Lesson Four Inaugural Address J. F. Kennedy Objectives of Teaching 1. To comprehend the whole text 2. To lean and master the vocabulary and expressions 3. To learn to paraphrase the difficult sentences 4. To understand the structure of the text 5. To appreciate the style and rhetoric of the passage. Aims 1. To know the features of a political speech. 2. To analyze the structure of this address 3. To appreciate the language features of Kennedy’s address 4. To be acquainted with some English speeches Teaching Contents 1. J.F. Kennedy 2. The characteristics of a political speech 3. Detailed study of the text 4. Organizational pattern 5. Language features 6. Exercises 7. English speech Time allocation 1. John Kennedy (15 min.) 2. The characteristics of a political speech (10 min.) 3. Detailed study of the text (100 min.) 4. Structure analysis (15 min.) 5. Language appreciation (15 min.) 6. English speeches (25 min) John Fitzgerald Kennedy *4image-1,2,3* Kennedy, 35th president, Democrat, was born on May 29 1917 in Brookline, Mass, the son of Joseph P. Kennedy, financier, who later became ambassador to Great Britain. He entered Harvard, received a BS from Harvard 1940. He served in the Navy and won the Navy and Marine Corps Medal. John Fitzgerald Kennedy He wrote "Profiles in Courage", 《勇敢 者传略》which won a Pulitzer prize. 1947-1952 served as representative in the congress 1952 elected to the senate 1960 He won the Democratic nomination for president and defeated Richard M. Nixon, Republican John Fitzgerald Kennedy Kennedy family --- fully engaged in politics Joseph Patrick Kennedy -- father (1888- 1969) US ambassador to Britain born in Boston graduated from Harvard Joseph Patrick Kennedy *4image-4 Joseph Kennedy* He engaged in banking shipbuilding investment banking motion-picture distribution a millionaire at 30 years old John Fitzgerald Kennedy 1. 35th President of the U.S.(1961-1963) 2. a democrat, an eloquent speaker 3. the youngest man ever elected to the presidency 4. born in Massachusetts, inherited a background of politics wealth and determination 5. a Catholic John Fitzgerald Kennedy 6. As president, he faced the Civil Rights problem at home and Cuba crisis of 1962. 7. His assassination at Dallas in November 1963 was a shock from which the U.S. has found it hard to recover and the murder is still a riddle. *www.usconstitution.com/ JohnKennedy.htm * Strange coincidences between President Lincoln and President Kennedy Abraham Lincoln was elected to Congress in 1846. John F. Kennedy was elected to Congress in 1946. Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860. John F. Kennedy was elected President in 1960. Lincoln and Kennedy The names Lincoln and Kennedy each contain seven letters. Both were particularly concerned with civil rights. Both wives lost their children while living in the White House. Both Presidents were shot on a Friday. Both were shot in the head. Lincoln and Kennedy Lincoln's secretary was named Kennedy. Kennedy's secretary was named Lincoln. Both were assassinated by Southerners. Both were succeeded by Southerners. Both successors were named Johnson. Lincoln and Kennedy Andrew Johnson, who succeeded Lincoln, was born in 1808. Lyndon Johnson, who succeeded Kennedy, was born in 1908. John Wilkes Booth, accused of assassinating Lincoln, was born in 1839. Lee Harvey Oswald, accused of assassinating Kennedy, was born in 1939. Lincoln and Kennedy Both assassins were known by their three names. Both names comprise fifteen letters. Booth ran from the theatre and was caught in a warehouse. Oswald ran from a warehouse and was caught in a theatre. Booth and Oswald were both assassinated before their trials. John Fitzgerald Kennedy contributions: 1. His most important act was his successful demand on Oct.22. 1962 that the Soviet Union dismantle its missile bases in Cuba. *4image-5map* 2. He established a quarantine of arms shipments to Cuba and continued surveillance by air. contributions: 3. He defied Soviet attempts to force the Allies out of Berlin.*4image-6,7,8* 4. He made the steel industry rescind a price rise. contributions: 5.He backed a> civil rights b> a mental health program c> arbitration of railroad disputes d> expanded medical care for the aged e> astronaut flights and satellite orbiting Inauguration Day On January 20 since 1937 On April 30,1789, George Washington stepped onto a balcony of Federal Hall in New York City, placed his hand on a Bible and swore to "preserve, protest and defend the constitution of the United States". Inauguration Day He then read an earnest speech, calling for "united and effective government". Thus began a unique American institution --- Inauguration Day --- those dramatic hours when a new president faces the people for the first time. He must tell the people what he's going to do as president.