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					                          REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

   Water Supply and Sanitation Project Implementation Unit




 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
for Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland
                          technology




FINAL – 22.02.2011




Prepared by:
Veaceslav Vladicescu & EA Team




                                 CHISINAU 2011
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




CWTP          Constructed Wetland Treatment Plant
EA            Environmental Assessment
EIA           Environmental Impact Assessment
EMP           Environmental Management Plan
EU            European Union
GoM           Government of Moldova
IDA           International Development Association
ME            Ministry of Environment
NGO           Non-governmental organization
OP/ BP        Operational Policies, Bank Procedures
RAP           Resettlement Action Plan
RBF           Reed Bed Filter
RPF           Resettlement Policy Framework
SEE           State Ecological Expertise
SEI           Sate Ecological Inspectorate
UNDP          United Nation Development Programme
PAP           Project Affected Person
PDO           Project Development Objectives
PIU           Project Implementation Unit
VF            Vertical Flow
WHO           World Health Organization
WMO           World Monetary Organization
WB            World Bank
WWTP          Waste Water Treatment Plant




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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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                                                         Table of Contents

Executive summary ................................................................................................................ 1

1     Introduction.................................................................................................................... 7
    1.1 Objective ........................................................................................................................... 7
    1.2 Methodology .................................................................................................................... 7
    1.3 Content of EIA & EMP report ........................................................................................... 8

2     Policy, Legal, and Administrative Framework .................................................................. 9
    2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 9
    2.2 World Bank Environmental Safeguards............................................................................ 9
    2.3 Legal environmental framework in Republic of Moldova ................................................ 9
    2.4 Draft Legislation .............................................................................................................. 11
    2.5 Administrative framework.............................................................................................. 12

3     Project Baseline situation .............................................................................................. 16
    3.1 Existing Technical Investment ........................................................................................ 16
      3.1.1 Water supply network ............................................................................................. 16
      3.1.2 Waste Water network ............................................................................................. 16
      3.1.3 Storm network ........................................................................................................ 18
      3.1.4 Sewerage network of adjacent localities ................................................................ 18
    3.2 Physical Environment ..................................................................................................... 18
      3.2.1 Geography ............................................................................................................... 18
      3.2.2 Climate .................................................................................................................... 20
      3.2.3 Geology and hydrogeology ..................................................................................... 20
      3.2.4 Natural hazards ....................................................................................................... 21
      3.2.5 Water resources ...................................................................................................... 22
      3.2.6 Soil resources .......................................................................................................... 23
    3.3 Biological Environment ................................................................................................... 24
    3.4 Socio-cultural environment ............................................................................................ 26
    3.5 Historical and Cultural resources ................................................................................... 27

4     Project activities and analysis of alternatives................................................................. 28
    4.1 No project alternative .................................................................................................... 29
    4.2 Alternative 1 – using the existing WWTP ....................................................................... 29
    4.3 Alternative 2 - constructing a new WWTP using CW technology (surface flow) ........... 29
    4.4 Alternative 3 - constructing a new WWTP using CW technology (subsurface flow) ..... 30
    4.5 Alternative 4 - different WWTP locations ...................................................................... 31

5     Environmental impacts and risk assessment of project alternatives ............................... 33
    5.1 Environmental impacts ................................................................................................... 33
    5.2 Social impacts ................................................................................................................. 44

6     Environmental Management Plan ................................................................................. 48
    6.1 Summary of key environmental and social impacts....................................................... 48
    6.2 Mitigation plan ............................................................................................................... 49
    6.3 Monitoring plan .............................................................................................................. 58
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    6.4 Institutional arrangements ............................................................................................. 64
    6.5 Institutional strengthening ............................................................................................. 68
      6.5.1 Training .................................................................................................................... 68
      6.5.2 Consultancy ............................................................................................................. 72

7     Public participation, information and consultations ....................................................... 74
    7.1 Public consultation methodology ................................................................................... 74
    7.2 Scoping meeting ............................................................................................................. 74
    7.3 Draft EIA public discussions ............................................................................................ 76

8     Conclusions................................................................................................................... 80

Annex 1 Water quality in Orhei ............................................................................................ 82
Annex 2 Waste Water Treatment Plan Efficiency in 2009 ...................................................... 83
Annex 3 Raw water quality data in Raut River ...................................................................... 84
Annex 4: List of Participants, Scoping meeting on 9th of July 2010 ........................................ 85
Annex 5 Photo Gallery – Scoping Meeting ............................................................................ 91
Annex 6 Photo Gallery – Public discussion of the Draft EIA ................................................... 92
Annex 7 Terms of Reference ................................................................................................ 93




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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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Executive summary
Purpose and Scope
The objective of the present Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental
Management Plan (EMP) report is to provide assistance to Water Utility “Orhei Apa Canal” and
other project beneficiaries in undertaking this EIA for the proposed National Water Supply and
Sanitation Project (the Project), including preparation of EMP, in order to comply with relevant
World Bank guidelines and Moldovan environmental standards and construction regulations.
The aim of the EIA report is to analyze the potential adverse environmental issues related to the
proposed Constructed Wetland technology investment in Orhei and to ensure that these aspects
are addressed or mitigated in the project design consistent with World Bank requirements and
Moldovan environmental legislation.

The proposed project development objectives (PDO) are to: (i) to improve the coverage, quality,
efficiency, and sustainability of water and sanitation services in selected urban and rural
communities; and (ii) enhance the capacity of the Ministry of Environment to prepare and
supervise the implementation of investment projects and to provide technical assistance to the
operating Apa Canals in a number of localities including Orhei.
The proposed objectives of the overall Project will be achieved through the rehabilitation,
improvement, and expansion of water supply and sanitation systems; improving the treatment
and disposal of wastewater as well as enhancing overall management of the water sector.

The proposed investment program (for which this EIA has been developed) is to be financed by
the European Commission (EC) through a grant that is considered environmental category B in
accordance with the World Bank operational policy on environmental assessment (OP/BP 4.01),
since the project will provide construction of a new Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP)
based on Constructed Wetlands (CW) technology. Therefore, an EIA Report including an EMP
was prepared.

The specific investments will include:
    a) construction of a new Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) based on Constructed
       Wetlands (CW) technology;
    b) rehabilitation and expansion of related sewerage distribution networks; and
    c) renovation of sewage pump stations.

The current Environmental Impact Assessment includes a description of the policies, legal, and
administrative framework in place in the Republic of Moldova regarding environmental
management and the water supply and sanitation sector.

Sanitation Situation in Orhei and adjacent localities
The main sewerage network in Orhei has a length of approximately 58 km and was built 40-50
years ago. Presently only 60 % of all inhabitants in Orhei (approximately 33,200) are currently
connected to the sewerage network.

The old existing WWTP, operating since 1976, is located in the eastern part of the town.
Presently the waste water production from population and industry is approximately 18% of
design flow of the plant, intermittent and depends on many factors, including the season of the
year, functioning of industry etc. The existing sewerage network (excluding the current three
district pumping stations) is considered to be in a poor condition because of high leakages,
inefficient pumps and lack of O&M funds. In order to provide proper sanitation services for all
inhabitants in the town of Orhei the first priority regarding investments in sewerage system
would be expansion of the network to cover as many consumers as possible. The current WWTP
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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


functions satisfactory with an efficiency of more than 90% removal for suspended solids and
BOD5 based on laboratory analyses offered by the Orhei Apa Canal. The reported quality
analysis shows that ammonia is reduced by 64% while the phosphate is reduced only by 29% in
the effluent. Low removal capacity of nitrate has been observed in the analyzed samples. The
nitrate concentrations in the effluent were reported to be higher by several magnitudes compared
to the quantity of nitrate at the WWTP inlet. Currently, most parts of the treatment plant need
complete renovation. In addition, the existing plant is located at high elevations and the
wastewater is currently pumped to the treatment plant from the city center up to almost 100
meters level causing high energy consumption.

