Pathogen Prevalence In Water by xk0cj7

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									Prevalence of enteric pathogens/surrogates in environmental water sources.
(last updated 4/9/2012)

Pathogen/          Water         Location      Prevalence and levels                                           Reference
surrogate          system
adenovirus,        ground        U.S.,         10% of 10 samples positive                                      Gibson, K.E. and K.J. Schwab. 2011. Detection of bacterial
human                            Washington                                                                    indicators and human and bovine enteric viruses in surface water
                                                                                                               and groundwater sources potentially impacted by animal and
                                                                                                               human wastes in lower Yakima Valley, Washington. Appl.
                                                                                                               Environ. Microbiol. 77:355-362.
adenovirus,        surface       U.S.,         18.2% of 10 samples positive                                    Gibson, K.E. and K.J. Schwab. 2011. Detection of bacterial
human                            Washington                                                                    indicators and human and bovine enteric viruses in surface water
                                                                                                               and groundwater sources potentially impacted by animal and
                                                                                                               human wastes in lower Yakima Valley, Washington. Appl.
                                                                                                               Environ. Microbiol. 77:355-362.
adenovirus,        groundwate    Korea         3.2% of 62 samples were positive.                               Park, S.H., E.J. Kim, T.H. Yun, J.H. Lee, C.K. Kim, Y.H. Seo,
human              r                                                                                           S.A. Oh, S.S. Choi, S.J. Cho, M.S. Kim, G.Y. Han, M.Y. Kim,
                                                                                                               H.S. Jeong, D.S. Cheon, and H.S. Kim. 2010. Human enteric
                                                                                                               viruses in groundwater. Food Environ. Virol. 2:69-73.
astrovirus         groundwate    Korea         0% of 62 samples were positive.                                 Park, S.H., E.J. Kim, T.H. Yun, J.H. Lee, C.K. Kim, Y.H. Seo,
                   r                                                                                           S.A. Oh, S.S. Choi, S.J. Cho, M.S. Kim, G.Y. Han, M.Y. Kim,
                                                                                                               H.S. Jeong, D.S. Cheon, and H.S. Kim. 2010. Human enteric
                                                                                                               viruses in groundwater. Food Environ. Virol. 2:69-73.
C. jejuni          pond and      Australia,    25% of 32 samples positive                                      Ahmed, W., S. Sawant, F. Huygens, A. Goonetilleke, and T.
                   creeks        Brisbane                                                                      Gardner. 2009. Prevalence and occurrence of zoonotic bacterial
                                                                                                               pathogens in surface waters determined by quantitative PCR.
                                                                                                               Wat. Res. 43:4918-4928.
Campylobacter      surface       Netherlands   28.6% of 49 samples were positive                               Heuvelink, A.E., J.T.M. Zwarkruis, C. Van Heerwaarden, B.
                                                                                                               Arends, V. Stortelder, and E. de Boer. 2008. Pathogenic bacteria
                                                                                                               and parasites in wildlife and surface water. Tijdschrift Voor
                                                                                                               Diergeneeskunde 133:330-335.
Campylobacter      trough,       England,      40.5% of 119 samples were positive                              Kemp, R., A.J.H. Leatherbarrow, N.J. Williams, C.A. Hart, H.E.
                   running and   northwest                                                                     Clough, J. Turner, E.J. Wright, and N.P. French. 2005.
                   standing                    C. jejuni was the species most commonly isolated from           Prevalence and genetic diversity of Campylobacter spp. in
                   waters                      trough water and running water samples, while C. coli was       environmental water samples from a 100-square-kilometer
                                               the most frequently isolated from standing water.               predominantly dairy farming area. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                               71:1876-1882.
Campylobacter      river,        New Zealand   60% of surface waters positive (max > 11 MPN/100 ml)            Savill, M.G., J.A. Hudson, A. Ball, J.D. Kiena, P. Scholes, R.J.
                   shallow                     75% of shallow ground water positive (0.72 MPN/100 ml)          Whyte, R.E. McCormick, and D. Jankovic. 2001. Enumeration of
                   ground                      37.5% of roof waters positive (max 0.56 MPN/100 ml)             Campylobacter in New Zealand recreational and drinking waters.
                   water,                      29.2% of drinking water positive (max. 0.3 MPN/100 ml)          J. Appl. Microbiol. 91:38-46.
                   drinking
                   water and
                   roof water
Campylobacter      river (5      Canada        69.8% of 394 water samples were positive when using             Van Dyke, M.I., V.K. Morton, N.L. McLellan, and P.M. Huck.
                   sites)                      molecular analysis (VNBC cells readily form in water and        2010. The occurrence of Campylobacter in river water and
                                               are detected by pcr. VNBC cells can remain in water for         waterfowl within a watershed in southern Ontario, Canada. J.
