Ethics in Marketing Research by I5y4P9L2


									Questionnaire Design
“It is not every question that
     deserves an answer.”
                     Publius Syrus
          (Roman, 1st century B.C.)
   Major Decisions in Questionnaire
What should be asked?
How should each question be phrased?
In what sequence should the questions be
What questionnaire layout will best serve
 the research objectives?
How should the questionnaire be pretested?
 Does the questionnaire need to be revised?
       Phrasing Questions

• Open-ended questions
• Fixed-alternative questions
Questionnaire Design Process
           Specify the Information Needed

      Specify the Type of Interviewing Method

   Determine the Content of Individual Questions

  Design the Question to Overcome the Respondent’s
        Inability and Unwillingness to Answer

          Decide on the Question Structure

          Determine the Question Wording

       Arrange the Questions in Proper Order
Questionnaire Design Process

      Identify the Form and Layout

      Reproduce the Questionnaire

       Eliminate Bugs by Pretesting
    Types of Questions


Unstructured                 Structured

               Dichotomous      Scales
The Funnel Approach to Ordering Questions

          Broad or General Questions

           Narrow or Specific Questions
   Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 1: Information Needed
 Ensure info obtained fully addresses all
  components of the problem
 Must have clear idea of the target
Step 2: Interviewing Method
 Ensure that the proper interviewing method
  is being used given the study objectives
  Questionnaire Design Check List

Step 3: Individual Questions
 Is each question necessary?
 Is each question unambiguous?
 Are the proper number of questions
  needed to measure a particular
  construct being asked?
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 4: Inability/Unwillingness to
  Is the respondent informed?
  Can the respondent remember?
  Can the respondent articulate?
  Is the information sensitive?
  Make the information request legitimate.
  Minimize effort required of respondent.
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 5: Question Structure
  Use structured questions whenever possible.
  Response alternatives should include all
   possible answers.
  Response alternatives should be mutually
  If, on a particular question, a large % of
   respondents may be expected to be neutral,
   include a neutral alternative.
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 6: Question Wording
  Use ordinary words.
  Avoid ambiguous words (usually, probably,
   normally, etc.)
  Do not use leading questions.
  Avoid implicit assumptions.
  Use positive and negative statements as much
   as possible.
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 7: Question Order
  Qualifying questions first.
  General questions before specific questions.
  Use logical order.
    • Beginning of questionnaire
    • End of questionnaire
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 8: Form & Layout
  Divide questionnaire into multiple parts
  Number each question?
  Precode the questions
  Keep scale questions in same general vicinity
  Avoid temptation to “fill the blank spaces”
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 9: Questionnaire Reproduction
  Professional appearance
  Booklet format for long questionnaires
  Place directions as close to the questions as
  Expect reproduction errors
  Questionnaire Design Check List
Step 10: Pretesting
  Always try to pretest first
  Test everything
  Pretest sample should be extremely similar to
   test sample
  Pretest using same methodology as the main
  If make changes to questionnaire, or
   methodology, pretest again before main test.

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