During the previous project development phases it was decided to identify a new location for the
WWTP so that most of the produced wastewater could reach the treatment plant by gravity. This
would bring considerable savings in pumping costs of raw wastewater from the town districts
and is likely to result in significant health as well as environmental improvements in the area.

Orhei Apa Canal has tentatively studied four different locations for the new WWTP and selected
one that is feasible from technical, economical and environmental points of view. Building a
Constructed Wetland WWTP will improve the sanitation situation not only in Orhei but also in
the surrounding villages that lack currently centralized water supply and sanitation. In absence of
these investments the deterioration of waste water networks and the old WWTP will constantly
continue to increase and the untreated waters will have severe negative impact on human health
and the environment.

Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment
The main objective of this study is to ensure the environmental security, which consists in
implementing a set of technical and organizational measures in order to keep as much as possible
un-altered state of the environment and to recover the deteriorated aspects, so that to maintain an
environmental balance at the project area.

The benefits would be improved ecological conditions of Raut River located at approximately
900 m north of the selected area for new WWTP and the living condition of local residents of
Orhei. The improvement in wastewater collection and treatment will lead to a better and cleaner
urban environment by reducing the exposure of the community to the untreated wastewater with
its associated impact on public health and well-being, such as waterborne diseases.

The Constructed wetland technology considered for this investment is a subsurface flow wetland
that will maintain the water level bellow the surface of gravel or other media placed in the
wetland bed. The main significant advantage of this type of CW over the surface flow type of
wetland is: (i) lack of odors; (ii) lack of mosquitos and other insect vectors; and (iii) minimal risk
of public exposure and contact with the water in the system;

The advantages of CW over conventional WWT plants are: (i) lack of odor; (ii) simple in
construction and operation; (iii) often less expensive to build and to operate than other
treatments; (iv) O/M –only periodic on-site labor; (v) high process stability (buffering capacity);
(vi) treat water with very different qualities; (vii) high treatment efficiency; (viii) facilitate water
reuse and recycling;

Additional benefits of CWs are: (i) habitat for many wetland organisms; (ii) fit harmoniously
into the landscape; (iii) wildlife habitat and aesthetic enhancement of open spaces; (iv)
environmentally sensitive approach favored by the public.



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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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Environmental and social impact significance was determined on the basis of an impact’s
magnitude, duration, and compliance with quality standards. Application of the appropriate
mitigation as described in the EIA and EMP aims to reduce or prevent possible negative impacts
during construction as well as operation phase of the newly designed WWTP.
The potential negative impacts during construction phase are of short-term magnitude and with
proper mitigation measures these impacts can be minimized to insignificant levels. The short
term impacts during this phase are described bellow.

Water Quality
In order to protect surface and groundwater during construction phase it is anticipated that the
source of wastewater will be: (i) the domestic residential sewage and wastewater from the work
sites, (ii) washing water from the vehicle and machinery maintenance, and (iii) muddy runoff
along with particles in rainy days.
Environment-friendly mobile toilets and oil separation tanks will be installed on the construction
camp. Wastewater from oily waste tank, mobile toilets will be collected and treated in septic
tanks and discharged to an existing sewer system. Unauthorized dumping of wastewater will be
prohibited.

Storage tank and temporary wastewater treatment facility will be built to ensure the wastewater
discharge comply with national standards. The regular maintenance of the construction
equipment will be carried out to avoid accidents.

An Operational Manual on handling chemical materials (e.g., store the chemical away from
watercourses and provision of retention areas to contain accidental spills of such toxic and
harmful construction materials as caustic and acidic substances, oil and petroleum products) will
be prepared and applied to prevent soil and surface/ground water pollution. A prevention and
emergency response plan will be developed and implemented to train the workers on safe and
diligent handling of chemicals to avoid accidental spills and on emergency response when a spill
would occur.

Air Quality
Anticipated sources of air pollution from construction activities on site include dust generated
from/by: a) earth excavation, loading, hauling, and unloading; the movement of vehicles and
heavy machinery on unpaved access and haul roads; b) aggregate preparation, concrete-mixing,
and haulage activities; and c) exhaust from vehicles and equipment.

Dust emission is associated with site conditions, mechanization and management of the
construction works. The vehicles delivering granular and/or fine materials to the sites will be
covered with protective sheets. Overloading of these vehicles should be avoided. Vehicle speed
will be controlled on construction sites.

All the roads on the construction site will be paved with stones or concrete. Water trucks will be
used to wet the construction roads twice a day if dry conditions may occur, according to a daily
schedule and taking weather conditions into consideration. These roads will be kept clean, solid,
smooth, and clear of all dust, mud, or extraneous materials dropped from transportation vehicles.

Ambient air quality will be measured during and after the construction. Additional monitoring
will be undertaken when necessary (e.g., if complaints are made by local communities).

Noise
A significant increase in noise is expected during construction, due to various construction and
transport activities. Construction facilities and equipment will include bulldozers, excavators,
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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


graders, stabilizers, concrete mixers, drills, rollers, poker vibrations, concrete pumps, loading
machines, and other heavy machineries.
There is no residential area within 300 m from the WWTP. There are only a few operational
enterprises that are settled in the former farm. The potential affected people could be
construction workers and nearby enterprise staff. It is recommended to avoid any temporary
barracks constructions for living destination near the WWTP because the Orhei town is very
close and the workers can be located there. In this way no people will be affected by noise.

Large amounts of construction waste materials will be transported to and from the construction
sites, frequently during the 8~10 h workday for the construction period. Therefore, mitigation
measures are essential for construction activities to meet Moldovan construction site noise
criteria and to protect sensitive receptors.

Machinery will be properly maintained to minimize noise. Noise reduction devices or methods
(the use of temporary hoarding or noise barriers and vibration-proof equipment) will be applied
to shield noise sources where piling equipment is operating. Noise from equipment and
machinery will comply with Noise standard limits (GOST 12.1.003-83) for construction site
according to national legislation. In accordance with noise standard, the sites for concrete-mixing
plants and similar activities should be located at least 1 km away from sensitive areas such as
residences, schools, and hospitals. But it is strongly recommended using prepared concrete from
specialized concrete plants from Orhei region.

The operation of machinery generating high levels of noise, such as piling, will be restricted near
the sensitive areas (hospitals, schools, administrative buildings etc) and stopped between 6:00
a.m. and 10:00 p.m. in accordance with Moldovan regulations. The movement of heavy vehicles
along urban and village roads will also be restricted to between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m.
Adequate route for large trucks will be selected to keep away from residential areas.
Traffic on the site and blowing of horns will be controlled and limited. Construction activities
will be scheduled to minimize the impact of machinery noise.
Suitable measures will be taken to protect workers' hearings while operating heavy equipment
according to the worker health protection law of the Republic of Moldova.

Soil Quality
Rainfall runoff from the construction sites may pollute the soil. Therefore, during rainstorm days
the excavation activities should be avoided. Stripped topsoil will be stockpiled. A drainage
system will be built to minimize the soil erosion. Settling ponds will be built on the construction
sites. Soils in settling ponds will be cleared for use as refill soils. The soils on the tires of
construction vehicles will be regularly cleaned. After the construction, the excavated soils will be
refilled on construction site. As soon as refill and land leveling is done, re-vegetation with trees
and grasses will be undertaken.

Protected areas
Air pollution caused by emissions from vehicle and machinery might affect the vegetation
located at more than 1 to 3 km distance from transportation road and the site selected for new
WWTP. These impacts are short-term and are considered to be minor impacts on the ecosystems
and protected areas.