*4iamge-9* Inaugural Address Memorable words have been uttered in inaugural address. It is a speech, lecture officially made by a person on taking office. the purpose of a political speech to persuade to explain to convince people to accept his point of view, to accept what he says so as to support him Characteristics: 1. The order is clear. Each para. has its own topic. 2. The tone is appropriate. He uses different tone to different people. Characteristics: 3. The style is rigid. is made beforehand. So it is a sort of It written language. 4. The language is rhetorical. parallelism,metaphor, antithesis, balanced structure, repetition of words and phrases --- for force, vividness and emotional appeal. General analysis of a political speech 1. He must try every possible means to arouse the feelings of audience. What he says represents the interests of the whole people. successful appeal to the emotion of the audience General analysis of a political speech 2. specific policy Thespeech must have high-sounding words and empty promises 3. The speech must be concise and short General analysis of a political speech 4. clever-choice of words to convey different meanings/tones. 5. the use of biblical style to make it formal/ rigid. 6. the use of a lot of rhetorical devices to make his address as powerful/ impressive as possible. The social background In what period in history did Kennedy become president? in 1960's The social background Cold war is sth. which marks the situation in 1960's. The world is mainly divided into two hostile camps. 1) socialist camp -- headed by the Soviet Union 2) capitalist camp -- headed by the US The camps opposed each other politically. John Fitzgerald Kennedy The text * Kennedy’s address 音频* Detailed study of the text: Para1 opening paragraph importance / significance of his election as president of the US 1. observe 2. celebrate freedom -- We celebrate freedom. People in the US are free to choose their president. antithesis: end -- the end of Eisenhower's presidential term beginning -- the beginning of Kennedy’s presidential term renewal ---- the continuation of presidency and office of president change -- the change from Eisenhower to Kennedy as well as --- well balanced structure in Para.1 solemn --- refer almost exclusive to an extremely formal and inspiring religious ritual. ( grave ) very serious. a ~ oath 庄严的誓言 a ~ dedication to the cause of freedom 为 自由事业而始终不渝的献身 prescribe --- set down / impose What punishment does the law prescribe for this crime? Government schools must work for a prescribed number of days each year. Good citizens do what the laws prescribe. Someone who behaves as foolishly as you have no right to prescribe how others should behave. Para.2 the general situation of this world topic sentence --- The world is very different. In what way is the world different? The world is different in the way of science and technology. People have modern and advanced science and technology. the power -- the power of science and technology with the help of science and technology 1. People can become very rich. 2. People can be exterminated. Science can be used to get rid of poverty. Science can be used to destroy all human beings. revolutionary belief --- human rights All men were created equal and God had given them certain unalienable rights which no state or ruler could take away from them. see: Note 3 generosity, benevolence, good will, kindness, unselfishness These words refer to a well wishing friendliness or concern for the needs and desires of other people. benevolence – It has the widest range of any of these words suggesting an expansive and good-humored tolerance and sympathy for others 对别人善意的宽容与同情 Working conditions were sought as a right, not as a ~ of their employer. 寻求良好的工作环境是权利，而不是雇主的恩赐。 generosity --- focuses exclusively on the aspect of giving referring to an unstintingly helpful act or habit the generosity with which he shared his toys with other children 比较 benevolence -- an unacted-upon feeling generosity -- actual behavior eg. He was a plantation owner who looked on his slaves with benevolence but could hardly be accused of treating them with generosity. 他是一个以仁慈之心看待他的奴隶而谈不上慷慨 厚待他们的庄园主。 good will – good will --- referring primarily to feeling kindness --- to action He insisted that he wanted only her good will, not her kindness. 他坚持只领她的好意，而非她的帮助 （怜悯）。 unselfishness -- pointto a generosity that is based on a lack of self-concern , where generosity may emphasize the quantity given, possibly for ostentatious reasons, unselfishness stress the effacing personal sacrifice required --- even if a lessen amount is given. 强调具备自我牺牲和自我埋没的行动 unselfishness -- Itwas the tax deduction involved, rather than unselfishness, that prompted his generosity to the charity drive. 促使他对慈善事业大施援手的动力不是 无私之心而是为了减税。 