                                               weeks to months)                                                Appl. Microbiol. 109:1053-1066.

                                               12.8% of 344 water samples were positive using culture-
                                               based methods

                                               Higher pathogen concentrations were observed at colder
                                               water temperatures.
Campylobacter      rivers and    Finland,      17.3% of 139 samples positive                                   Hörman, A., R. Rimhanen-Finne, L. Maunula, C-H. von
spp.               lakes         southwest                                                                     Bonsdorff, N. Torvela, A. Heikinheimo, and M.-L. Hänninen.
                                                                                                               2004. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp.,
                                                                                                               noroviruses and indicator organisms in surface water in
                                                                                                               Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                               70:87-95.
Cryptosoporidium   rivers and    Finland,      10.1% of 139 samples positive                                   Hörman, A., R. Rimhanen-Finne, L. Maunula, C-H. von
spp.               lakes         southwest                                                                     Bonsdorff, N. Torvela, A. Heikinheimo, and M.-L. Hänninen.
                                                                                                               2004. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp.,
                                                                                                               noroviruses and indicator organisms in surface water in
                                                                                                               Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                               70:87-95.
Cryptosporidium    reclaimed     U.S.          70% of 30 samples positive for oocysts but only 20% of          Harwood, V.J., A.D. Levine, T.M. Scott, V. Chivukula, J.
                                               samples had infectious oocysts                                  Lukasik, S.R. Farrah, and J.B. Rose. 2005. Validity of the
                                                                                                               indicator organism paradigm for pathogen reduction in reclaimed
                                                                                                               water and public health protection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                               71:3163-3170.
Cryptosporidium    irrigation    Costa Rica    60% of 5 samples positive (range 52.6-333; GM: 150              Thurston-Enriquez, J.A., P. Watt, S.E. Dowd, R. Enriquez, I.L.
                                                 oocysts/100L)                                                 Pepper, and C.P. Gerba. 2002. Detection of protozoan parasites
                                 Mexico        18% of 11 samples positive (range 5.7-1,579; GM: 612)           and microsporidia in irrigation waters used for crop production.
                                 Panama        67% of 6 samples positive (range <18-250; GM: 190)              J. Food Prot. 65:378-382.
                                 Central       36% of 22 samples positive (range <5.7-1,579; GM 227)
                                 America       <1 of 3 samples positive (range <7.7-<40; GM <19)
                                 U.S.
E. coli            various       Egypt         28% of 50 water samples positive                                El-Jakee, J., E.I. Moussa, K.F. Mohamed, and G. Mohamed.
                                                                                                           -
                                                                                                               2009. Using molecular techniques for characterization of
                                               Predominant serotype was O128:K67, followed by O157:K ;         Escherichia coli isolated from water sources in Egypt. Global
                                               O111:K58 and O55:K59.                                           Vet. 3:354-362.
E. coli            irrigation    Nigeria       14.3% of 196 samples were positive.                             Okago, C.N., V.J. Uoh, and M. Galadima. 2003. Occurrence of
Pathogen/          Water          Location        Prevalence and levels                                        Reference
surrogate          system
                                                                                                               pathogens on vegetables harvested from soils irrigated with
                                                                                                               contaminated streams. Sci. Total Environ. 311:49-56.
E. coli            irrigation     Brazil          56% of 45 samples were positive                              Santos, Y.O., R.C. de Castro Almeida, A.G. Guimaraes, and P.F.
                                                                                                               Almeida. 2010. Hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and
                                                                                                               evaluation of treatments for the elimination of indigenous E. coli
                                                                                                               and E. coli O157:H7 from the surface of leaves of lettuce
                                                                                                               (Lactuca sativa L.). Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas 30:1083-
                                                                                                               1089.
E. coli            irrigation     Canada,         1.8 – 29.4% of 501 samples (27 irrigation water sources on   Steele, M., A. Mahdi, and J. Odumeru. 2005. Microbial
                                  Ontario         17 farms) contained unacceptable levels of E. coli           assessment of irrigation water used for production of fruit and
                                                                                                               vegetables in Ontario, Canada. J. Food Prot. 68:1388-1392.
                                                  Avg conc. was 105/100 ml (range 0 – 4.500)
E. coli O157       surface        Netherlands     2.0% of 49 samples were positive                             Heuvelink, A.E., J.T.M. Zwarkruis, C. Van Heerwaarden, B.
