What do you say by dffhrtcv3

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 109

									           What do you say?
• You want to tell someone that you know how
  to swim.



• I can swim.
            What do you say?
• Reserve a room in a hotel.

• Ex: Could I reserve a room for October 25th?
  Can I get a non-smoking room with a king size
  bed.
           What do you say?
• You want someone to open the door for you
  because your hands are full.

• Could you open the door, please?
            What do you say?
• You want to buy some aspirin because you
  have a headache.

• Can I get some aspirin, please.
            What do you say?
• My tooth really hurts. Give me some advice.

• You should go to the dentist.
            What do you say?
• Your friend asks you if it’s OK to drink and
  drive.

• You must not do that! It’s illegal and
  dangerous.
               What is he saying?
                               don’t have to
                            I ________________ buy my
  have to/ must
I ____________ work, or I   wife flowers, but she likes it
   won’t be able to live.            when I do.
            What do you say?
• It’s really cloudy and dark outside.

• It might rain.
            What do you say?
• Tell your friend your plans for this weekend.



• I might go to the movies. I may study for
  grammar. Maybe I will get some rest.
Modal Verbs Review
ESOL Writing Intermediate
         Shoup
    Extra Resources for this Unit
• Class Notes to complete at home. (due
  tomorrow)
• Extra practice workbook handouts to
  complete at home. (due next Monday before
  the quiz)
• Grammar Sense in the Language Lab
• Class Website – online practice
            Weekly Objectives
• Review and use different modals for different
  purposes:
  – MODALS: can, could, may, might, would, will,
    should, ought to, had better, have to , have got to,
    must
  – PURPOSES: ability, possibility, permission,
    requests, advice, necessity, prohibition
  To to or not to to? That is the question.

• A: Should I ______ tell the boss about the
                Ø
  accounting error?

                            to
• B: Of course! You have ________ tell her.



                       Only some modal verbs use “to”.
                          Do you know which ones?
           Exercise 1, page 189
• Complete the sentences with “to” if possible.

• If not, write Ø.

• Do you understand the meaning of each of the
  modal verbs?
           Let’s Check…
3.    Ø
                The only modal verbs that
4.    to
                        use “to”:
5.    Ø
6.    Ø
7.    Ø                 ought to
8.    Ø
9.    Ø                 have to
10.   to
11.   Ø                have got to
12.   Ø
       Modal Verb Form Review
• What kind of verb comes after a modal verb?
                         Olga can speak English.
    the base
                      Olga can speaking English. XXX
      verb
                       Olga can speaks English. XXX
• Do you conjugate modal verbs?
                           He should be on time.
    Not real            He shoulds be on time. XXX
    modals!    She has to be on time. (Not a real modal – just
                               acts like one.)
• Do you use “to” with modal verbs?
                     You ought to do your homework.
    only 3!            You have to do your laundry.
                     You have got to clean your room.
 Don’t go “to” crazy!!!
       may would might
 could to   to    to
   to             should
                     to
can to               had
                   better to
must to           will to
                 to or Ø ?
           to
• I have ________ go downtown tomorrow.



            Ø
• Tom must ______ see his dentist.
            Exercise 2, page 190
• to or Ø

• Use the chart if you’re not sure.
         Let’s Check
3. Ø
4. Ø
5. Ø
6. to
7. Ø
8. to
9. Ø
10. to
11. Ø
What’s wrong?

• Can you to help me, please?

    Remember: Only 3
     modals use “to”:

        ought to

         have to

       have got to
What’s wrong?

• I must studying for an exam tomorrow.



       Remember:

      modal verbs are
   followed by the base
     form of the verb
What’s wrong?

               go
• We couldn’t went to the party last night.



       Remember:

      modal verbs are
   followed by the base
     form of the verb
What’s wrong?

• I am have to improve my English as soon as
  possible.

       Remember:

     modal verbs are
  auxiliaries – they don’t
  need any help (be, do,
            etc…)
What’s wrong?