at issue --- undecided , in dispute The point at issue is whether you are willing to go abroad or not . That is not the point at issue. without issue – to die without children He died without issue. Para.3 general policy of the US human rights torch This refers to the privilege and burden of leading the nation being passed to a new generation. The original reference is to the Olympic games before which a torch is carried from runner to runner. The flame of the torch eventually lights a fire that signals the opening of Olympics. torch ---- metaphor duty revolution responsibility --- of keeping human rights heritage --- all the qualities, traditions or features of life that have been continued over many years and passed on from one generation to another, used especially to refer to things that are of historical importance or that have had a strong influence on society. heritage Peking opera is part of our cultural heritage. This building is part of British national heritage. inheritance --- 1. money or property which you receive from someone who is dead 2. a situation or state of affairs which has been influenced by a particular event, person, book etc.(heritage) commit --- commit oneself to (doing) sth be committed to sth/ doing sth --- promise/ pledge to do /support sth Allan has been committed to staying there for a long time. commit -- He has been committed to equal rights for women. Deeply committed to his religion, he has often spoken out against greed and misuse of power. Nobody committed themselves to a definite answer. general policy of the US People in the US must keep and defend human rights not only in the US but also in the world as well. Para.4 strong determination Kennedy puts the US to the leader, so he says in order to keep human rights, we shall.... survival and the success of liberty 1. the survival and the success of "free democratic countries". 2. the newly independent third world countries Para 5. transition A one sentence paragraph that functions as a transition from the general to the specific. In the following paragraphs he will be addressing different specific groups of nations. This much we promise to do and we promise to do more. Para. 6 the specific policy toward his friends and would-be friends allies --- ally. Britain, Canada, New Zealand, Australia,/ West European countries acountry that has a treaty or an agreement to help and support another country, esp. during a war. allied --- adj. the Allied and Associated Powers 协约国 WWI the Allied Military Government 联合国民政府 WWII cultural and spiritual origins --- 1. speak the same language /belong to the some language family 2. have the same religious belief antithesis -- United we can do everything. Divided we can do nothing. --- the importance of unity a powerful challenge -- a strong, powerful threat posed by the socialist camp If we are quarreling and split apart, we can not compete with the strong, powerful enemy in front of us. Para. 7 Whom did he address? --- some newly independent countries Para. 7 1) He promises to aid (support) the newly independent countries so that they can remain free and independent. ranks of the free -- the community of free and independent nations a far more iron tyranny --- a communist dictatorship "riding the back of a tiger" -- Compare "seeking the aid of socialist countries" to "riding he back of a tiger" Para. 7 2) Those countries which foolishly seek the aid of socialist countries will end up by losing their independence as many other countries did in the past. Itis dangerous to ride the back of the tiger. If you do, you will be swallowed up by the tiger. You will lose your power and independence . Para 8 Whom did he address? the developing countries half the globe -- thecontinents of Africa and Asia constitute almost one half of the land surface of the globe. bonds -- chains, fetters (pl) 1. chains, ropes that are used to tie down a prisoner 2. (fig) a feeling, duty or custom that forces you to behave in a particular way help them help -- We pledge to help them on condition that they do their best and do what we ask them to do. Para. 9 He is speaking to Latin American countries. Usuallythe US regards the Latin American countries as the backyard of the US, for it has special interest in these countries. sister -- careful choice of word, implying equal relationship, one family mutual good relations peaceful revolution = a new alliance for progress prey -- metaphor comparing "peaceful revolution" to an animal which might fall victim to enemy nations. We will not allow any enemy country to subvert this peaceful revolution which brings hope of progress to all our countries. Para. 9 1. He offered special pledge that all Latin American countries to work together to make progress. 