PowerPoint Presentation by B4wMpD

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									Abū ‘Abd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-Lawātī al-Ţanjī
                     ibn Baṭūṭah
 Over a period of thirty years, he visited most of the
   known Islamic world, including North Africa, the
  Horn of Africa, West Africa, Southern Europe and
   Eastern Europe in the West, to the Middle East,
South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China
     in the East, a distance surpassing his near-
contemporary Marco Polo. Ibn Battuta is considered
     one of the greatest travellers of all time. He
  journeyed more than 75,000 miles (121,000 km), a
figure unsurpassed by any individual explorer until
 the coming of the Steam Age some 450 years later.
African Kingdoms                                     Section 2

              Trading States of East Africa
 Main Idea
 The growth of trade led to the development of wealthy kingdoms
 and city-states in East Africa.

 Reading Focus
 • How did trade and religion influence the development of
   Aksum and Ethiopia?
 • How did trade lead to the rise of coastal city-states in East
   Africa?
 • What do historians know about the African kingdom of Great
   Zimbabwe?
African Kingdoms                                              Section 2

                        Aksum and Ethiopia
 In East Africa, the kingdom of Aksum began to grow in power around
 the first century AD. Aksum lay south of Egypt and Kush and alongside
 the Red Sea and was ideally situated to control Red Sea trade. At its
 height Aksum was the most powerful kingdom in East Africa.
         The Rise of Aksum                    Geographic Advantages
 • People of Aksum descended from         • Geographic location provided
   African farmers, as well as migrants     advantages: well suited for
   from Middle East                         agriculture; Red Sea proximity ideal
 • By AD 100, Aksum was wealthy             for trade, access to Indian Ocean
   trading kingdom                        • Seaport attracted merchants from
 • Two main cities: Aksum, capital;         African interior, Mediterranean
   Adulis, thriving Red Sea port            region, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India

  At Aksum’s markets, foreign traders exchanged luxury goods for African goods.
       By about AD 300, Aksum had amassed great wealth from this trade.
African Kingdoms                                        Section 2

                      Aksum at Its Height

          King Ezana                         Military Victory

 • Over time, Aksum became not        • Under Ezana’s rule, Aksum
   only wealthy trading kingdom,        attacked, defeated rival trading
   but also strong military power       kingdom of Kush, about 350

 • Reached height under King          • Defeat gave Aksum control of
   Ezana, whose reign began             trade in region
   about 320
                                      • Aksum soon became greatest
 • Ezana held direct power only in      power in East Africa
   capital city; outside, collected
   only tribute from local rulers
African Kingdoms                                             Section 2

                          Culture of Aksum
 •   African-Arab heritage, trade connections gave Aksum diverse culture
 •   Merchants who came to Aksum brought new ideas as well as goods
 •   Among new ideas, beliefs in 300s, Christianity
 •   King Ezana converted, made Christianity official religion of Aksum
 •   Recorded that he would “rule the people with righteousness and
     justice…”
      Language Preserved                          Coins Minted
 • Historians know about statement       • Ge’ez one of first written languages
   because it was inscribed on stone       developed in Africa, basis of written
   monument, called a stela                language used in Ethiopia today
 • Stelae often inscribed with records   • Aksum also first African kingdom
   of important events                     south of Sahara to mint own coins
 • Inscriptions provide examples of      • Merchants found it practical to use
   Ge’ez, Aksum’s language                 coins because of thriving trade
African Kingdoms                                     Section 2

                  The Decline of Aksum

 Muslim Invaders
 • 600s, Aksum began to decline, partly because of
   arrival of Muslim invaders
    – 600s, 700s invaders conquered parts of East, North Africa
    – Aksum itself was never conquered
 • Nearby areas became Muslim; Christian Aksum
   isolated
    – Muslims destroyed Aksum’s port city, Adulis, took over Red Sea
      trade
    – Cut off from trade, Aksum lost main source of wealth
    – Aksum people eventually retreated inland, settled in what is now
      northern Ethiopia
African Kingdoms                                        Section 2

                                  Ethiopia
      The people of Aksum sometimes referred to their kingdom as
  Ethiopia, and this name came to apply to the region where they lived.

              Ethiopia                  Christianity in Ethiopia
  • By 1100s, descendants of           • Lalibela churches also showed
    Aksum established new                continued importance of
    kingdom in Ethiopia                  Christianity in Ethiopia
  • 1150, kingdom grew under           • Provided unifying identity for
    Zagwe dynasty                        Ethiopian people
  • Most famous king, Lalibela
                                       • Ethiopian Christianity
    – Ruled during 1200s
                                         developed own unique
    – Known for building 11 stone
                                         characteristics, including
      Christian churches
                                         elements of local African
    – Impressive works of
                                         customs
      architecture; many still stand
African Kingdoms                                               Section 2

                           Second Dynasty
 Solomonid Dynasty
 • 1270, second dynasty of Christian kings came to rule Ethiopia
 • Kings claimed to be descendants of Hebrew King Solomon, Queen of Sheba
 • Dynasty is also known as Solomonid dynasty; ruled Ethiopia for 700 years

 Religious Wars
 • During first centuries of Solomonid rule, kings engaged in religious wars
 • Beta Israel Jews lived in Christian Ethiopia; kings fought, tried to make leave
 • Effort mostly unsuccessful; Jews remained, although faced persecution