• You shouldn’t to spend all your free time at
  the computer.
    Remember: Only 3
     modals use “to”:

        ought to

         have to

       have got to
What’s wrong?

• My mother can’t speaking English, but she
  cans speak several other languages.
       Remember:

      modal verbs are
   followed by the base
     form of the verb

  we don’t conjugate real
         modals
           Ask your partner…
• Can you speak more than two languages?
• Can you play chess?
• Can you take classes in the summer?
• Could you drive a car when you were 15 years
  old?
• Could you swim when you were 6 years old?

      We’re talking about present , future,
               and past abilities.
              can or can‘t ?
              can
• A cat _________________ climb trees, but it

        can’t
  ___________________ fly.
            Exercise 4, p. 191
• Complete the sentences with:
  – can
  – can’t
                 Let’s Check…
2.   can’t…can
3.   can…can’t
4.   can…can’t
5.   can…can’t
6.   can’t…can
           could or couldn’t?
                           could
• When I was a baby I _____________ sleep 16
  hours a day, but now I can’t.



                        couldn’t
• When I was a baby I _______________ drive,
  but now I can.
           Ask your partner…
• What are you going to do tomorrow night?
• What’s the weather going to be like
  tomorrow?




   We’re talking about future possibilities.
         you make modal verbs?
  How do What isarethese negative?
   4 ways to express possibility
   Which words “maybe”?
        not
• I may go shopping this weekend.

          not
• I might go to the movies tomorrow night.

                   not
• Maybe I will rent a movie tonight.
 an adverb
• We could go to that new restaurant.
  don’t use this one
   in negative form
Practice twice.
• A: What are you going to
  do tomorrow night?

• B: I may
  _________________.
  What about you?

• A: I might
  ______________.
Practice twice.
• A: What are you going
  to do on Saturday?

• B: I could _____. Or, I
  might ________.
  What about you?

• A: Maybe I will _____.
Practice twice.
• A: What are your
  plans for after class?

• B: Maybe I’ll ____.
  Or, I might ____.
  And, you?

• A: I may ___. Or, I
  could ___.
            Giving Permission
• You may have cookies, but only after dinner.

• You can have some cake, but only after you
  eat your vegetables.
              can, may, or might?
                 (different meanings)

       can
• I ___________ play only one instrument: the

               can’t
 piano. I ________________ play a guitar.




    ability
               can, may, or might?
                  (different meanings)


                 may/can
• Tommy , you ______________ stay up until
                         may not/cannot
 eight tonight, but you _________________
 stay up past that time.



    giving
  permission
                can, may, or might?
                   (different meanings)


• A: What are you going to do this evening?
                        may/might
• B: I don’t know. I _________________ stay
                 may/might
  home, or I __________________ go over to
  Anita’s house.


  possibility
            Exercise 8, page 194
• Complete the sentences:           you may need the
  – can                               negative form
  – may           choose the correct modal
  – might
• Identify Meanings:
  – ability          choose the correct
  – possibility          meaning
  – permission
               Let’s Check…
4. may / might – possibility
5. can’t – ability
6. may / can – permission
7. can’t – ability; Can – ability; may/might –
   possibility
8. may not / cannot – permission; may/can –
   permission
9. might / may – possibility
     Review: What are the different
          meanings of could?
• I could be home late tonight. Don’t wait for
  me for dinner.
                 future possibility

• Thirty years ago, when I was a child, I could
  speak Arabic fluently. Now, I’ve forgotten a
  lot.
                     past ability
           Exercise 9, page 195
• Time:
  – past
                  choose the correct time
  – present
  – future
• Meaning:
  – ability         choose the correct
  – possibility         meaning
                 Let’s Check…
3.   present possibility
4.   past ability
5.   present possibility
6.   future possibility
7.   past ability
   Expressing Possibility with will
• Maybe I will go to the park this afternoon.
• maybe + subject + will                 50%
                                      chance

• I will probably go home after class this
  afternoon.
• subject + will + probably            70-90%
                                       chance

• Note: will by itself = 100%
Practice twice…
• A: Tonight I could ___.
  Or, I might ____. What
  about you?

