Literacy Needs of Adolescents in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area

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Literacy Needs of Adolescents in the Baltimore Metropolitan Area Powered By Docstoc
					Dr. Sharon Pitcher
Dr. Elizabeth Dicembre
Dr. Darlene Fewster
Dr. Gilda Martinez
Dr. Montana McCormick

   Approximately eight million students in fourth
    through twelfth grade are reading below grade
    level in the United States.
   The National Endowment for the Arts (2007)
    reports that “little more than a third of high
    school seniors now read proficiently”.
   In Maryland, the State Department of Education
    reports that one-third of their students are
    reading below grade level.
   Fifty percent of those students are from
    Baltimore City, which neighbors our university.

The recent national report, Crisis in the Cities,
 demonstrates the seriousness of adolescent
 literacy problems in our metropolitan area:
   Forty-seven percent less students graduate
    from high school in Baltimore City than in the
    surrounding metropolitan area.
   This discrepancy is the highest in the nation.
            Research Questions

1.   What types of reading instruction are
     adolescent students receiving?

2.   What motivates adolescent students to

3.   Does the reading instruction match their
         Significance of the Study

Adolescents in Maryland schools today will be the college
students and work force of the future. We are beginning to
   The top 10% of students coming from Baltimore
    City Public Schools struggling in freshmen
   An increased amount of freshmen needing
    developmental reading and struggling with
    writing courses although they have high GPAs in
    their high schools.
  Significance of the Study to the Baltimore
              Metropolitan Area

An important mission of Towson University is to respond to:
 “State’s socioeconomic and cultural needs and aspirations”
 Strives to “analyze academic trends” and disseminate the
  results to build bridges between Towson University and
  educational stakeholders in the Baltimore Metropolitan area.

as suggested in Towson 2010 and the University’s Mission
   Statement (Available on Towson University’s website,

This study supports the Towson
University’s mission by
developing snapshots to begin
a Metropolitan dialogue on the
literacy needs of adolescents.

Seven adolescent students attending the
Towson University Reading Clinic in the
Spring 2008 session, which were from a
variety of school systems in Baltimore,
Maryland, participated in this qualitative
multiple case study.
  For this study, we assembled an investigative
  team with research experience in:
 Adolescent Literacy
 English Language Learners
 Special Education
 Secondary Education
 Parent Involvement
 Curriculum Development
to look at the data from different perspectives.
                 Data Collected:

Students were
 tested in reading using several assessments.
 interviewed
Their parents were also
   interviewed, using questions that paralleled the
    student interview, to gain a richer description of the
    students’ reading abilities, motivation, and
    instruction being provided.
          Reading Assessments:

   Qualitative Reading Inventory IV

   Lexia Comprehensive Reading Test

   Metacognitive Assessment

   Adolescent Motivation to Read Survey
      Student and Parent Interviews
Questions for both the students and the parents
 were similar. The following are some examples
 from the student interview:
   What kind of difficulties are you having when you read?
   Are you taking a reading class in school right now?
   In what class do you have the most problems reading the
   In what classes do you like reading the most?
   Do you spend much time on the computer?
   Is reading ever a problem on the computer?
               Data Analysis

 The assessments, surveys and interviews were
  coded to study similarities and differences noted
  among these students and their parents, and
  compared to reveal like themes that emerged from
  the individual cases (Flick, 2002).
 Key words included: motivation, comprehension,
  instruction, understanding.
 Parent and student interviews were coded a second
  time to see how they defined reading.
             Case Studies

 Three girls
 Four boys
Among the students:
 Two students from Baltimore City
 Three students from Suburban County
  school systems
 One student from a parochial school
 One student being home schooled
      Case #1: Tamika’s Background

   6th grade– attends public school

   English Language Learner, originally from South Africa

   She does not receive extra help in reading, other than
    having been placed in a reading intervention class
    using Language!

   Most common method of instruction she encounters in
    content area classes – read and answer questions
    Case #1: Tamika’s Perspective

 Enjoys math class best because there is not much reading
 Spends around 5 hours a day on the computer for
  enjoyment, reading and writing emails, updating her
  website, and playing games (and has no problems reading on
  the computer)
When asked,
“What kind of difficulties are you having when
you read?”
Tamika responded,
“Understanding what the topic is about.”