2. He warned the enemies not to interfere in the internal affairs of these countries, because we are master of this hemisphere. Para.10 He is addressing the United Nations. The UN is our last and best hope of survival in a world where the instruments of war have far surpassed and exceeded the instruments of peace. Para.10 instruments of war-- weapons, bombs, for waging wars instruments of peace -- machines, tools for producing goods Para.10 1) to prevent the UN from becoming an assembly where people just criticize, insult and abuse each other 2) to strengthen the power of UN to protect the newly independent and weak nations 3) to enlarge the area in which its authority and mandate would continue to be in effect or in force Para.11 He is speaking to the enemies, especially the Soviet Union. make themselves our adversary -- clever choice of words This phrase throws the blame for confrontation and world tension on the other party. The US has done nothing to create enemies. It's the other side that is challenging the US. not pledge -- not promise but a request -- but asking the other side to consider his proposal 1) point out danger self destruction ( the Third danger-- World War) Advanced weapons will destroy the whole mankind whether intentionally or accidentally Para.11 anew -- again, in a new or different way quest -- a search or attempt to find The quest for gold was long and difficult. engulf -- (of the earth, the sea) to destroy by swallowing up The stormy sea engulfed the small boat. Para.12 2) point out position of strength We must be very strong. If we are weak, they would attract us. We dare not be weak because it might tempt the enemy to take rash actions. tempt -- attract The warm sun tempted us to go swimming. a tempting meal Para.13 3) point out needs / situation (find no comfort in present situation) cold war / hostile confrontation a) Both sides are feeling the great financial burden of the arms race. b) Both are made conscious of the gradual spread of the terrible atom bombs. Para.13 Both sides are trying to change this c) uncertain balance of this terrible military power which restrains / prevent each group from launching the Third World War. Para.14-18 4) point out co-operation / different proposals trying to find out specific field in which we can agree with each other. sincerity is always subject to proof -- One's sincerity must be proved by facts. People may say or promise all kinds of things but they must be proved by deeds. subject to – depending on 取决于，尚待， 在……的条件下 They have authority to decide, subject to the minister's approval. The treaty is subject to ratification. 认可， 批准 The plan is subject to confirmation. belabor – set upon with too much talk or advice 责备 Ifyou belabor a point in a discussion or explanation, you keep talking about it or emphasizing it in a boring way. There is no need to belabor the point. formulate -- work out If you formulate sth such as a plan or proposal, you invent it, thinking about the details carefully. 1. We had formulated our own strategy. 2. Both sides have the need to formulate a policy that will promote rather than hinder peace. inspection of arms -- examining/ watching over carefully the limitation of arms absolute --- without limit absolute -- complete tap the ocean depths draw upon or make use of the wealth --- that lies deep in the oceans mine the ocean beds for valuable metals etc. heed – give attention to She didn't heed my warnings. "undo the heavy burdens..." A Biblical quotation is used in keeping with his biblical style; in keeping his Catholic upbringing. What are the specific proposals? 1. control arms 2. use /develop science for peace purpose instead of the war purpose. explore the stars conquer the desert eradicate disease tap the ocean depths encourage the art and commerce 3. enjoy human rights Para.19 point out purpose, object We must work together to make a new world order. strong are just -- The strong nations do not bully the weak. weak secure -- The weak nations feel safe. Para.20 conclusion one hundred days -- historical allusion, famous period in American history, in President F.D. Roosevelt's presidential term one hundred days During the famous “hundred days” ( Mar-Jun. 1933), Roosevelt‘s administration rushed through congress a flood of anti-depression measures (more than 70 bills for approval), which were generally known as Roosevelt’s “New Deal”. “新政” *4image-10,11* New Deal Roosevelt 新政.doc one hundred days Bills: “Banking Act“ 《银行法》 '' National Industrial Recovery Act" 《国家工业复兴法》 "Agricultural Adjustment Act" 《农业调整法》 The proposals can not be completed in a short time, but let's try and begin. Para.21-27 Heappeals to his fellow Americans to support him and to do everything they can, even to sacrifice their lives for their country. Para.21-27 past --- Many Americans died for their country. They showed their loyalty to their country. present --- Now our generation is called upon to face the challenge of the cold war, to struggle against poverty and disease. Para.21-27 twilight struggle --- not clear, abstract, Tyranny, poverty, disease and cold wars are not bloody wars. “rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation” ---忍受困苦，向往未来 biblicallanguage to be happy when things look bright and hopeful to be patient in distress/ in trouble Para.23 Rhetorical questions are more forceful. assure --- make sth. certain to happen try to cause sb to believe or trust in sth. to protect against death through money This will assure your comfort. The only way to assure success is to work hard. One more try will assure victory. Nothing can assure permanent happiness. assure --- ~ sb. that --- The captain of the ship assured the passengers that there was no danger. I assure you this medicine cannot harm you ensure --- 1) make sb. certain to get sth This medicine will ensure you a good night's sleep. 