                                                                                                               Arends, V. Stortelder, and E. de Boer. 2008. Pathogenic bacteria
                                                                                                               and parasites in wildlife and surface water. Tijdschrift Voor
                                                                                                               Diergeneeskunde 133:330-335.
E. coli O157:H7    surface        U.S., Central   3.8% of 79 samples were positive                             Jay, M.T., M. Cooley, D. Carychao, G.W. Wiscomb, R.A.
                                  California                                                                   Sweitzer, L. Crawford-Miksza, J.A. Farrar, D.K. Lau, J.
                                                                                                               O'Connell, A. Millington, R.V. Asmundson, E.R. Atwill, and
                                                                                                               R.E. Mandrell. 2007. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feral swine
                                                                                                               near spinach fields and cattle, Central California coast. Emerg.
                                                                                                               Infect. Dis. 13:1908-1911.
E. coli O157:H7    well           U.S., Central   0% of 19 samples were positive                               Jay, M.T., M. Cooley, D. Carychao, G.W. Wiscomb, R.A.
                                  California                                                                   Sweitzer, L. Crawford-Miksza, J.A. Farrar, D.K. Lau, J.
                                                                                                               O'Connell, A. Millington, R.V. Asmundson, E.R. Atwill, and
                                                                                                               R.E. Mandrell. 2007. Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feral swine
                                                                                                               near spinach fields and cattle, Central California coast. Emerg.
                                                                                                               Infect. Dis. 13:1908-1911.
E. coli O157:H7    surface        Canada,         0.9% of 1483 samples were positive                           Johnson, J.Y.M., J.E. Thomas, T.A. Graham, I. Townshend, J.
                                  Alberta                                                                      Byrne, L.B. Sellinger, and V.P.J. Gannon. 2003. Prevalence of
                                                                                                               Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters
                                                                                                               of southern Alberta and its relation to manure sources. Can. J.
                                                                                                               Microbiol. 49:326-335.
EHEC               pond and       Australia,      9-15%% of 32 samples positive                                Ahmed, W., S. Sawant, F. Huygens, A. Goonetilleke, and T.
                   creeks         Brisbane                                                                     Gardner. 2009. Prevalence and occurrence of zoonotic bacterial
                                                                                                               pathogens in surface waters determined by quantitative PCR.
                                                                                                               Wat. Res. 43:4918-4928.
Giardia            reclaimed      U.S.            80% of 30 samples positive                                   Harwood, V.J., A.D. Levine, T.M. Scott, V. Chivukula, J.
                                                                                                               Lukasik, S.R. Farrah, and J.B. Rose. 2005. Validity of the
                                                                                                               indicator organism paradigm for pathogen reduction in reclaimed
                                                                                                               water and public health protection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                               71:3163-3170.
Giardia            irrigation     Costa Rica      60% of 5 samples positive (range 52.6-17,493; GM: 6,426      Thurston-Enriquez, J.A., P. Watt, S.E. Dowd, R. Enriquez, I.L.
                                                    cysts/100L)                                                Pepper, and C.P. Gerba. 2002. Detection of protozoan parasites
                                  Mexico          64% of 11 samples positive (range 5.7-8,945; GM: 227)        and microsporidia in irrigation waters used for crop production.
                                  Panama          50% of 6 samples positive (range <18-1,800; GM: 695)         J. Food Prot. 65:378-382.
                                  Central         59% of 22 samples positive (range <5.7-17,493; GM 559)
                                  America         67% of 3 samples positive (range <7.7-40; GM 25)
                                  U.S.
Giardia spp.       rivers and     Finland,        13.7% of 139 samples positive                                Hörman, A., R. Rimhanen-Finne, L. Maunula, C-H. von
                   lakes          southwest                                                                    Bonsdorff, N. Torvela, A. Heikinheimo, and M.-L. Hänninen.
                                                                                                               2004. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp.,
                                                                                                               noroviruses and indicator organisms in surface water in
                                                                                                               Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                               70:87-95.
microsporidia      wastewater     Spain           62.5% of 8 samples positive                                  Izquierdo, F., J.A.C. Hermida, S. Fenoy, M. Mezo, M. González-
                   treatment                                                                                   Warlete, and C. del Aguila. 2011. Detection of microsporidia in
                   plants                                                                                      drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers. Wat. Res.
                                                                                                               45:4837-4843.
microsporidia      rivers,        Spain           16.7% of 6 samples positive                                  Izquierdo, F., J.A.C. Hermida, S. Fenoy, M. Mezo, M. González-
                   recreational                                                                                Warlete, and C. del Aguila. 2011. Detection of microsporidia in
                                                                                                               drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers. Wat. Res.