She knew where she needed help.
Case #1: Tamika’s Parent’s Perspective

   Explained that Tamika’s greatest difficulty in
    reading is comprehension:

          “The difficulties my daughter is having
      is the comprehension part. She can read, she
             can spell, but the comprehension
           part for some reason is hard for her.”

Tamika was not receiving comprehension
instruction in school.
Case #1: Tamika’s Parent’s Perspective

   Stated the teachers did not invite them to a
    parent conference because she was doing “okay”

   Explained that Tamika is not challenged in her
    reading intervention Language! class, but was
    placed in it as a result of a test (they were notified
    via mail of this placement)
      Case #1: What we found out about
               Tamika in clinic
   Strengths – sight word identification, word recognition, before
    and after reading strategies, is aware of her needs
   Needs – vocabulary instruction, during reading strategies
   Reading comprehension is on a 2nd grade level; word
    recognition is on grade level
   Writing – uses capital letters appropriately, complete
    sentences, correct spelling, but does not elaborate on a given
   Brought student to the Reading Clinic because she was not
    motivated to read; and according to her mother now enjoys
    reading as a result.
        Case #2: Karl’s Background

   7th grade – attends home school

   Student has Attention Deficit Disorder

   When he was in public school, he had an I.E.P.

   Enjoys reading on his porch

   Keeps up with current events using Google
       Case #2: Karl’s Perspective

   Spends about 3 hours a day on the
    computer emailing friends, using myspace,
    reading the news (has no problems reading
    on the computer)

When Karl was asked,
“Is reading ever a problem on the computer?”
His response was simply,
“Uh, no.”
    Case #2: Karl’s Parent’s Perspective

   He is home-schooled to ensure instruction
    matches his needs
   His mother uses the Beckham curriculum (which
    consists of reading and answering questions) and
    supplements it with reading and researching online
   Stated self-selected readings and journaling are
    helpful in reading class
   Believe Karl needs to improve his writing skills
    Case #2: What we found out about Karl
                   in clinic
   Strengths – motivation to read self selected texts
   Needs – decoding, vocabulary, comprehension, and
    fluency instruction
   Word recognition and reading comprehension are on a
    2nd grade level
   Writing – needs instruction in grammar, punctuation, and
    how to expand ideas
   Does not use before, during, or after reading strategies
   Attended the Reading Clinic to improve overall reading
    skills. He improved in making connections while reading,
    thinking aloud, and visualization.
          Case #3: Kathy’s Background
    Case 3: Kristen

   Is an eighth grade student in a public school in a
    suburban school system bordering Baltimore.
   Was identified with Autism at a young age.
   Has an IEP and is receiving small group reading
   Does not receive reading support in Social Studies
    or Science.
   Enjoys playing the piano and basketball, horseback
    riding and acting in a theater group.
   Wants to be a librarian when she grows up.
             #3: Kathy’s
        Case Kathy’s Perspective Perspective

   Really liked reading in elementary school because she could
    read books she liked but middle school is very different.
   Enjoys making bookmarks as presents using the Internet to
    find pictures and designs.
    Uses the Internet to search topics she is interested in and to
   Uses the computer to write letters to pen pals.
   Seems to understand more of what she reads on the
   Has the most problems reading in Science.
   Likes going to the library the most in school because she can
    choose books she likes.
    Case #3: Kathy’s Parents’ Perspective

 Researched autism, sought professional help, and
  have a strong understanding of her strengths and
 Believe Kathy needs a very visual /kinesthetic
  learning approach.
 Realized that “Kristen’s vocabulary is limited” but
  she needs to make connections with the words in
  context rather than “just reading a definition on
  paper” (Kristen’s mom shared).
 Are frustrated that the school refuses to let Kristen
  use the computer in school because they feel it
  would be distracting to her.
    Case #3: Kathy’s Parents’ Perspective

   Tried to share with the school how well she
    learns on the computer but the school
    ignores them.