Solid Wastes
The solid wastes generated from the construction are abandoned construction materials, scattered
sands/stones, concretes and domestic wastes. These solid wastes are harmless, however, it will
affect environmental sanitation of the construction site, hamper the traffic and transportations,


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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


damage the surface of roads, further increase idle exhaust emissions of cars, and pollute the
ambient air.

The solid wastes must be collected regularly by the city sanitation bureau and cleaned up in a
timely manner and sorted, transported to the municipal landfill.

Construction Traffic
Construction activities and traffic could lead to traffic congestion and inconvenience to the
public due to: (i) increased vehicles for materials and solid wastes transportation, and (ii)
deterioration of the roads condition after excavation and leveling. It might bring negative effects
to the narrower road and cause larger vehicle flux. In conjunction with the local traffic
management authority, traffic flow regulation plans will be prepared before construction begins,
if necessary. Proper transportation time and route will be selected to avoid rush hours and reduce
traffic congestion.

Public Health and Safety
Sanitation is a key public health issue during construction. Workers are prone to infectious
diseases if they are under a poor working and living condition and high work load. Sanitation
services will be maintained, including air quality, food quality and water supply. Medical
facilities and health services will also be provided.

Contractors will be required to take safety measures at the construction site to protect the
workers and the public, including provision of appropriate personal protective equipment for
workers and arrangement of warning signs to alert the public of potential safety risks in and
around the construction sites.

The potential environmental risks during operation of the WWTP based on Constructed
Wetland technology might be during accidental spills and leakage of wastewater that may cause
serious surface and ground water pollution and the Raut river (a tributary of Nistru River) that
receive the effluent of the WWTP. Automated flow meter and water quality monitoring system
will be advisable to be installed. However, the regularly basic water tests will be done by the
existing laboratory of Apa Canal Orhei. Specific measures should be taken if any potential
incidents or illegal discharge is found during regular inspection and maintenance. Standby
equipment and pipes should be installed in such a way that will reduce the risk of accidental
overflow. An emergency tank shall be arranged for wastewater storage if leakage or spill occurs.
The WWTP will be strictly monitored to ensure the enforcement of wastewater discharge
standards. Emergency response plan for accidental wastewater overflows or spills will be also
prepared.

An operation and maintenance manual for equipment will be provided by the suppliers. The
equipment operators and plant manager will be trained in operational safety, maintenance of the
facilities, emergency procedures and contingency plans will be prepared. Periodic training and
practice sessions in safe operating procedures will be held after the plant starts operating.
Protection equipment such as gas masks and breathing apparatuses will be provided for workers.
Environmental emergency response plan will be used in case of accidents.

The power failure and mechanical breakdown will directly, short-time affect the operation of the
WWTP, but not critically. It is recommended that dual-power supply lines should be equipped
for important facilities, proper operation and maintenance plan should be established, and
emergency response plan will be prepared to minimize the influence of the power and
mechanical failure. The operators should store a generator and enough diesel oil for power
failure.

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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Public Consultation
The approach of environmental impact analysis was participatory via ongoing public
consultation, building on the initial public scoping, so as to allow stakeholders’ and affected
parties’ inputs to be taken into account.
To ensure wide participation by all interested stakeholders, the information about the project and
details about consultations was disseminated through local mass-media, radio channel,
newspapers, and sent by letters to the interested persons and representatives of different
organizations including NGOs.

During each meeting, agendas and presentation materials for each participant were prepared. In
order to rapidly register questions, comments and recommendations as well as the specialists'
replies, all the discussions were audio recorded. All public comments were considered during
elaboration of the current EIA study.

Conclusions
It is anticipated that the Project will generate positive socio-economic benefits due to the
improvement of water supply and wastewater services along with improved environmental
conditions on the Raut River water and will generally support sustainable development in the
region. The overall findings of the EIA are that short-term negative impacts on air, water, and
acoustic environment are expected, especially during construction.

The project alternatives analyzed under this study considered different types of WWTPs
(conventional WWTP vs Surface Constructed wetland and Subsurface Constructed Wetland) and
different locations (four locations in the Raut valley and the existing location of the old WWTP).
The environmental issues likely to be associated with all alternatives include: noise generation;
impact on water quality and resources; impact on water by the construction run-offs; morbidity
with water related diseases; disturbance during construction and rehabilitation works;
construction dust; and workers safety.

However, in general these impacts will be temporary and localized. The proposed measures will
be implemented to mitigate the negative impacts. These measures will also be updated in the
EMP during the design stage and continuously refined during construction. The EMP will be
implemented by the Apa Canal Orhei and the Works Contractor; monitored and supervised by
Construction Supervision Company; and regularly reported to PIU.

Large and participative public discussions were held during EIA preparation. The participants
acknowledged the positive impacts on the environment and are aware that some minor negative
impacts could occur if the construction of the new WWTP and extension of the network to
redirect the waste water is not done properly. However, it is undoubtedly necessary to have
additional public discussions with the aim to increase the awareness of the local population about
the potential long-term negative impact will have on future generations the use of polluted water
for drinking purposes.

Any adverse environmental impacts associated with the Project will be prevented, eliminated, or
minimized to an acceptable level if the EMP proposed under the present EIA is effectively
implemented, particularly through the mechanism for the continuous refinement and effective
implementation of the environmental mitigation measures.




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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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1 Introduction
The Government of Moldova has received a grant from the European Commission (EC) to
improve wastewater treatment in the city of Orhei. The overall goals are: (i) to improve the
coverage, quality, efficiency, and sustainability of water and sanitation services in urban and
rural communities; (ii) enhance the capacity of the Ministry of Environment to attract and
implement investments projects funded by International Financing Institutions and Moldovan
Government; and (iii) provide technical assistance to the operating Apa Canals including Orhei
city and surrounding localities.
Parts of the proceeds of the EC grant will be applied for consulting services to conduct an
environmental assessment for the construction of WWTP in Orhei.

Specific measures such as construction of new pumping stations, extension of the wastewater
network are required in the existing system that has to be adapted to permit a redirection of
wastewater flows to the new wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) developed based on
Constructed Wetlands (CW) technology. These measures shall be financed by an IDA credit and
local resources from Apa Canal Orhei.


1.1 Objective
The objective of this assignment was to provide assistance to the Agency “Orhei Apa Canal” and
other project beneficiaries in undertaking the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for the
proposed new constructed wetland technology investment in Orhei including preparation of
Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for an environmental category B project.

The EIA has been prepared in compliance with World Bank requirements and Moldovan Law on
Ecological Expertise and Environmental Impact Assessment No. 851-XIII of 29 May 29 1996,
under which an EIA is required for construction of WWTPs and sewerage networks in localities.

The aim of the current EIA report is to analyze the potential adverse environmental issues related
to the CW investment proposed in Orhei and to ensure that these aspects are addressed or
mitigated in the project design. A summary of the potential impacts associated with extension of
the wastewater network in the existing system of Orhei city to permit redirection of wastewater
flows to the new wastewater treatment plant is also described in this report and mitigation
measure are proposed in the EMP.


1.2 Methodology
In order to achieve the objective of the assignment, specific tasks were undertaken as listed
below:
    1. Review of the available relevant information on the project site;
    2. Description of relevant works under the proposed project, current legislation and relevant
       environmental baseline situation;
    3. Determination of the potential impacts of the proposed project;
    4. Development of Environmental Management Plan (EMP);
    5. Public Consultation and disclosure;

The approach to environmental impact analysis was participatory and via public consultation
discussions, building on the initial public scoping, so as to allow stakeholders and affected
parties’ inputs to be taken into account as well as consultations with local authorities, engineers


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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


from Agency “Orhei Apa Canal”, feasibility study team and the detailed design company, NGOs
and other relevant institutes.

1.3 Content of EIA & EMP report

The EIA and EMP Report follow a sequence of activities conducted by the Environmental
Assessment team.