2) try to cause to believe I tried to ensure that everybody understood the instruction. I can't ensure that he will be there in time. insure – protect against loss of money , life, goods etc through money (by insurance) My house is insured against fire and theft. The company will insure your house against fire. He has insured himself for $2000. insure – assure sth assure sb. that -- ensure sb sth ensure that --- para. 24 emphasizing the situation and responsibility He tries to arouse American people's emotions by saying you must be very proud and glorious, for you are born in this time and you are given such a great duty. para. 24 He deliberately exaggerates the sense of urgency and he wants to make people feel that they are sacrificing for an important and glorious cause. para. 24 freedom in its hour of maximum danger We are in the greatest danger of losing freedom para. 24 the energy; the faith the devotion = light, fire, glow The energy, the faith and the devotion that the Americans bring to this task will inspire not only the United States and her people but also the whole world. para 27 conclusion ask of = inquire of (formal) (of sb) demand us ---- the president and members of his cabinet you -- people of the US and the world para 27 conclusion We demand you to show high standards of strength and sacrifice and we also want you to demand us to show the same high standards of strength and sacrifice. "with a good conscience... " Our reliable reward is only a good conscience. "with history the final...." will finally judge whether we History have done our task well or not. para 27 conclusion With God's blessing and help, let us start leading the country we love, knowing that on earth what we are doing is God's work (which is just) Organizational Pattern 4 sections. para.1-5 with para5 as a transition Sect.1. Introduction , the general statement of the basic policy of the US "We shall pay any price,....." Organizational Pattern Sect.2 para.6-10 He addresses different groups of allied nations and would-be allied nations; friends and would-be friends. Organizational Pattern Sect.2 para.6-10 His specific policy towards them. 1. the allies 2. the newly independent countries 3. the developing countries 4. the Latin American countries 5. the UN Organizational Pattern Sect.3 para.11-20 His specific policy toward the enemy. 1. point out the danger 2. point out he position of strength Organizational Pattern 3. point out the situation and need. Both sides feel uneasy. a) Both sides are overburdened with the cost of modern weapons. b) Both sides are anxious with the wide spread arms. c) Both sides try to change the uncertain balance of military power. Organizational Pattern Proposals: 1. control arms 2. use science for peace purpose 3. enjoy human rights Object --- to make a new world order Organizational Pattern Sect 4 para.21-27 conclusion He calls on the Americans to support him and to sacrifice their lives for their country. He calls on the people of the whole world to unit and work for the freedom of men. Language features specific comment on the speech Kennedy was an eloquent speaker. He is specially trained. This speech is very powerful and wonderful. He lays his emphasis on the successful appeals to the emotion of the listeners. well organized highly rhetorical Language features 1. highly rhetorical ---parallelism, antithesis, metaphor, simile, metonymy, hyperbole, 2. invoking the name of God, the use of biblical style 3. the use of key abstract words: faith, devotion, freedom, liberty, courage, loyalty, belief These abstractions are impossible to define precisely. Language features 4. the use of heroic-sounding verbs explore, conquer, dare, --- which are inspiring and emotional. 5. more repetition in the structure of paras, which gives the address a certain rhythm. fatal; deadly mortal lethal fatal ---- It stresses inevitability and actual result of death, destruction and disaster Many fatal diseases have been prevented by cleanliness and the proper medicine. 清洁的习惯和正当的使用药物，防止了许多致命 的疾病。 Thispiece of news was fatal to his political future. 这则新闻毁了他的政治前途。 fatal; deadly mortal lethal mortal ---It implies that death has occurred or is certain to occur. Allmen are mortal beings. She suffered from a mortal disease. fatal; deadly mortal lethal deadly -- It implies an extremely high degree of probability rather than a certainty of death Both of the great and powerful groups of nations are alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom. 