   The father shared “…Here’s the window to
    this child and no one can take advantage of
    it. At three years old, we sat her down in
    front of the computer and now she writes
    her own stories.”
     Case #3: Kathy’s Parents’ Perspective

Her father:
   Serves on an advocacy group for parents of children in
    Special Education in their county’s school system.
   Discovered that the reading program her school uses is not
    research based, focuses on word identification with a weak
    comprehension component, is predominantly auditory
    based, and has no computer component. When he shared
    this with teachers, he got “the deer in the head lights
   Shared that they want to partner with Kathy’s school but
    constantly receive resistance from the school’s faculty. He
    remarked that “they can’t answer the hard questions”.
      Case #3: What We Learned About
               Kathy in Clinic
   Her word recognition level is on Grade 6 but
    her instructional comprehension level is
    Grade 1.
   Her writing demonstrated understanding of
    complete sentences, correct punctuation,
    capitalization and grammar.
   When her metacognitive (how she thinks
    about reading in her head) understanding of
    reading strategies were assessed, she could
    not verbalize any strategies.
     Case #3: What We Learned About
           Kathy in Clinic continued
Her Reading Clinic teacher reported:
 Kathy responded very positively in Clinic when
  strategies were taught using pictures, writing and
  story maps.
 Teaching her explicitly to make connection when
  reading with visual organizers was very successful.
 Expanding her vocabulary by helping her make
  connections to the words needed to be an
  important part of improving her comprehension.
        Case #4: Leon’s Background

   7th grade student in a K-8 School
   Lives in the Baltimore city
   Has never been retained or received extra academic
    help in school and has even been placed in
    gifted/talented classes
   Does attend a voluntary coach class after school
   He likes to play football and basketball.
   His mother is a Baltimore City school teacher.
   His father once played for a professional football
    team and Leon would like to do the same.
          Case #4: Leon’s Perspective
   Likes to read when he has a choice of what he
   Likes to play games on the computer but has had
    some problems reading directions but has
    learned how to deal with that.
   Does not like to read aloud because he had
    trouble stuttering when he was younger but this
    is often done in his classes.
      Case #4: Leon’s Perspective Continued

   Has the most problem reading in Science
   Understood that he has a comprehension
    problem. He shared that “Before I started
    the Towson Clinic, I really didn’t understand
    what I read. Yes, I feel like I can understand
    a lot more than I did before. Yes.”
Case #4: Leon’s Parent’s Perspective

His mother shared:
 Felt her son had a problem with comprehension but
  he always scored “Advanced” on the Maryland
  State Assessment.
 Concerned that the school does not do “a lot of in-
  depth study and research” or that her son is learning
  “higher order thinking”.
 Is concerned that her son is in overcrowded classes
  with “new teachers who come and go”.
Case #4: Leon’s Parent’s Perspective

   Knows that her son needs a more hands-on
    approach like he is getting in Clinic where he
    is using visual organizers and able to
    “synthesize and evaluate all levels of
   His school does not provide tips on how the
    parents can help their children or explain
    what type of curriculum they are using.
Case #4: Leon’s Parent’s Perspective

   Shared that she wanted her son to go to a
    well-known private school in the city next
    year, but they wanted him to repeat 7th
    grade, which surprised her.
   Her son was very excited about coming to the
    Clinic; he does his work for Clinic without
    being reminded and “is finally starting to put
    things together.”
Case #4: What We Learned About Leon in

   Reading comprehension level was three
    grades below his grade level on two different
   The only strategies he was able to verbalize
    was sounding out and predicting.
   Although his word identification was higher
    than comprehension, it was still two grade
    levels below his grade level.
Case #4: What We Learned About Leon in
              Clinic continued

 He read higher orally than silently
  but is very self-conscious reading
  aloud because of his early
 His self-concept as a reader was
  higher than his value of reading
  when he started Clinic.
Case #4: What We Learned About Leon in
              Clinic continued

   Reading comprehension level was three
    grades below his grade level on two different
   The only strategies he was able to verbalize
    was sounding out and predicting.
   Although his word identification was higher
    than comprehension, it was still two grade
    levels below his grade level.
      Case #4: What We Learned About Leon in
                   Clinic continued
   Responded best in Clinic when his interests were
    considered in selecting reading materials.
   Did well when comprehension strategy instruction
    included hands-on activities such as visual
    organizers and writing notes while reading.
   Over the course of ten weeks of instruction of one
    hour per week he improved his reading
    approximately three grade levels.
        Case #5: Sam’s Background

   Enrolled in grade 6 in a public school in
    Baltimore City
   No chronic illnesses, vision or hearing problems
   Loves sports, especially basketball
   Father describes him as a gifted athlete
   Makes good grades in school
   Received support from a one-on-one reading
    specialist two days a week in
    grade 5
        Case #5: Sam’s Perspective

   Does not read for pleasure
   States that sometimes he does not
    understand what he reads
   Believed reading was easier when he was 6
    years old and he had pictures to help him
   Described his reading class as consisting of a
    drill, talking about something, reading a
    book, and finally doing tests on the book
    Case #5: Sam’s Perspective continued