Chapter 1:            Provides general introduction into the assignment, project objective and proposed
                      approaches to complete the assignment;
Chapter 2:            Presents the legal and administrative framework for the present project describing
                      the national policy and the environmental requirements of the Republic of
                      Moldova and the World Bank;
Chapter 3:            Describes the background environmental and social conditions related to
                      construction of new WWTP;
Chapter 4:            Presents analysis of alternatives for Orhei city with respect to waste water
                      collection and treatment;
Chapter 5:            Describes the potential environmental and specific social-economic impact
                      assessment of project activities. The potential negative and positive impacts are
                      outlined with related mitigation measures;
Chapter 6:            Provides a summary of the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) covering the
                      organization for environmental and social management of the project, capacity
                      building program, the cost estimates and sources of funds for EMP;
Chapter 7:            Describes the public participation process;
Chapter 8:            Summarizes the main conclusions and findings.

Annexes




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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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2 Policy, Legal, and Administrative Framework
2.1 Introduction

This Chapter summarizes WB operational policies, existing legislation, by-laws and government
policies and programs potentially relevant to the construction of new WWTP based on
Constructed Wetlands technology for Orhei city.

The environmental impact assessment study for the National Water Supply and Sanitation
Project was designed to evaluate its status in respect with all applicable World Bank
environmental and social policies and guidelines. During the EIA process for this project, a
review of the World Bank environmental and social guidelines was carried out in respect with
their relevance to this project and was outlined in the Environmental Framework Policy
document. The policies directly relevant to this project are: Environment Assessment (OP 4.01),
Cultural Property (OP 4.11) and Projects on International Waterways (OP 7.60) the specific
World Bank guidelines that were identified as being applicable to this project are Environmental
Assessment Sourcebook, Volume I and II (1991).


2.2 World Bank Environmental Safeguards

Any World Bank project designed for financing and involving civil works, requires an
environmental assessment (EA) at a specific level to demonstrate the investment environmental
and social sustainability and to improve the decision making process.
Environmental and social policies and requirements of the World Bank are presented in the
following reference safeguards:

* Operational Policy 4.01, Environmental Assessment, January 1999 (including Annex A, Annex
B, Annex C, dated January 1999)
* Operational Policy 4.04, Natural Habitats, June 2001
* Operational policy 4.09, Pest management, December 1998
* Operational Policy 4.11, Physical Cultural Resources, August 1999
* Operational Policy 4.12, Involuntary Resettlement, December 2001
* Operational Directive 4.20, Indigenous Peoples, September 1991
* Operational Policy 4.36, Forests, September 1993 (including Annex A, dated March 1993)
* Operational Policy 4.37, Safety of Dams, October 2001
* Operational Policy 7.50, Projects on International Waterways, June 2001
* Operational Policy 7.60, Projects in Disputed Areas, June 2001.
* Operational Policy 17.50, Public Disclosure

Given the possible level of environmental impact for a specific investment financed by the
World bank, there are 3 types of project categorization in line with EA scope – category A (for
which impacts are considered irreversible and significant), category B (for which impacts are
less significant than in the case of Category A and manageable with proposed feasible mitigation
measures) and category C (for which there are little to no impacts).

2.3 Legal environmental framework in Republic of Moldova

The Republic of Moldova is characterized by a new legislative base. Some of the main laws
related to the project are described below:

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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     Constitution of the Republic Of Moldova (1994);
     Law on the Environmental Protection Nr.1515-XII of June 16 (1993);
     Law on Ecological Expertise and Environmental Impact Assessment Nr. 851-XIII of
      29.05.1996 (1996);
     The Water Code of Moldova Nr.1532-XII of June 22 (1993);
     Land Code (1991) 828-XII of 25.12.91;
     Law on Drinking Water Nr.272-XIV of February 10 (1999);
     Law on State Supervision of Public Health, #10-XVI of February 03, 2009;
     Law on Water Protection Zones and Strips along Rivers and Water Bodies Nr. 440-XIII of
      27. 04. 95 (1995);
     Law on the National Ecological Network No. 94 of 4 May 2007;
     The Law on the Fund of Natural Areas Protected by the State, No. 1538-XIII of 25
      February 1998;
     Construction Norms and Regulations (SNiP 2.04.01-04-85) ;
     The Rules on Surface Water Protection approved by the State Environmental Protection
      Committee Nr.03-13/57-442 of March 1 (1991).

Other laws relevant for this project are:
   Law on Quality in Construction (#721 of February 02, 1996);
   Law on Construction Works authorizations, # 163 of July 09, 2010;
   Law about access to information (982-XIV of 11.05.2000);
   Law on Payment for Environmental Pollution (787- XIII of 26.03.96);
   Law on the Vegetal Kingdom No. 239 of 11 August 2007;
   Law on Town-planning and Territorial Development, No. 835, 1996;
   Law on Industrial and Domestic Wastes No. 1347 of 9 October 1997;
   Law on Air Protection (1422- XIII of 17.12.97).

The Governmental Decisions and Instructions:
   Instruction on the organization and conduction of ecological expertise (1996);
   Instruction on Order of Organization and Conduction of the State Ecological Expertise
     (2003);
   Governmental Decision on Standard provisions on use of water supply and sewerage
     systems communal (2002);
   Governmental Decision regarding Concept of sustainable development of cities and towns
     in Republic of Moldova (HGO1491 of 2002);
   Governmental Decision on regulation of relations in the field of water management and
     rational use of water resources in Republic of Moldova (619 of 16.08.1994);
   Governmental Decision on approving the Regulation regarding the mode and conditions
     for use of aquatic basin (745 of 03.11.1995);
   Governmental Decision on State Supervision Service of Public Health (#384 of May 12,
     2010);
   Governmental Decision on underground resources use licensing (1994);
   Sanitary Rules on atmospheric air prevention in localities (1998);
   Governmental Decision on Order on compensation for damage to forests (1992);
   Governmental Decision on increasing of exploitation safety of buildings and constructions,
     installations and pipe-lines which are sources of a heightened risk (1996);
   Construction Norm and Rules (SNiP 2.04.02-84).



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The existent legislative base was designed during 1993-1996 and does not include all
international policies and acts that Republic of Moldova is a part to, also stipulations of
European Union where Moldova wants to be a part of. In this context, objectives of the Strategy
are a part of Action Plan Republic of Moldova – European Union. European legislation that is
proposed to be harmonized to national one is:
   Directive 98/83/CEE about water quality for human consume - its proposed to be
      implemented through the law of drinking water;
   Council Directive 91/271/EEC about purification of urban wastewaters should be included
      in national legislation to approve the normative regarding conditions of evacuation of
      wastewaters in water basins;
   Council Directive 91/676/EEC about water protection against pollution caused by nitrates
      from farm sources – is necessary to be implemented to protect waters against pollution with
      nitrates from farm sources;

  Present Strategy defines the main objectives of development of public services of water supply
  and wastewater networks in conformity with stipulations of EU Directives for:
   Drinking water – nr.98/83/EEC;
   Wastewaters from urban localities – nr.91/271/EEC;
   Surface waters for drinking water – nr.75.440/EEC;
   Dangerous pollutants in underground waters – nr.80/68/CEE;
   Dangerous pollutants in surface waters – nr.76/464/CEE.

The Directive about water 2000/60/EC defines a few elements that should be included in state
policies. Implementation of mentioned Directive suppose elaboration of a Water management
plan on hydrographic basins, in collaboration with Romania and Ukraine, in the frame of
Convention about protection and utilization of transboundary water streams and international
lakes, through existing documents and by the bilateral collaboration.