 Kingdom of Adal
 • Meanwhile, rival Muslim kingdom formed to east, near Horn of Africa
 • Muslim Arab merchants settled in kingdom of Adal; fought Christian Ethiopia
 • Muslim forces never conquered Ethiopia, which remained independent
African Kingdoms                                              Section 2

                           Coastal City States
  South of Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa, a number of Muslim city-
  states developed along the East African coast. Like the Aksum, these
  coastal city-states made their wealth from overseas trade.
    Monsoon Winds               Trade Network                City-States
  • Overseas traders         • Sailors used winds to    • Arab traders called
    because of influence       move around Indian         East African coastal
    of Indian Ocean            Ocean                      region land of Zanj
  • November to March,       • Trade network linked     • Used monsoon winds
    monsoons blew              East Africa with           to visit port towns
    southwest toward           Persia, Arabia, India,
                                                        • By AD 1100, coastal
    Africa                     even Southeast Asia
                                                          market towns were
  • April to October,        • Market towns sprang        thriving city-states:
    monsoons reversed,         up along East African      Mogadishu, Kilwa,
    blew toward India          coast                      Mombasa, Sofala
African Kingdoms                                                Section 2

                              Links to Trade
 Coastal Trade
 • Coastal city-states linked overseas merchants with traders from Africa’s
   interior; merchants sold luxury items like glassware, porcelain, silk, cotton
 • In exchange obtained raw materials, coconut oil, copper, skins, ivory, gold

 Slave Trade
 • Enslaved Africans also exported through coastal city-states to slave markets
   in Arabia, Persia, India; then sent to regions across Asia
 • Trade of slaves would later increase after Europeans began coming to Africa

 Kilwa Trade
 • Trade reached peak during 1300s, 1400s
 • Kilwa had become wealthiest, most powerful city-state; located at
   southernmost point on coast a ship could reach in single monsoon season
 • All goods from south of Kilwa exported from Kilwa’s market, including gold
African Kingdoms                                                Section 2


 Arab Influences
 • Trade led to blending of African, Arab, Asian cultural influences
 • Over time, many Muslim Arabs, Persians settled in coastal city-states
 • Groups intermarried with local African population
 • Arab influences began to shape local culture and ways of life

 Blended Cultures
 • Architecture featured African and Arab characteristics
 • Local Africans adopted Arab words; two languages blended into new
   language called Swahili; Swahili also came to refer to blended African-Arab
   culture of East African coast
 • Because many foreign traders were Muslim, Islam also gained hold along
   coast; many African rulers adopted Islam; mosques appeared in cities, towns
African Kingdoms                                              Section 2

                            Great Zimbabwe
 The growing wealth of Africa’s overseas trade stimulated developments in
 Africa’s interior also. There, ancestors of the Shona people established a
 kingdom called Great Zimbabwe around the 1100s. This kingdom was located
 between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers in southeastern Africa.

       Part of Trade Network                        Middleman Role
 • Scholars think Great Zimbabwe           • Great Zimbabwe served as
   was part of thriving trade network        middleman between gold miners,
   because of its location                   ivory hunters in southern Africa,
                                             traders on coast
 • Lay along trade route linking
   interior gold mines to city-states on   • Middleman is person who buys
   coast                                     something from one person, sells to
                                             another, making profit on sale

     A number of archeological discoveries support this role for Great
                               Zimbabwe.
African Kingdoms                           Section 2

           Examples of Great Zimbabwe

 Archaeological discoveries
 • Glass beads from India
 • Coin minted in Kilwa
 Kingdom’s rulers likely taxed trade goods that passed
    through their territory
 • Through control of trade, Great Zimbabwe rose to
   prosperity between 1200 and 1400, about same time as
   Africa’s coastal city-states
African Kingdoms                                       Section 2

                     The Great Enclosure
            Zimbabwe                    Description of Remains
 • Shona word zimbabwe means         • Largest, most impressive is
   “stone houses”                      structure called the Great
                                       Enclosure
 • Today all that remains of Great
   Zimbabwe are mainly stone         • Includes thick, circular outer
   ruins                               stone wall 35 feet high

  Construction of Enclosure              Purpose of Enclosure
 • Inner wall runs along part of     • Inside walls, 33-foot high stone
   outer wall, forms narrow            tower, soapstone bird figurines
   passage about 180 feet long
                                     • Historians not certain of
 • Stones well fitted, no mortar       purpose, but think it might have
   needed in construction              shown kingdom’s power
African Kingdoms                                      Section 2

                        The Mutapa Empire
  Scholars think as many as 18,000 people lived in Great Zimbabwe at
  its height. Yet sometime during the 1400s they abandoned the area.
              Reasons                         Power Shift
  • People of Great Zimbabwe         • Oral tradition has Mutota as
    raised cattle                      founder of Mutapa Empire
  • Possible that land became        • Became known as Mwene
    overgrazed                         Mutapa, “master pillager”
  • Soil may have lost fertility     • Built his empire in the 1400s
  • By the 1500s, when first         • By 1500, Mutapa Empire
    Europeans saw site, Great          controlled much of what is now
    Zimbabwe already in ruins          Zimbabwe
                                     • Grew wealthy exporting gold,
                                       controlling trade in large area

								
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