   Indicated that the reading strategies he uses
    are reading aloud, rereading, and taking
   Likes reading class best when they get to
    talk about what they read
When asked, “When do you like reading the
Sam responded, “ When I like the book and
 it’s about what I like . . . like basketball.”
Case #5: Sam’s Parent’s Perspective

   Expressed concern about Sam’s reading
    based upon observations made at home
    when he is reading to complete his
   Believe Sam has a limited vocabulary and
    difficulty understanding what he reads
   Stated that Sam has always tested on grade
Case #5: Sam’s Parent’s Perspective

   Stated that Sam does not understand the
    value in working at something
   Stated that Sam does not spend much time
    on the computer
   Stated that Sam has difficulty with
    comprehension wherever – whether print or
    on the computer, retelling important story
    events in order
Case #5: What we found out about Sam
               in clinic

   Reading comprehension at 5th grade level
   Strengths – phonics and decoding,
    knowledge and use of before reading
    strategies, motivated to succeed, positive
    attitude toward to school and clinic
   Needs – during and after reading
    strategies, vocabulary development
       Case #6: Stacy’s Background

   Enrolled in the sixth grade in a private school in
    Baltimore County, Maryland
   Lives with biological parents and two siblings
   Is an avid reader
   Enjoys trips to bookstores and the public library
   Is involved in many extra-curricular activities
     Basketball and softball
     Girl Scout
         Case #6: Stacy’s Perspective

   Stacy reports that
     She reads chapter books in class and a choice is
      offered to students
     She “likes working on the computer in reading
     She likes reading in one content area “math”
     In class, she reports
      ▪ “no one really reads with me”
      ▪ It’s not like a one on one things”
      ▪ “I like to read books”
    Case #6: Stacy’s Parent’s Perspective

   Areas of difficulty for Stacy
     “comprehension and motivation”
   Current reading instruction provided
     “can read but has trouble with comprehension”
   What does your child need in terms of
    reading instruction?
     How to comprehend and motivate someone
     who is challenged with comprehension?
    Case #6: Stacy’s Parent’s Perspective

   Parent reports
     “comprehension and motivation are difficult for
     Comments supported that concern that there is a
      disconnect between the reading instruction that
      Stacy receives and her reading needs
     “Stacy has a positive self-concept about her
     Case #6: What we found out about
               Stacy in clinic

   Reading comprehension level
   Strengths
     Enjoys reading, positive self-concept as a reader,
     reads with fluency
   Needs
     “during” and “after” reading strategies
     Retelling story details
     Identifying the main idea
     Decoding multisyllabic words
      Case #7: Andrew’s Background

   Fourteen-year old male in the 8th grade.
   Second time in Towson Reading Clinic.
   Enrolled in public school in a suburban school
   Will attend Science magnet school program.
   Never diagnosed with medical issues that might
    influence reading or academics.
      Case #7: Andrew’s Background

Student athlete (football and basketball).
Makes good grades in school, but often
loses motivation towards the end of the
school year.
Has worked with a reading specialist from
grades 1 through 6.
Works with a private reading tutor every
        Case #7: Andrew’s Perspective
   Loves to discuss sports, read about sports and
    athletic-themed clothing styles online
   Has difficulty remembering what he reads,
    particularly in Language Arts class
   Noisy classrooms make it harder for him to read
   Language Arts class: The teacher picks the stories
    and books, sometimes has class discussion, but
    mostly students answer questions about
    reading (no choices)
    Case #7: Andrew’s Perspective continued

 Frustrated with teachers: They need to “start
  teaching and explaining things!”
 When he cannot remember what he reads or does
  not understand, he goes back and re-reads.
 Has the most problems with comprehension in
  Language Arts (yet mother indicated problems in
 Considers himself an “OK” reader, prefers to have
  choice in reading selections, and enjoys reading on
Case #7: Andrew’s Parent’s Perspective

   Frustrated with the schools and seeks out
    alternative instruction for Andrew.
   Enrolled Andrew in magnet high school but
    concerned that Andrew will struggle.