2.4 Draft Legislation
Five main laws, relevant to this study, are currently being drafted but expected to be approved by
the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova. These laws are being drafted with the purpose to
align the legal framework of the Republic of Moldova to the European Union directives. These
draft laws are:

Draft Environmental Protection Law, which transcribes the principles of "polluter pays",
"control of pollutants at source", "precautionary decision making", "preventive action",
"protection and sustainable use of natural resources", etc. into Moldovan law.
The draft also contains rules established strategic environmental assessment, environmental
impact assessment of public and private projects, environmental approval, regulatory fees and
charges.
There are specific regulations on hazardous substances, wastes and agrochemicals. It sets out the
rights and obligations of individuals and businesses in environmental protection.

Draft Law on Environmental Impact Assessment
The new draft law on EIA is developed in the context of harmonization of the local
environmental legislation to the EU directives. As the old version of the EIA law, the drafted
version defines the activities for which a state ecological expertise and/or an EIA is required but
in clearer way and with more public participation. Annex 1 of this law has a list of projects that
require a mandatory environmental impact assessment while the Annex 2 specifies what for what
activities there should be identified the need to conduct an environmental impact assessment.

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Item #13 in the Annex 1 specifies that an EIA is required for waste water treatment installations
with a capacity equivalent to 150,000 inhabitants.

Draft Water Law aims to create a comprehensive legal framework for the effective and
sustainable management, protection, enhancement and use of Moldova’s water resources,
introduce a system of secure water rights, establish the necessary water quality protection
mechanisms, and establish a basis for international cooperation in the management of shared
water. Under the draft law Moldova will adopt a basin level approach to river management and
apply the polluter pays principal. Abstraction for centralized water supply and waste water
discharge is defined as a special use requiring authorization. Water use is prioritized as follows:
            1. Domestic/drinking water supply;
            2. Irrigation and the watering of livestock;
            3. Industrial activity, including mining and agro-industry;
            4. Fishing and fish farming;
            5. Hydropower generation;
            6. Sport and recreation; and
            7. Other purposes.

In order to prevent pollution from agricultural activities, the draft law mentions development of
detailed rules on fertilizer use including the adoption of a code or codes of good agricultural
practice to be implemented by farmers on a voluntary basis; provision of training and
information to farmers; agrochemicals handling and storage; and monitoring of nitrates in
freshwaters. The law also covers drought and flood risk management planning and establishes
the maintenance of water bodies and riparian buffers by the future Water Administration and
local public administration as a mandatory public service.

Draft National Ecological Network aims to create a legal framework for the establishment and
development of national ecological network, as part of pan-European ecological network, and
local ecological networks for the introduction of a network management and environmental
protection of national and local ecological networks, such as power and duties of public
authorities in this field.

Draft Construction Norm and Rules is the regulation of authorization, approval and verification
of design work, rehabilitation or demolition of buildings and facilities in accordance with
documentation of spatial planning and applying the system of normative documents in
construction in order to ensure transparency and information delivery of administrative acts, and
also, create favorable conditions for business sector.


2.5 Administrative framework
There are several institutions in Moldova with a mandate to protect the environment, responsible
for the water supply and sanitation. The most important of them being described below.

Ministry of Environment (ME)
The responsibility for managing the water sector resources used to be the responsibility of a
single authority, the Ministry of Environment, Construction and Territorial Development. In
2009 the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources was renamed as Ministry of Environment
during administrative re-organization. The newly created Ministry of Environment (ME) was
created as the central authority responsible for the development and promotion of the state policy
in the field of environment protection and use of natural resources. The ME consists of the
following departments:

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     1.    Department of environmental strategies and policies;
     2.    Department of natural resources;
     3.    Department of protected areas and biodiversity;
     4.    Department of environment pollution prevention;
     5.    Department of science, technical assistance and European integration;

The Ministry has been mandated to deal with broad environmental protection issues, and it has
primary responsibility for the supervision of environmental laws, norms, programs, and decrees
in the Republic of Moldova. The Ministry's basic responsibilities are set out in the Law on
Environmental Protection and its Regulation. It covers environmental management, protection
and monitoring. The State Environmental Inspectorate of the ME is responsible for final
approval of EIA studies prepared at pre-feasibility, feasibility and design stages of development
projects.

Agency “Apele Moldovei”
Since the administrative re-organization that took place in 2009, Apele Moldovei (AM) is the
administrative authority subordinated to ME and is responsible for implementation of state
policy in water resources management, hydro-amelioration, water supply and canalization. It is
also responsible for operating and maintaining of the major irrigation pumping facilities as well
as the main pipeline and reservoirs up to the on-farm distribution networks.

In small and medium sized cities water and wastewater systems are operated by semi-
autonomous entities called Apa Canals, which are responsible to the local government and are
represented at the national level by the Moldova Apa Canal Association (MAC). Responsibility
for water sector services in small jurisdictions falls to the office of the mayor. In conformity with
Annex nr.4 of Government Decision nr. 904 from 9th of August 2007 Apa Canal Association all
operative administration is done by the Agency “Apele Moldovei”, in base of the signed
contracts between AM and local and central public administration.

Apa Canal Orhei
Apa Canal Orhei represents a city scale water and wastewater system entity in Orhei city
subordinated to “Apele Moldovei” Agency. Because of lack of such entities in the village area of
Orhei District, Apa Canal Orhei intends to extend its services upon the neighbor settlements. The
fees for water supply and sanitation of Apa Canal Orhei are determined using a special
methodology developed by The National Agency for Energy Regulation (ANRE) 1. The tariffs
are determined annually and approved by the local public administration at Orhei District level.

Water Supply and Sanitation Project Implementation Unit (WSSPIU)
The WSSPIU is an entity created based on Development Credit Agreement, signed by World
Bank and GoM, according to Government Decree No. 986 from August 11, 2003, “Regarding
the foundation of Water Supply and Sanitation Project Implementation Unit” (with subsequent
changes). WSSPIU acts on its own Regulation and the main tasks are to implement water supply
and sanitation projects financed by World Bank and other international organizations; to
optimize coordination of various projects and simplify the institutional relationships between the
Government, Unit management, World Bank and other international financial organizations; to
assist the World Bank supervision missions and other international organizations and to carry out
the recommendations set out in supervision reports and many other tasks.



1
  Decision Nr. 164 of 29.11.2004 “Methodology to determine, approve and apply tariffs for drinking water supply, sanitation and
wastewater treatment public services.
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The purpose of the Unit is to ensure an efficient performance of the obligations of Republic of
Moldova, under concerned international agreements, on implementation of water supply and
sanitation projects, by directing, monitoring and managing the works on implementing the
related projects in accordance with international financial organizations’ requirements. For the
current investment, the WSSPIU will oversee the implementation of the project through
conducting studies, prepare all necessary documentation for organizing tenders and monitor
implementation of the project.

State “Hidrometeo” Service
State Hydrometeorological Service is a public institution subordinated to the Ministry of
Environment, which activity is regulated by the Governmental Decision Nr. 401 on “Some
aspects of hydrometeorological activity in the Republic of Moldova” from April 3rd 2003. The
Service is administrated by the director appointed by the Government. According to the
Parliament Decision Nr. 210-XIII from 29 July 2004, the Republic of Moldova accessed to the
World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Director was appointed as Permanent
Representative of the Republic of Moldova with WMO.
Principal tasks of the Service:
    i.    Monitoring of the state and variability of the hydrometeorological conditions and
          environmental quality for protection of population and national economy from
          dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena and high level of environmental
          pollution.
    ii. Meteorological, aeronautical, agrometeorological and hydrological forecasting as
          well as determination of the level of environmental pollution.
    iii. Warning about dangerous hydrometeorological disasters and high level of
          environmental pollution.
    iv. Dissemination of hydrometeorological data on environmental quality to the national
          public and local authorities and economic agents.
    v. Creation and operation of the National Hydrometeorological DataBase necessary
          for implementation of diverse socio-economic objectives and elaboration of the
          strategies for long-term development of the national economy.
    vi. Data exchange in the framework of the global system of hydrometeorological
          observations and fulfillment of commitments under the conventions and
          international agreements signed by the Republic of Moldova.
The State Hydrometeorological Service will be involved in the monitoring of surface water
quality and quantity in Raut River and provide all necessary hydrological and meteorological
data for the project.