• B: I may _____, but I’ll
  probably _____.
Practice twice…
• A: In the future, I might
  ____. But, I’ll probably
  ___.

• B: Yeah, maybe I’ll
  _____. Or, I could ____.
                    What’s missing?    Practice.

• _______________ please borrow your pen?
     May I

• _______________ use your dictionary please?
     Could I

• _______________ please see your notes?
     Can I
Possible Answers:
•Sure.                            This is how
•Certainly.
•Of course.
                                    you ask
•Yes.                             permission.
•I’m sorry, but…
    Exercise 13, pages 197 - 198
• Use:
  – can I
  – could I
  – may I
• Use:
  – help
  – leave
  – speak
  – take
              Let’s Check…
1. May/Could/Can +   I speak
2. May/Could/Can +   I speak
3. May/Could/Can +   I speak    Now practice
4. May/Could/Can +   I help         each
5. May/Could/Can +   I speak…   conversation
   May/Could/Can +   I take      twice with
6. May/Could/Can +   I speak…   your partner.
   May/Could/Can +   I leave
7. May/Could/Can +   I speak
He needs help. What should he say?
What should he say?
What is she saying to her daughter?
     How do we make requests?
• Would you please open the
  door?
                                    Possible
• Could you carry this please?      Answers:

                                      •Sure.
• Will you please take me           •Certainly.
  home?                                •Yes.
                                    •Of course.
• Can you answer the phone       •I’m sorry, but…
  please?
                 Make requests.
• Use:
  – Could you
  – Would you
  – Will you
  – Can you
• Use:
  – Sure.
  – Certainly.
  – Of course.
• A: The phone is ringing
  and my hands are full.
  _________________?

• B: _________.
• A: I’m trying to
  study, but the radio
  is too loud.
  ________________
  ______?

• B:
  _______________.
• A: I’m trying to listen to
  the news on television,
  but I can’t hear it.
  __________?

• B: ___________.
• A: I’m out of shampoo.
  When you go to the
  store, _____________?

• B: _________.
           Ask your partner…
• I want to do something fun this weekend.
  What should I do?
• I want to watch a funny movie. What should I
  watch?
• I want to eat something delicious for dinner.
  Where should I go?
                   Video
• What advice does he give students to improve
  their English?

• Have you done all 5 before?
              Giving Advice
         should
• You ______________ get some rest.

        ought to
• You ______________ ask your teacher.

        had better
• You ______________ pay your bill!
            Correct or Incorrect?
•   You shouldn’t go to that restaurant.
•   You ought not go to that restaurant.
•   You had better not go to that restaurant.
•   Should I go to Tokyo on vacation?
•   Ought I to go to Tokyo on vacation?
•   Had I better go to Tokyo on vacation?
•   You should maybe go home.
         Exercise 20, page 204
• Correct the errors:
  – should
  – ought to
  – had better
               Let’s check…
2. wears  wear
3. should to  should
4. ought paying  ought to pay
5. You’d had better to  You’d better
6. don’t should shouldn’t
7. You’d to better not leaving  You’d better
   not leave
8. ought found  ought to find
Practice twice.
A: I don’t feel good. I think I’m
   getting a cold.
B: That’s too bad. You’d
   better___.
A: That’s probably a good idea.
B: You should also___.
A: Okay. I will. And, I suppose I’d
   better not ____.
B: No, you’d better not do that if
   you’re getting a cold.
Practice twice.
A: My English isn’t
  progressing as fast as I’d
  like. What should I do?
B: You should ___. That’s
  really important when
  you’re learning a second
  language.
A: Do you have any other
  suggestions?
B: Yes, you ought to____.
  And, you shouldn’t _____.
Practice twice.
A: My roommate snores really
  loudly. I’m losing sleep. I
  don’t know what to do.
B: Maybe you should ___.
A: I already tried that and it
  didn’t work.
B: Well, you’d better ____.
A: Maybe. I guess I really
  ought to _____.
Practice twice.