两个强大的国家都对致命的原子力量的不断扩展 感到震惊。 A gun is a deadly weapon .枪是一种可怕的武 器。 fatal; deadly mortal lethal deadly -- It implies an extremely high degree of probability rather than a certainty of death Both of the great and powerful groups of nations are alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom. 两个强大的国家都对致命的原子力量的不断扩展 感到震惊。 A gun is a deadly weapon .枪是一种可怕的武 器。 fatal; deadly; mortal; lethal lethal --- It implies the existence of sth is the condition of the cause of death. Cyanide is a lethal poison. 氰化物是一种致死的毒素。 a ~ weapon 凶器 ~ gas 致死的毒气 faithful; loyal; constant; staunch; resolute faithful--- Itimplies a firm and unswerving adherence to a person or thing to whom or to which one is united by some ties as marriage, friendship, honor, or allegiance. 指对婚姻，友谊，荣誉，或政治需要体 现出忠心和忠诚。 faithful; loyal; constant; staunch; resolute faithful--- He has been a faithful friend to me for many years 多年来他一直是我忠实的朋友。 A husband should be faithful to his wife. faithful; loyal; constant; staunch; resolute loyal --- Itrefers faithful to one's pledged word or to the country, the leader, the institution or the principle to which one feels oneself mortally bound. 指受良心，正义感的影响对祖国，团体，事业表 现出的忠心忠诚 We are loyal to our beautiful country. He is loyal to his cause. faithful; loyal; constant; staunch; resolute constant --- means unchanging faith to love or cause.对事业，爱情的坚定，坚贞 We are constant to the communist ideals.我们 对共产主义理想坚定不移。 He has been constant in his devotion to scientific studies. 他坚毅地致力于科学研究。 She is constant to love.她对爱情忠贞不渝。 faithful ; loyal constant staunch resolute staunch -- indicates loyal or firm to political belief and religious belief 对宗教，政治信念表现出的毫不动摇的意志 和决心 Mary is a staunch Christian. 玛丽是一个虔诚 的基督徒。 He is a staunch supporter of his political party. 他是一位忠诚的政党拥护者。 faithful ; loyal constant staunch resolute resolute -- steadfastness and emphasize the determination which cannot be broken down as a quality of character. 强调决心无法动摇 He was resolute in his decision to give up smoking. The soldiers are resolute for victory. 战士们决 心争取胜利。 English Speech Many people emphasize the 3S’s in English speech Stand up Say what you have to say Sit down English Speech Three ways to make a speech memorized speech extempore speech (notes) impromptu speech English Speech Speech must by informative appealing entertaining Basic organization: introduction themain body conclusion How to deliver a speech? Show good manners (clothes, posture etc) “natural” Don’t deliberately beat about the bush “I don’t know how to speak”. “Being asked so abruptly to speak. I feel very nervous. I don’t have any preparations.” How to deliver a speech? That’s a waste of time. If you must express your feeling of excuse, you only need to say: “ I am not much of a public speaker.” “ I feel there is no way I can get out of making a speech.” How to deliver a speech? 3.When you make a mistake, you don’t need to say “excuse me”. Only “well, let me see …” “what I mean is …” will do. Don’t scratch your head. Don’t stick your tongue out. How to deliver a speech? All speeches may be started by “Ladies 4. and Gentlemen:” if on a rather formal occasion , you should first say “Mr. Chairman” and then “ Ladies and Gentlemen:” Welcome 1. Welcome to China. 2. We are delighted to see you again. 3. It is my special pleasure to welcome you all here today. Welcome 4. I take great pleasure in bidding you all a hearty welcome to our company. 5. On behalf of all my fellow students, I wish to say a word of hearty welcome to you. 6. The fist thing that I would like to say to Mr Wang is a hearty “welcome home”. Congratulations 1. Let me congratulate you on your success. 2. It’s my great pleasure (privilege) to say a word of congratulation to you. 3. I am truly happy to speak for all of us in congratulating Miss Wang, the winner of the contest. Congratulations 4. On behalf of the faculties of our school, I want of take this opportunity to extend our heartfelt congratulations to you on your stunning victory in the speech contest. 5. You are to be congratulated for your constant efforts. Wedding ceremony To bridegroom ---- congratulations To bride --- I wish you much happiness. We are gathered here today to celebrate the wedding of my best friend, Wang Hua and his wonder bride … Wedding ceremony We are here to witness the union of two lives in marriage. I’m sure everyone here joins me in wishing you two, the very best that life has to offer you in your marriage. I will conclude by congratulating the young couple on their marriage, and wishing them a long life of happiness together. Wedding ceremony I wish to conclude my speech with a prayer for the continued happiness of the newly married couple. Allow me to conclude my brief speech by wishing the bride and bridegroom all happiness and the best luck for the future. Holidays Of course, everybody knows what day it is today. We are here today toe celebrate the Spring