State Ecological Inspectorate (SEI)
The State Ecological Inspectorate (SEI) represents a public authority subordinated to the
Ministry of Environment established as a separate legal entity. The SEI is an environmental
protection regulatory and enforcement agency and performs the state control over the rational
use and protection of the natural resources. Its basic responsibilities include monitoring
environmental pollution and carrying out regular inspections for environmental violation and
protection, as well as provision of monitoring data and information.

The main role of the SEI is to implement and enforce the environmental legislation through the
control the following divisions of the inspectorate.
    Division of control of soil, subsoil, wastes, chemical substances;
    Division of control of water resources and atmospheric air;
    Division of fighting of poaching and illegal cutting
    Division of physical-chemical and metrological analyses of the environmental factors
        (central laboratory).
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The SEI has 4 Ecological Agencies in Cahul, Balti, Comrat, Chisinau and Ecological Services in
each rayon.

According to its Regulations the SEI plays a key role in controlling the development process and
protecting the environment and human health from damage caused by pollution, in the
assessment of proposed new development projects and extension, modifications, reconstruction,
conservation demolition or liquidation of those already in existence. This goal is achieved
through performing of the state ecological expertise of the design documentation of the proposed
projects. In case of non-compliance with established regulations it can stop any activity. It also
has powers to request initiation of criminal proceedings, and may impose penalties if laws are
breached.

The SEI monitors all facilities throughout the country with high environmental impact or large
consumption of natural resources. The SEI issues permits to the relevant operations and carries
out enforcement of the permit by inspection visits, monitoring and levying of fines in cases of
non-compliance. As mentioned above, the SEI will be directly involved in approval of the
current EIA report.

Agency for Geology and Mineral Resources (AGMR)
The Agency for Geology and Mineral Resources is a state agency subordinated to the Ministry of
Environment. The responsibility of AGMR is to assure the rational use and protection of mineral
resources and underground waters in Moldova. AGMR is responsible for promoting of state
policy in the field of management and monitoring of underground resources in Moldova and is
responsible for management and protection of underground water resource, state accounting of
groundwater, including investigations for estimating groundwater reserves, as well as monitoring
of ground water quality and regime, control of it protection and coordinate the documentation for
special water use. AGMR also provides the necessary hydro geological studies prior to issuing
of permits for use of groundwater and conducts geological research.

The AGRM may be involved in geological and hydrogeological assessment during design phase
of the project.

Ministry of Health
The Ministry of Health (MH) is the central authority for the health of the population and sanitary
and epidemiological supervision in Moldova. In the field of water the main responsibilities lie
with the National Centre for Public Health (NCPH) which is subordinated to the MH; District
and Municipal Public Health Centers; and other organizations for public health.

The Ministry of Health is responsible for state sanitary and epidemiological supervision; for
sampling and analyzing water quality in water bodies and groundwater used for drinking water
supply; and for control over the observance of sanitary, epidemiological and hygienic
regulations. These functions are assigned to the National Centre for Public Health. Its district
subdivisions perform periodic sampling and quality analysis of water from centralized water
supply systems, artesian wells and shallow groundwater wells.

National Centre for Public Health (NCPH)
The NCPH is an agency subordinated to the Ministry of Health and represents the main
organization with responsibility for maintaining the state sanitary and epidemiological
supervision system with the aim to protect public health at the national level. Its responsibilities
include monitoring drinking water quality and pollution; carrying out regular inspections for
violation and protection of satisfactory sanitary conditions; providing monitoring and
information, information dissemination, education with respect to public health, hygiene etc.

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3 Project Baseline situation
3.1 Existing Technical Investment
3.1.1 Water supply network
The water supply in Orhei city is from four sources; 1) deep groundwater wells located in the
central park “Gradina Publica” – 2500 m3/day; 2) deep groundwater wells from “Lupoaica”
region – 2000 m3/day; 3) deep groundwater wells located in the north-western part of the village
“Mitocul Vechi” – 9000 m3/day and 4) a natural spring located some 20 km east of the town’s
centre in the location Jeloboc - 3500m3/day. At present the daily water production in Orhei
(2009) has been 2800 m3/day while the total capacity of all water intakes is approximately17.000
m3/day.

The water supply network provides drinking water to approximately 85% of total number of
inhabitants and 100% of all public buildings and local business utilities are currently connected
to it. Some business utilities have their own water supply from deep boreholes. The remaining
15% of population depend on the water from private and public shallow dug wells.

At present, the quality of water from almost all deep wells and the natural spring corresponds to
Moldavian Normative for Potable Water. In some deep wells near Mitocul Vechi village (Figure
1) high concentrations of ammonia, silicates and strontium were observed. The water from many
deep wells has mineralization of up to 1.4 g/l and high hardness values. The quality of water
from shallow dug wells is monitored permanently by the local Public Health Center. According
to the Moldavian standards the quality of the shallow dug wells is very poor2. The high above
standards NO3 contents in the shallow wells are most often related to leaking toilets, leaking
sewers and other waste disposals (such as unauthorized garbage sites). It is, unfortunately, a
common situation in most urban areas where there is partial centralized water supply3.
Annex 1 provides information on water quality in Orhei city.

3.1.2 Waste Water network
Orhei city is located on hilly landscape with elevation changes from 140m from north-vest to 32
m in western part in the Raut river valley. The main sewerage network is from 1960’s and
1970’s having length of approximately 58 km. Due to highly changing landscape the waste water
network does not fully cover the entire town. Therefore, collection and discharge of the waste
water and surface runoff is done separately. Quite often the surface runoff enters the waste water
network. The network consists of three pumping station districts. Only 60 % of all inhabitants in
Orhei are currently connected to sewerage network.

The existing WWTP operating since 1976, is located in the eastern part of the town. The WWTP
occupies 10.4 ha from which 10 ha are the sludge deposition lands. According to the Orhei Apa
Canal the deposits are partially filled and have a capacity for sludge deposition for
approximately 20 years. Designed at the capacity of 10.000 m3/day the WWTP consists of the
following treatment units:
    - Grit chamber;
    - Primary sedimentation tanks;
    - Biological filtration (filtrate material gravel);
    - Secondary sedimentation;

2
  Volume I: Explanatory Note, Report #15208 prepared by Urbanproiect, Chisinau 2008.
3
  Melian R., Myrlian, N., Gouriev, A., Moraru, C., Radstake, F., 1999. Groundwater quality and rural drinking-water supplies in
the Republic of Moldova. Hydrogeology Journal 7:188-196.
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     -   Sludge handling in sludge drying beds;
     -   Contact stabilization for effluent wastewater (chemical adding is not in use);
     -   Sludge pumping stations; and
     -   Chlorination plant.