A: I forgot my dad’s birthday
  yesterday. I feel terrible
  about it. What should I
  do?
B: Well, you’d better _____.
  And, you should probably
  _______.
A: That’s a good idea. I
  guess I ought to ____.
              Write down…
• 3 things you have to do today
• 3 things you have to do this weekend
         Expressing Necessity
       have to
• I ______________ go to a meeting now.

       have got to
• We _______________ buy some more soap.
  We’re out.

           must
• You _____________ not drink and drive. It’s
  against the law.             Don’t forget:

                                have to / has to
                             have got to / has got to
        Narrative Second Draft
• Attach:
  – Prewriting
  – 1st draft
  – “Changes I made”
  – 2nd draft

  – (put your name on all pieces)


• Read your 2nd draft to a partner.
  Let’s Read About The Hill Family
• Exercise 25, page 207
                           HW – Thur.

• Read the passage.
        This family needs a lot of advice.
    Discuss what changes they should make.
•   What should Mr. and Mrs. Hill do?
•   What shouldn’t they do?
•   What about Kathy?
•   What does Mark have to do to change his life
    for the better?

 should      shouldn’t            ought to       have
got to      has got to           have to        has to
                    had better           must
   Not Necessary or Prohibited?
         must not
• You ______________ drink alcohol when you
  drive.

       don’t have to
• You ______________ do your homework, but
  you probably should.

        don’t have to
• You ______________ own a cell phone, but
  most people do.
         Exercise 26, page 208
• do not have to / does not have to
or
• must not
                Let’s Check…
3. doesn’t have to
4. must not
5. doesn’t have to
6. must not
7. must not
8. don’t have to
9. don’t have to
10. must not
11. don’t have to
12. must not…don’t have to…must not
             Read #1 on page 209
Advice, Possibility, and Necessity: should, shouldn’t, ought
 to, had better, had better not, could, have to, not have to,
          have got to, not have to, must, must not

 • Discuss it with your partner using the modals
   above.
             Read #2 on page 209
Advice, Possibility, and Necessity: should, shouldn’t, ought
 to, had better, had better not, could, have to, not have to,
          have got to, not have to, must, must not

 • Discuss it with your partner using the modals
   above.
             Read #3 on page 209
Advice, Possibility, and Necessity: should, shouldn’t, ought
 to, had better, had better not, could, have to, not have to,
          have got to, not have to, must, must not

 • Discuss it with your partner using the modals
   above.
 Review – Exercise 43, pages 220 - 222
• Don’t do: 1, 2, 4, 8, 13, 17

• Do: 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19,
  20, 21
             Let’s Check…
•   3-a            •   14 - a
•   5-c            •   15 - b
•   6-b            •   16 - b
•   7-c            •   18 - c
•   9-c            •   19 - a
•   10 - b         •   20 - c
•   11 - b         •   21 - a
•   12 - a
Practice twice.
What’s the meaning?          future possibility

• A: What are you going to
  do tomorrow night?

• B: I may
  _________________.
  What about you?

• A: I might
  ______________.
What’s thecan, may,
          meaning?       or might?
               (different meanings)

       can
• I ___________ play only one instrument: the

               can’t
 piano. I ________________ play a guitar.




    ability
Practice twice…
What’s the meaning?           future possibility

• A: In the future, I might
  ____. But, I’ll probably
  ___.

• B: Yeah, maybe I’ll
  _____. Or, I could ____.
What’s the meaning?            request

• A: I’m trying to listen to
  the news on television,
  but I can’t hear it.
  __________?