“That’s what worries me. I don’t want to set him up for failure
  and that’s why I’ve been trying to give him all type of help.
  I’ve been looking for programs for the summer. Everything
  will be academic for the summer because I have to give him
  what he is not getting in school. “
Case #7: Andrew’s Parent’s Perspective

   Feels that most of Andrew’s academic
    problems stem from lack of motivation.
   Stated that Andrew’s grades were slipping in
    science and attributed this to not being able
    to comprehend the science texts.
   Stated that history and math textbooks are
    the only texts brought home.
   Frustrated that the teachers do not
    communicate with her more.
 Case #7: Andrew’s Parent’s Perspective

“Everything else is handouts. The tutor questioned it
  last year and she actually spoke to one of the
  teachers and was told that the school has no
  funding, so at this point everything they do they
  have to take time to sit at the copier as part of their
  day copying handouts for 30 something children. It
  is a time issue. Because they are frustrated with
  the school and the principals, they are just
  teaching basics. And, these kids are not learning
  anything. They are not learning. The school has not
  passed the MSA testing for 3 years. “
Case #7: Andrew’s Parent’s Perspective

“They are just not doing anything and it is
sad. They don’t call me. They don’t tell me
anything. I don’t care if you have 50 kids in
your class. 10 out of 50 may be doing good.
Let me follow up. I don’t think they have
phone numbers because they never have
called me.”
     Case #7: What we found out about
              Andrew in clinic

   Reading comprehension at 6th grade level (or
   Strengths – word recognition
   Needs – vocabulary, comprehension
    strategies while he is reading, monitoring
    comprehension, writing development
       Students’ View of Reading

Reading in class consists of:
   Reading and telling what the story was all about
     ▪ …like fill out a paper form like say it was like adventure or adult
       depending on what kind they were and fill out a biography think
       and then we read books and do a biography on them.”
   Answering questions about the reading
     ▪ “The teacher picks what we read and we mostly answer questions
       about it.”
   Taking turns reading out loud
     ▪ “Sometimes we have group reading. Just read books, read out
   Occasionally discussion
   Students’ View of Reading continued

What makes reading hard or easy:
 Sound in the classroom (quiet helps and noisy interferes)
   ▪ “When I’m by myself and it’s quiet. When it’s noisy, like in class, it’s
     harder to read.”
 Pictures help:
   ▪ “Uh, history….well, it’s because lots of pictures.”
   ▪ “Um, when I look at the pictures. It makes it more easy to
     understand what I’m reading.”
 The words (both recognizing them and knowing the
   ▪ “Like if something is stated hard and like the words are complicated
     – it’s more hard for me to understand it. If the words are easy and
     simply, I can understand it more clearly.”
      Students’ View of Reading continued

What teachers do to help students understand:
 More discussion
   ▪ “…help me think out loud.”
 Help with vocabulary
   ▪ “When the teacher goes over it, explains things, and helps with words you don’t
 Give students choice
 Help students relate the reading to their own lives
   ▪ “she made the lessons more fun…it was just like regular work, but she compared like
     with people we want to get with, that made it fun.”
 Individual attention
   ▪ “Yes, that there was a person there to review with you.”
   ▪ “…the teacher knows how to control us and she pays attention to every student.”
  Students’ View of Reading continued

Reading in content areas was vague: Students
had a hard time articulating what reading in
content areas was.
  ▪ “Math. Like if we’re on a certain topic like if we were doing
    fractions or something like that and there’s like 10 pages
    about it and there’s a test you can take in the book for
  ▪ “Math. Cuz, it’s little reading and math you just use
    numbers and not a lot of reading.”
  ▪ “I have to say science because our science class was so big,
    and I have to talk louder. Like basically scream.”
            Parents’ View of Reading

   All of the parents explained their children’s reading
    problems being about comprehending what they
   Parents all commented in some way about their
    children’s difficulty understanding what they were
    reading in content areas.
   One father shared that his son had “Difficulty
    understanding the text. He reads the word, he
    does better at reading the words than
    understanding the word’.
     Parents’ View of Reading Continued

   Some of the parents were also concerned with
    the role that not understanding vocabulary
    played in how students comprehended text.
   Most of the parents realized that motivation to
    read played a part in how their children
    comprehended. When their children read books
    of choice or on the computer, they did not seem
    to struggle as much as in content areas that
    they were not as interested in.
    Parent’s View of Reading Comprehension

   Kathy’s mother realized that when she read
    with her daughter that she has to “relate
    something we are reading to a real life
   A father shared that his son “has to see the
    value of the process” or “pull from other
    places to bring it where he reads”.
   Another parent shared that her son was not
    being challenged to think critically.
                  Results - Students