Due to a rather poor condition of process units and very long retention times in primary and
secondary sedimentation units the proper treatment of wastewater is rarely achieved. Treated
wastewater is led to biological pond before discharging it into the Raut river which flows in
Nistru River. Retention time in the pond is very long and due to evaporation the amount of
discharged wastewater is considerably small. The effluent quality is presented in Annex 2.
It is well known that waste water production is not constant and depends on many factors,
including the season of the year, functioning of the industry etc. For example, in May 2010 the
reported wastewater flow to the treatment plant was 1800 m3/day which is approximately 18 %
of design flow of the plant.
                      Table 1. Wastewater treated by Orhei WWTP (m3/day)
                                   Year                 2006             2007   2008   2009
                                 Quarter 1              2207             1820   1816   1731
                                 Quarter 2              2936             1862   2007   1768
                                 Quarter 3              3170             2453   2346   1710
                                 Quarter 4              2943             1890   2222   1638
                                 Average                2814             2006   2098   1712
                         Source: Apa Cana Orhei
As it can be observed from Table 1, the wastewater production peak is in Quarter 3 which is due
to seasonal activity of the industry. Designing a new WWTP based on CW technology shall take
into consideration that the production peak is approximately 20% higher than the yearly average.
 The existing sewerage network (excluding existing three district pumping stations that were
rehabilitated recently, 2007-2009) is considered to be in a poor condition. In order to provide
proper sanitation services for all inhabitants in the city of Orhei the first priority regarding
investments in sewerage system would be expansion of the network to cover as many water
consumers as possible. This would mean approximately 40-50 kilometers of new sewerage
network and tentatively 1-2 new district sewerage pumping stations.
The current WWTP functions satisfactory with an efficiency of more than 90% removal for
suspended solids and BOD5 based on laboratory analyses offered by the Orhei Apa Canal. The
reported quality analysis shows that ammonia is reduced by 64% while the phosphate is reduced
only by 29% in the effluent. Low removal capacity of nitrate has also been observed in the
analyzed samples. The nitrate concentrations in the effluent were reported to be higher by several
magnitudes compared to the quantity of nitrate at the WWTP inlet (Annex 2).

During the previous project phases it was decided to identify a new location for WWTP so that
most of the produced wastewater could be led to the treatment plant by gravity. This would bring
considerable savings in pumping costs of raw wastewater from the town districts and is likely to
result in significant health as well as environmental improvements in the area.

After a thorough assessment of wastewater organic pollutant load and its composition, the
Design Consultant prepared a design for the CWTP which best suites the conditions present in
Orhei city. Main components of the designed CWTP are:
    Inlet arrival chamber and diversion chamber;
    Pre-treatment unit composed by two mechanical screw screens working in parallel and
       Grit removal chamber;
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           Equalization tank equipped by 4 flow-jet, 4 mixer and 8 submergible electrical pumps for
            the feeding of the 1st stage RBF;
           1st Stage RBF, composed by four lines working in parallel: each line is divided in three
            sectors, that are alternatively feeding by motorized valves controlled by a PLC;
           4 pumping stations for the feeding of the 2nd stage VF: each pumping station contains 4
            centrifugal submergible pumps.
           2nd stage VF, composed by four lines working in parallel: each line is divided in 4
            sectors, that are alternatively feeding by pumps;
           Disinfection by Chlorination system;
           Pumping system for discharge into Raut river (however the emergency outflow reaches
            the ditch closer to the plant, a tributary of Raut river).

Apa-Canal has tentatively studied four (4) different locations for new WWTP. They are all
located on the western part of the town in the Raut valley. Another location was considered to be
the existing location of the old WWTP. Due to economic reasons, it was concluded that the last
option is not feasible. The other four options were evaluated more closely in the Feasibility
Study conducted in 2008 by Urbanproiect4.


3.1.3 Storm network
The Orhei city is located on very changing topography, i.e. from 40 to 130m elevation. The flow
or direction of the storm water is mainly along the streets with direct discharge into Raut valley
or surrounding surface water and groundwater without treatment. The storm network represents a
network of pipes of 300 mm and is present only in the central part of the town. The material of
storm pipes is asbestos, steel and cement. Due to unsatisfactory collection and treatment of the
storm water, a part of the town in the Raut river valley and its tributaries Ivanos and Vatici is
flooded during heavy rainfalls.


3.1.4 Sewerage network of adjacent localities
To connect Pelivan village, a gravitational network was built with pipe diameter of 160-200 mm.
This network connected the social facilities of the village with the Orhei WWTP. Due to the lack
of funds to clarify the condition of this network, the situation of this network is not known.

Mitoc village was also connected to the Orhei sewerage network. Presently the pumping station
in Mitoc is not functional and the network is in poor condition. The waste water from school and
other social facilities, is collected and transported by septic tank trucks to the Orhei WWTP.
Villages Lucaseuca and Seliste do not have a sewerage network.


3.2 Physical Environment
3.2.1 Geography
The Orhei city is located in central part of Moldova at a distance of 45 km north of Chisinau on
the bank of river Raut. The city is located on scenic hilly landscapes and has a total area of 1402
hectares. The relief is presented by Raut valley surrounded by hills with altitude of more than
100 m. In the Raut valley, the elevation is 29-30 m. The new location of the WWTP has an
elevation of 34 m.



4
    Volume I: Explanatory Note, Report #15208 prepared by Urbanproiect, Chisinau 2008.
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Figure 1. Selected location of the new WWTP based on Constructed Wetlands technology (1- a
general view of Moldova; 2 – Orhei Rayon; 3- A closer look of Orhei city; and 4 – the new
location for Constructed wetland Plant)

Figure 1 shows the location of the site selected during Feasibility Study conducted in 2008 by
Urbanproiect for building a new WWTP. The site, which previously was part of a cattle farm, is
located at a distance of more than 2 km west of Orhei city.

The hydrographical network is represented by Raut river, Ivanos and Vatici small tributaries and
a lake within the Orhei limits. Forest area is 9% from the total area

The area is rich in natural resources, particularly for construction and production of construction
materials such as building stone, limestone, sand and clay. During the last 30 years the region
has experienced intensive urbanization which resulted in new urban settlements.

In the northern part is Raut river located at a distance of 900 m and Mitoc village. Raut river
flows into Nistru River located approximately 30 km from Orhei city. Lucaseuca and Seliste
villages are located at a distance of approximately 3km (Figure 2).




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Figure 2. Distance to the nearest human settlements


3.2.2 Climate
The Orhei city is located in the central agro-climatic region with specific climate and
geographical peculiarities. The climate in the region is temperate-continental with short warm
winters and hot summers. The average annual temperature constitutes 8,6°C-9,2°C. However, a
0.4ºС increase in air temperatures has been recorded in the past years.
The following is typical for this region:
     average temperature (maximum and minimum): July 21.0°C - 22.0°C, January -3.0°C -
       4.0°C;
     sum of active (>10°C) average daily temperatures during vegetation period is 3000–
       3,300;
     range of precipitation during vegetation period is 395-495 mm;
     average duration of the vegetation period is 182-187 days;
     average annual precipitation 520-660 mm/year;

The first frost may appear in October while the last at the end of April. Period of days without
frost is between 182-193 days. Plant vegetation period is 210 days.


3.2.3 Geology and hydrogeology
During feasibility study, several reports on geology and hydrogeology of the site selected for
construction of new WWTP. These reports are:
   1. Report on geological engineering surveys for Raut river flood plain near Orhei. This
       study was done in 1986 by Moldghiintiz (# 4114/13072);
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     2. Report on geological engineering surveys for designing the sewerage network of the
        Othei town. This was completed in 1989 (# 5364/13295);
     3. Report on geological engineering surveys for “rehabilitation of sewerage network for
        Orhei city” first stage, done by LTD “BIVAST”, # 715/2009.

According to the report #4114/13072 the geological profile, depending on the geomorphology, is
composed on loam, sand, clay, gravelly subsoil and limestone. The water table is at depth of 1.5-
3.8m. The aquifers are composed of alluvial loam, loamy sand and gravel. The aquitard is
composed of clay.

Based on study done by LTD “BIVAST” the geological profile of the selected site for the new
WWTP, up to the depth of 13 m, is characterized by Quaternary deposits represented by alluvial-
delluvial formations of the Raut River terraces. The water table is at depth of 3.9-4.3 m.
Seasonally, the water table may rise up to the depth of 1.5 m.


3.2.4 Natural hazards
Flooding
Based on the three surveys described in previous chapter, a 100 year flood event may reach the
elevation of 34.6 m.