• B: ___________.
What’s thecan, may,
          meaning?         or might?
               (different meanings)


                 may/can
• Tommy , you ______________ stay up until
                         may not/cannot
 eight tonight, but you _________________
 stay up past that time.



    giving
  permission
What’s twice.
Practice the meaning?           advice

A: I forgot my dad’s birthday
  yesterday. I feel terrible
  about it. What should I
  do?
B: Well, you’d better _____.
  And, you should probably
  _______.
A: That’s a good idea. I
  guess I ought to ____.
Practice twice…
What’s the meaning?          future possibility

• A: Tonight I could ___.
  Or, I might ____. What
  about you?

• B: I may _____, but I’ll
  probably _____.
What’s twice.
Practice the meaning?                 advice

A: I don’t feel good. I think I’m
   getting a cold.
B: That’s too bad. You’d
   better___.
A: That’s probably a good idea.
B: You should also___.
A: Okay. I will. And, I suppose I’d
   better not ____.
B: No, you’d better not do that if
   you’re getting a cold.
What’s the meaning?         request

• A: The phone is ringing
  and my hands are full.
  _________________?

• B: _________.
What’s twice.
Practice the meaning?          advice

A: My English isn’t
  progressing as fast as I’d
  like. What should I do?
B: You should ___. That’s
  really important when
  you’re learning a second
  language.
A: Do you have any other
  suggestions?
B: Yes, you ought to____.
  And, you shouldn’t _____.
              What’s the partner…
              Ask your meaning?
• Can you… fold a piece of paper in half more
  than six times?

• 8-14

• P. 192

           past, present, and future ability
What’s the meaning?      request

• A: I’m trying to
  study, but the radio
  is too loud.
  ________________
  ______?

• B:
  _______________.
Practice twice.
What’s the meaning?        future possibility

• A: What are your
  plans for after class?

• B: Maybe I’ll ____.
  Or, I might ____.
  And, you?

• A: I may ___. Or, I
  could ___.
What’s twice.
Practice the meaning?            advice

A: My roommate snores really
  loudly. I’m losing sleep. I
  don’t know what to do.
B: Maybe you should ___.
A: I already tried that and it
  didn’t work.
B: Well, you’d better ____.
A: Maybe. I guess I really
  ought to _____.
Practice twice.
What’s the meaning?         future possibility

• A: What are you going
  to do on Saturday?

• B: I could _____. Or, I
  might ________.
  What about you?

• A: Maybe I will _____.
What’s thecan, may,
          meaning?           or might?
                   (different meanings)


• A: What are you going to do this evening?
                        may/might
• B: I don’t know. I _________________ stay
                 may/might
  home, or I __________________ go over to
  Anita’s house.


  possibility
What’s the meaning?        request

• A: I’m out of shampoo.
  When you go to the
  store, _____________?

• B: _________.
           What do you say?
• You want to tell someone that you know how
  to swim.



• I can swim.
            What do you say?
• Tell your friend your possible plans for this
  weekend.

• I might go to the movies. I may study for
  grammar. Maybe I will get some rest.
            What do you say?
• Reserve a room in a hotel.

• Ex: Could I reserve a room for October 25th?
  Can I get a non-smoking room with a king size
  bed.
           What do you say?
• You want someone to open the door for you
  because your hands are full.

• Could you open the door, please?
            What do you say?
• You want to buy some aspirin because you
  have a headache.

• Can I get some aspirin, please.
            What do you say?
• My tooth really hurts. Give me some advice.

• You should go to the dentist.
            What do you say?
• Your friend asks you if it’s OK to drink and
  drive.

• You must not do that! It’s illegal and
  dangerous.
               What is he saying?
                               don’t have to
                            I ________________ buy my
  have to/ must
I ____________ work, or I   wife flowers, but she likes it
   won’t be able to live.            when I do.
            What do you say?
• It’s really cloudy and dark outside.

• It might rain.

								
To top