                                                                                                               45:4837-4843.
microsporidia      drinking       Spain           25% of 8 samples positive                                    Izquierdo, F., J.A.C. Hermida, S. Fenoy, M. Mezo, M. González-
                   water                                                                                       Warlete, and C. del Aguila. 2011. Detection of microsporidia in
                   treatment                                                                                   drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers. Wat. Res.
                   plants                                                                                      45:4837-4843.
microsporidia      irrigation     Costa Rica      40% of 5 samples positive                                    Thurston-Enriquez, J.A., P. Watt, S.E. Dowd, R. Enriquez, I.L.
                                  Mexico          27% of 11 samples positive                                   Pepper, and C.P. Gerba. 2002. Detection of protozoan parasites
                                  Panama          <1% of 6 samples positive                                    and microsporidia in irrigation waters used for crop production.
                                  Central         16% of 22 samples positive                                   J. Food Prot. 65:378-382.
                                  America         67% of 3 samples positive
                                  U.S.
norovirus, human   ground         U.S.,           20% of 10 samples positive                                   Gibson, K.E. and K.J. Schwab. 2011. Detection of bacterial
                                  Washington                                                                   indicators and human and bovine enteric viruses in surface water
                                                                                                               and groundwater sources potentially impacted by animal and
                                                                                                               human wastes in lower Yakima Valley, Washington. Appl.
                                                                                                               Environ. Microbiol. 77:355-362.
norovirus, human   surface        U.S.,           18.2% of 10 samples positive                                 Gibson, K.E. and K.J. Schwab. 2011. Detection of bacterial
                                  Washington                                                                   indicators and human and bovine enteric viruses in surface water
                                                                                                               and groundwater sources potentially impacted by animal and
                                                                                                               human wastes in lower Yakima Valley, Washington. Appl.
Pathogen/          Water        Location        Prevalence and levels                                       Reference
surrogate          system
                                                                                                            Environ. Microbiol. 77:355-362.
norovirus, human   groundwate   Korea           3.2% of 62 samples were positive.                           Park, S.H., E.J. Kim, T.H. Yun, J.H. Lee, C.K. Kim, Y.H. Seo,
                   r                                                                                        S.A. Oh, S.S. Choi, S.J. Cho, M.S. Kim, G.Y. Han, M.Y. Kim,
                                                                                                            H.S. Jeong, D.S. Cheon, and H.S. Kim. 2010. Human enteric
                                                                                                            viruses in groundwater. Food Environ. Virol. 2:69-73.
noroviruses        rivers and   Finland,        9.4% of 139 samples positive                                Hörman, A., R. Rimhanen-Finne, L. Maunula, C-H. von
                   lakes        southwest                                                                   Bonsdorff, N. Torvela, A. Heikinheimo, and M.-L. Hänninen.
                                                                                                            2004. Campylobacter spp., Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp.,
                                                                                                            noroviruses and indicator organisms in surface water in
                                                                                                            Southwestern Finland, 2000-2001. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                            70:87-95.
rotavirus          groundwate   Korea           4.8% of 62 samples were positive.                           Park, S.H., E.J. Kim, T.H. Yun, J.H. Lee, C.K. Kim, Y.H. Seo,
                   r                                                                                        S.A. Oh, S.S. Choi, S.J. Cho, M.S. Kim, G.Y. Han, M.Y. Kim,
                                                                                                            H.S. Jeong, D.S. Cheon, and H.S. Kim. 2010. Human enteric
                                                                                                            viruses in groundwater. Food Environ. Virol. 2:69-73.
Salmonella         pond and     Australia,      3% of 32 samples positive                                   Ahmed, W., S. Sawant, F. Huygens, A. Goonetilleke, and T.
                   creeks       Brisbane                                                                    Gardner. 2009. Prevalence and occurrence of zoonotic bacterial
                                                                                                            pathogens in surface waters determined by quantitative PCR.
                                                                                                            Wat. Res. 43:4918-4928.
Salmonella         river and    Canada,         62% of 32 water samples positive                            Droppo, I.G., S.N. Liss, D. Williams, T. Nelson, C. Jaskot, and B.
                   sediments    Ontario         89% of 9 suspended solids positive                          Trapp. 2009. Dynamic existence of waterborne pathogens within
                                                100% of 27 suspended bed solids samples positive            river sediment compartments. Implications for water quality
                                                                                                            regulatory affairs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43:1737-1743.