Overall students:
   were aware they had difficulty with reading comprehension
   enjoyed reading when they self selected it
   could read without any problems on the computer
   rarely used the computer (if at all) while in school
   enjoyed through games on the computer and in school
   were not motivated by their reading instruction at school
   could articulate reading strategies at the end of the clinic experience
   struggled most with reading in social studies and/or science
                Results - Parents

Overall parents stated:

   there was limited home-school communication

   reading programs were not explained

   their child did not struggle to read on the computer

   their child enjoyed reading on the computer

   the reading instruction at school did not meet their
    child’s needs
    Recommendations for Instruction

   Teach reading to adolescents by focusing on
    their needs rather than solely following
   Focus on comprehension strategies until they
    become internalized.
   Apply comprehension instruction in the content
    areas as well as in Language Arts.
   Provide time for self selected reading.
   Use the computer to enhance instruction.
    Recommendations for Parent Involvement

   Inform parents about the reading
    instructional plans for their children

   Listen to parent voices when making
    instructional decisions for students

   Create a partnership with parents through
    ongoing communication
     Limitations of the Study
 We cannot generalize to other students beyond
  these seven students.
 Data were collected towards the end of a semester-
  long reading clinic, so students were well-versed in
  reading strategy terminology.
 Parents of these students may not be
  representative of other parents because these
  parents actively sought their child’s participation
  in the Towson University Reading Clinic.
    Disseminating What We Learned

These case studies:
 Are snapshots that share what these adolescents
  and their parents know, believe or understand.
 Can begin a very important dialogue in our state.
 Could be used as a bridge between our university
  and surrounding school systems to create future
  partnerships on how to change adolescent literacy
  instruction in schools.
    Disseminating What We Learned Continued

We plan to:
 Design a brochure to share the stories of these students
  with school systems in Maryland.
 Share the stories at state conferences.
 Offer to present to secondary school principals, faculties,
  and administrators in school systems in the Baltimore
  metropolitan area.
 Begin a dialogue on what adolescents need in as many
  venues in our metropolitan area as possible.
               We Aim to…

Encourage administrators to:
 Move away from one-size-fits-all programs.
 Align instruction to match the needs of the
 Create literacy experiences that will make
  differences in the lives and academic success
  rates of adolescent students.
 View parents as collaborative partners.
         Continuing the Research

   After presenting our study at local
    conferences, we will ask the participants to
    fill out a survey on their perception of the
    state of adolescent literacy in their school
    systems. Attendees at these conferences
    often include teachers, reading specialists
    and administrators.
   Compile the results of the survey and share it
    with educational stakeholders to continue
    the dialogue.
 To obtain this presentation, visit:

                         Qui ckTi me™ and a
                TIFF (Uncompresse d) d eco mpressor
                  are ne ede d to see thi s pi cture.

If you want more information about the study,
           contact Sharon Pitcher at:
Alvermann, D. E. (2003). Seeing themselves as capable and engaged readers: Adolescents and re/mediated
            instruction. Naperville, IL: Learning Point.
Biancarosa, G. & Snow, C. E. (2004). Reading next—A vision for action and research in middle and high
            school literacy: A report from Carnegie Corporation of New York. Washington, DC: Alliance for
            Excellent Education.
Cassidy, J. & Cassidy, D. (2008). What's hot, what's not for 2008. Reading Today, 25(4), 10-11.
Conley, M. W., & Hinchman, K. A. (2004). No Child Left Behind: what it means for U. S. adolescent and
            what we can do about it. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 48, 42-50.
Holmberg, B. & Pitcher, S.M. (2008). [Motivation of developmental reading students in Maryland colleges.]
    Unpublished raw data.
National Endowment of the Arts (2007). To read or not to read: A question of national consequence.
            Washington, DC: National Endowment of the Arts. Retrieved February 19, 2008 from
National Governor’s Association (2005). Reading to achieve: A governor’s guide to adolescent literacy.
            Washington, DC: NGA Center for Best Practices. Retrieved February 19, 2008 from
Santa, C. M. (2006). A vision for adolescent literacy: Ours or theirs? Journal of Adolescent and Adult
            Literacy, 49(6), 466-476.
Swanson, C. B. (2008). Cities in crisis: A special analytical report on high school graduation. Bethesda,
            MD: Editorial Projects in Education. Retrieved April 3, 2008
Towson University (2006). TU 2010. Retrieved September 30, 2008 from

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