Festival. I’m pleased and honored toe stand before you today on this most beautiful of holidays, Mother’s Day. Holidays Merry Christmas Happy New Year. Happy Thanksgiving. Thank you for your kind invitation to join with you in this wonderful Thanksgiving celebration. Holidays It’s a great honor for me to speak to you all here tonight at this New Year party. Let me begin by saying “A happy New Year” to all of you and especially to Mr. Smith, our guest of honor. Contest Welcome to the finals of the speech contest. Welcome and thanks toe our judges. It’s a great pleasure for me to declare open the contest. Now let’s begin and let’s all give the participant our support! Contest Allow me to conclude by once more thanking the judges for their kind cooperation and by wishing each of the participants the very best of luck. Thank you all for coming, and we’ll look forward to seeing you next year at he next contest. School activity Speaking for all of us, I have to say that we are full of excitement for the future and gratitude for the chance given us to study. This is the day to mark the end of our studies and the beginning of a new life for all of us. School activity I’m sure that we will all be interested in hearing the latest of what is happening at our school. Now, looking bock over those four years, I can’t imagine how the time went by so quickly. Speech at a teacher’s birthday Dear Miss Walker, All of he students here want to wish you the happiest of birthdays and many more toe come in the future. We know that it must be a little difficult for you to have to celebrate a birthday in a foreign country, but we hope you will have a good time today. Speech at a teacher’s birthday We have brought this present for you and we hope you will keep it for may years to come. It is a cork carving, famous throughout the world, and we want you to think of China, and especially us, whenever you look at it. Speech at a teacher’s birthday Today, we know you are 35 years old, but we wonder about it. Many times, you seem to be as young as us, your students, in your attitudes and in your actions. We always feel so close to you because you seem to be one of us. I hope that when I am 35 I will seem as young as you do today. Speech at a teacher’s birthday We didn’t know very well what type of food t serve at an American birthday party, and we know you love Chinese food, so we decided to make Chinese food for you today instead of American food. This is truly an international birthday party. Please sit down with us now and eat and think and have a good time. Later, we are all going to stand up sing “happy birthday” to you and we really mean it. Exercises Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Western European countries May new nations in Africa, newly independent countries are: The Republic of Central Africa The People’s republic of the Congo The Gabon Republic (加蓬) The Republic of Ghana (加纳) The republic of Chad (乍得) The Republic of Dahowmey 达荷美 (西非) Paraphrase: 1.Our ancestors fought a revolutionary war to maintain that all men were created equal and god had given them certain unalienable rights which no state or ruler could take away from them. But today this issue has not yet been decided in many countries around the world. Paraphrase 2. This is much we promise to do and we promise to do more. 3. United and working together we can accomplish a lot of things in a great number of joint undertakings. Paraphrase 4. We will not allow any enemy country to subvert this peaceful revolution which will bring hope of progress to all our countries. Paraphrase 5.The United Nations is our last and best hope of survival of liberty. Now the instruments for waging war have far surpassed and exceeded the instruments for peace purpose. 6.To help the U.N. enlarge the area in which its authority and order may continue to be in effect. Paraphrase 7. Before the terrible force of destruction, which science can now release, which may be planned or brought about by accident, takes place. 8. Let both nations are trying to change as quickly as possible this uncertain balance of terrible military power which restrains each group from launching mankind’s final war. Paraphrase 9. So let us start once again to discuss and negotiate and let us remember that being polite is not a sign of weakness. 10.Let both sides try to call forth the wonderful things that science can do for mankind instead of the frightful thing it can do. Paraphrase 11. Each generation of Americans have been called upon to prove their loyalty to their country’s cause. Paraphrase 12.With God’s blessing and help, let us start leading the country we love, knowing that on the earth what we are doing is God’s job. Let the history finally judge whether we have done our task well or not, but our sure reward will be a good conscience, for we will have worked sincerely and to the best of our abilities.
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