                                                7.9 x 105 CFU/ml in positive suspended solid samples
                                                1.2 x 105 CFU/ml in suspended bed solid samples
Salmonella         river        U.S., Georgia   79.2% of 72 samples (6 sites) were positive                 Haley, B.J., D.J. Cole, and E.K. Lipp. 2009. Distribution,
                                                Geometric mean density of positive samples ranged from      diversity, and seasonality of waterborne Salmonellae in a rural
                                                4.96 MPN/L to 7.46 MPN/L.                                   watershed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:1248-1255.
Salmonella         surface      Netherlands     14.3% of 49 samples were positive                           Heuvelink, A.E., J.T.M. Zwarkruis, C. Van Heerwaarden, B.
                                                                                                            Arends, V. Stortelder, and E. de Boer. 2008. Pathogenic bacteria
                                                                                                            and parasites in wildlife and surface water. Tijdschrift Voor
                                                                                                            Diergeneeskunde 133:330-335.
Salmonella         various      U.S., NC        41.7% of 12 samples positive in systems impacted by swine   Patchanee, P., B. Molla, N. White, D.E. Line, and W.A.
                                                production                                                  Gebreyes. 2010. Tracking Salmonella contamination in various
                                                50% of 12 samples positive in systems impacted by crop      watersheds and phenotypic and genotypic diversity. Foodborne
                                                agriculture                                                 Path. Dis. 7:1113-1120.
                                                57.1% of 28 samples positive in forestry-associated
                                                watersheds
                                                58.8% of 34 samples positive in residential/industrial
                                                impacted watersheds

                                                Serovars identified included Anatum, Gaminara, and
                                                Inverness (18.3% each) and Muenchen and Newport (8.7%
                                                each), Bredeny (7.6%) and Montevideo (6.8%).
Salmonella spp.    surface      Canada,         6.2% of 1429 samples were positive                          Johnson, J.Y.M., J.E. Thomas, T.A. Graham, I. Townshend, J.
                                Alberta                                                                     Byrne, L.B. Sellinger, and V.P.J. Gannon. 2003. Prevalence of
                                                                                                            Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. in surface waters
                                                                                                            of southern Alberta and its relation to manure sources. Can. J.
                                                                                                            Microbiol. 49:326-335.
Salmonella spp.    irrigation   Nigeria         8.2% of 196 samples were positive.                          Okago, C.N., V.J. Uoh, and M. Galadima. 2003. Occurrence of
                                                                                                            pathogens on vegetables harvested from soils irrigated with
                                                                                                            contaminated streams. Sci. Total Environ. 311:49-56.
sapoviruses        groundwate   Korea           0% of 62 samples were positive.                             Park, S.H., E.J. Kim, T.H. Yun, J.H. Lee, C.K. Kim, Y.H. Seo,
                   r                                                                                        S.A. Oh, S.S. Choi, S.J. Cho, M.S. Kim, G.Y. Han, M.Y. Kim,
                                                                                                            H.S. Jeong, D.S. Cheon, and H.S. Kim. 2010. Human enteric
                                                                                                            viruses in groundwater. Food Environ. Virol. 2:69-73.
STEC               river        U.S., Indiana   The eae, stx2 and stx1 genes were found in 93.3, 13.3 and   Duris, J.W., S.K. Haack, and L.R. Fogarty. 2009. Gene and
                                and Michigan    46.7% of samples meeting the recreational water quality     antigen markers of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli from Michigan
                                                criteria for fecal coliforms.                               and Indiana river water: Occurrence and relation to recreational
                                                                                                            water quality criteria. J. Environ. Qual. 38:1878-1886.
                                                The eae, stx2 and stx1 genes were found in 91.7, 0.0 and
                                                37.5% of samples meeting the recreational water quality
                                                criteria for E. coli.
Vibrio spp.        irrigation   Nigeria         18.9% of 196 samples were positive.                         Okago, C.N., V.J. Uoh, and M. Galadima. 2003. Occurrence of
                                                                                                            pathogens on vegetables harvested from soils irrigated with
                                                                                                            contaminated streams. Sci. Total Environ. 311:49-56.
viruses, enteric   reclaimed    U.S.            31% of 30 samples positive                                  Harwood, V.J., A.D. Levine, T.M. Scott, V. Chivukula, J.
                                                                                                            Lukasik, S.R. Farrah, and J.B. Rose. 2005. Validity of the
                                                                                                            indicator organism paradigm for pathogen reduction in reclaimed
                                                                                                            water and public health protection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
                                                                                                            71:3163-3170.

								
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