
  you.
 6. The fist thing that I would like to say
  to Mr Wang is a hearty “welcome home”.
Congratulations
 1. Let me congratulate you on your
  success.
 2. It’s my great pleasure (privilege) to say
  a word of congratulation to you.
 3. I am truly happy to speak for all of us
  in congratulating Miss Wang, the winner
  of the contest.
Congratulations
 4. On behalf of the faculties of our school,
  I want of take this opportunity to extend
  our heartfelt congratulations to you on
  your stunning victory in the speech
  contest.
 5. You are to be congratulated for your
  constant efforts.
Wedding ceremony
 To  bridegroom ---- congratulations
 To bride --- I wish you much happiness.

 We are gathered here today to celebrate
  the wedding of my best friend, Wang Hua
  and his wonder bride …
Wedding ceremony
 We  are here to witness the union of two lives in
  marriage.
 I’m sure everyone here joins me in wishing you
  two, the very best that life has to offer you in
  your marriage.
 I will conclude by congratulating the young
  couple on their marriage, and wishing them a
  long life of happiness together.
Wedding ceremony
I wish to conclude my speech with a
  prayer for the continued happiness of the
  newly married couple.
 Allow me to conclude my brief speech by
  wishing the bride and bridegroom all
  happiness and the best luck for the future.
Holidays
 Of  course, everybody knows what day it
  is today. We are here today toe celebrate
  the Spring Festival.
 I’m pleased and honored toe stand before
  you today on this most beautiful of
  holidays, Mother’s Day.
Holidays
 Merry  Christmas
 Happy New Year.

 Happy Thanksgiving.

 Thank you for your kind invitation to join
  with you in this wonderful Thanksgiving
  celebration.
Holidays
 It’s a great honor for me to speak to you
  all here tonight at this New Year party.
 Let me begin by saying “A happy New
  Year” to all of you and especially to Mr.
  Smith, our guest of honor.
Contest
 Welcome   to the finals of the speech
  contest.
 Welcome and thanks toe our judges.

 It’s a great pleasure for me to declare
  open the contest.
 Now let’s begin and let’s all give the
  participant our support!
Contest
 Allow  me to conclude by once more
  thanking the judges for their kind
  cooperation and by wishing each of the
  participants the very best of luck.
 Thank you all for coming, and we’ll look
  forward to seeing you next year at he next
  contest.
School activity
 Speaking   for all of us, I have to say that
  we are full of excitement for the future
  and gratitude for the chance given us to
  study.
 This is the day to mark the end of our
  studies and the beginning of a new life
  for all of us.
School activity
 I’m sure that we will all be interested in
  hearing the latest of what is happening at
  our school.
 Now, looking bock over those four years,
  I can’t imagine how the time went by so
  quickly.
 Speech at a teacher’s birthday
Dear Miss Walker,
           All of he students here want to wish
      you the happiest of birthdays and many
      more toe come in the future. We know
      that it must be a little difficult for you to
      have to celebrate a birthday in a foreign
      country, but we hope you will have a
      good time today.
Speech at a teacher’s birthday
      We have brought this present for you
    and we hope you will keep it for may
    years to come. It is a cork carving,
    famous throughout the world, and we
    want you to think of China, and
    especially us, whenever you look at it.
Speech at a teacher’s birthday
       Today, we know you are 35 years old,
    but we wonder about it. Many times, you
    seem to be as young as us, your students,
    in your attitudes and in your actions. We
    always feel so close to you because you
    seem to be one of us. I hope that when I
    am 35 I will seem as young as you do
    today.
Speech at a teacher’s birthday
       We didn’t know very well what type of
    food t serve at an American birthday party, and
    we know you love Chinese food, so we decided
    to make Chinese food for you today instead of
    American food. This is truly an international
    birthday party. Please sit down with us now and
    eat and think and have a good time. Later, we
    are all going to stand up sing “happy birthday”
    to you and we really mean it.
  Exercises
Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand,
 Western European countries
May new nations in Africa, newly
 independent countries are:
     The Republic of Central Africa
     The People’s republic of the Congo
     The Gabon Republic (加蓬)
     The Republic of Ghana (加纳)
     The republic of Chad (乍得)
     The Republic of Dahowmey 达荷美 (西非)
  Paraphrase:
1.Our ancestors fought a revolutionary
 war to maintain that all men were
 created equal and god had given them
 certain unalienable rights which no
 state or ruler could take away from
 them. But today this issue has not yet
 been decided in many countries around
 the world.
 Paraphrase
2. This is much we promise to do and
 we promise to do more.
3. United and working together we can
 accomplish a lot of things in a great
 number of joint undertakings.
  Paraphrase
4. We will not allow any enemy
 country to subvert this peaceful
 revolution which will bring hope of
 progress to all our countries.
  Paraphrase
5.The United Nations is our last and best
 hope of survival of liberty. Now the
 instruments for waging war have far
 surpassed and exceeded the instruments for
 peace purpose.
6.To help the U.N. enlarge the area in
 which its authority and order may continue
 to be in effect.
  Paraphrase
7. Before the terrible force of destruction,
 which science can now release, which may
 be planned or brought about by accident,
 takes place.
8. Let both nations are trying to change as
 quickly as possible this uncertain balance of
 terrible military power which restrains each
 group from launching mankind’s final war.
  Paraphrase
9. So let us start once again to discuss
 and negotiate and let us remember that
 being polite is not a sign of weakness.
10.Let both sides try to call forth the
 wonderful things that science can do
 for mankind instead of the frightful
 thing it can do.
  Paraphrase
11. Each generation of Americans
 have been called upon to prove their
 loyalty to their country’s cause.
  Paraphrase
12.With God’s blessing and help, let us
 start leading the country we love, knowing
 that on the earth what we are doing is God’s
 job. Let the history finally judge whether
 we have done our task well or not, but our
 sure reward will be a good conscience, for
 we will have worked sincerely and to the
 best of our abilities.

				
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