Figure 3. Elevation (m) near selected site for constructing a new WWTP

Field surveys done to complete this study acknowledged the fact that the former cattle area is
higher than the entire natural flood plain. This might suggest that in order to protect the cattle
farm from flooding, this area was artificially constructed. However, due to absence of historical
records, it was not possible to verify this hypothesis.

Landslides
Due to the fact that the new location for WWTP is in the Raut River flood plain, there are no
landslides recorded.

Seismicity
The territory of the Republic of Moldova is located in the Carpathians seismic area and it is
affected by earthquakes having an epicenter within the limit of the crust (crust epicenter with a
depth not exceeding 5 km) and within the upper mantle (under crust epicenters with a depth of
more than 50 km).
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Due to its vicinity with the Vrancea epicenter, there is high risk of earthquakes with a magnitude
of 6 to 8 on a MK-64 scale. The maximum seismicity (VIII degrees Richter) in the region is
registered in the southwest before the Prut River. The remainder of Moldova has a seismicity of
VII degrees Richter, except in the Transnistrean area, where the seismicity is VI degrees Richter.
In accordance with the calculations performed in these seismic areas, the earthquakes with these
intensities do not occur more than once in 200 years. However, Moldova experiences many
earthquakes with lower intensities (MK ≤5.5), typically as many as 18-20 annually.
The site for new WWTP based on Constructed Wetland technology is located in the zone subject
to earthquakes of intensity VII on the Richter scale.

Swamping
There are several forms of swamping in Moldova, determined by hydrogeological, geological,
and geomorphologic conditions; landslides; surface water flows; and human economic activity.
In all cases, the presence of swamping is determined by a combination of the existence of a layer
of impermeable rock immediately under the ground surface and slow drainage of the surface
materials.
Swamping areas are also found in the Raut river floodplain. There are few swamp potential areas
located on eastern side from the WWTP site. Other swamp potential area is on the north-western
side, near Mitoc village, far from the WWTP.




Figure 4. Potential swamp areas (in dashed circles)


These swamps are caused mainly by a combination of the accumulation of surface water
draining to the meadow from adjacent slopes, storm water, and slow surface drainage of the area.


3.2.5 Water resources
The Orhei District is totally situated in Raut River basin, a tributary of Nistru River. The surface
water is represented by Raut river, Ivanos and Vatici rivulets. There are no lakes or ponds in the
vicinity of the site selected for WWTP. On the eastern part of the site, at a distance of 1 km is an
artificial reservoir. During summer of 2010 this reservoir was filled partially with water. It was
not possible to identify the source of the water from this reservoir.


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                                                         1 km




Figure 5. Artificial reservoir near site selected for WWTP.

In accordance with the Law on Water Protection Zones and Strips along Rivers and Water
Bodies, Raut river should have a water protection zone of 500 m, while for Vatici this should be
15 m as depicted on Figure 6.



                                                     CW outlet




Figure 6. Water Protection Zones for Raut river and Vatici tributary.

As it can be observed from Figure 6, the new location of WWTP is far from the 500 m boundary
(transparent pink area) of the water protection zone for Raut river. According to the Law on
Water Protection Zones and Strips along Rivers and Water Bodies, it is not allowed to construct
waste water utilities in these zones (Article 13, para 2(b)).

Figure 6 also shows the constructed wetland outlet for discharging treated wastewater into Raut
River.


3.2.6 Soil resources
Land area in Orhei District is complicated and differs in soil types. The most common are
chernoziom typical and common soils. The soils in Raut River meadow are considered almost
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alluvial soils5. Alluvial soils characterize the floodplains, while the lower reaches of the Raut
river valleys have sometimes saline and marshland soils. The excessive use of chemical
fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides during the Soviet period has generally resulted in
significant contamination of the soil and groundwater. This situation is characteristic for the
entire Orhei District.

The naturally productive soils and favorable climatic conditions in the region have a diverse
agricultural production such as wheat, corn, barley, soybeans, sunflower, fruits and vineyards.
Beef and dairy cattle, as well as pigs, sheep and poultry are raised on a family farm scale.


3.3 Biological Environment
The variety and vulnerability of Moldova biodiversity is influenced by several factors. Due to the
republic’s geographical position near the Carpathian Mountains, Black Sea and East-European
Plain there is a confluence of three main eco-regions: Central-European leafy forests,
Mediterranean forest steppe and Euro-Asiatic steppe. This confluence of eco-regions provides
conditions for high biodiversity. However, ecosystems strongly affected by human use constitute
approximately 75% that are agricultural ecosystems and urban ecosystems - 10%. Natural
ecosystems cover approximately 15% of the country.

Over the past decades human activities have threatened the country’s biodiversity through
fragmentation of the natural areas that resulted in reducing the ecological functioning of these
areas and ongoing loss of habitats and species. In particular, biodiversity of the steppe zones of
the republic has been more adversely affected by overgrazing, soil erosion and landslides, soil
salinization as a result of intensive irrigation of flood plains and pollution of surface waters. This
has resulted in a non-uniform distribution of biodiversity6,7.

Orhei city, including the foreseen constructed wetland is situated at the confluence of three main
regions of Republic of Moldova in the Codrii forest zone (see Figure 7), as follow:
     Region of plateaus and plains with meadows of Balti steppe;
     Region of plateaus and forest steppe plateau;
     Region of plateaus with Codrii forest.

Presently, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Moldova, acting as an
implementing agency of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), is providing assistance to the
Moldovan Ministry of Environment in the implementation of the GEF Medium Size Project
(MSP) “Improving coverage and management effectiveness of the Protected Area System in
Moldova”. The project aim is to enhance the coverage and management effectiveness of the
protected area system of Moldova by piloting - within the broader framework of the National
Environmental Network - the establishment of the first National Park in Moldova. The Orhei
National Park, will occupy an area of over 20,000 hectares and will include 15 villages – 14 of
Orhei district and the village Romanesti of Straseni district. This national park will contain four
areas, two of which recreational – a temporary one where tourists could visit beautiful
landscapes and a permanent one to be built in the future with hotels and tourist resorts.




5
  State Environmental Inspection report, 2009.
6
  National Strategy and Action Plan on Biodiversity Conservation of the Republic of Moldova (2001)
7
  USAID/Moldova FAA 119 Biodiversity Analysis. 2007
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Figure 7. Main protected areas of the Republic of Moldova. Red circle shows Orhei city region.

In the temporary recreational area, a private company already erected several holiday cottages on
the bank of a lake, where people can rest in exchange for a payment agreed with the owner. The
other two areas of the park will be dedicated for scientific research and integral protection.




Figure 8. Orhei National Park



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Figure 8 shows the location of the Orhei National park. As it can be observed from this figure,
the allocated site for constructing a new WWTP is at a distance of 2900 m from the 3km buffer
zone of the national park, therefore, there the selected WWTP location is out of the boundaries
of this National Park.

The Raut river near Orhei crosses a landscape with abundant biotopic complexes, predominantly
agrocoenoses. At a distance of more than 2-3 km on the western and southern parts of the
selected site for construction a new WWTP there are forest patches with some fragments of
natural oak forest, ash tree and acacia. There is not a large variety of vertebrates in the forest, on
the steppe slopes and in Raut River valley. The species composition is limited to background
species for the biotope. Mammals present in these areas are Vulpes vulpes, Lepus europaeus,
Talpa europaea, Spalax microphthalmus, Erinaceus europaeus, mice and other rodents. The
Raut valey is characterized by typical meadow vegetation. The only reptiles are lizards, which
are rarely observed.
There are several drainage canals, most of them are clogged with swamp vegetation such as reed
prevailing.
In general the vertebrate fauna is impoverished as a result of the strong transformation of the
surrounding landscape. No protected vertebrate species are resident in the WWTP area and its
immediate surroundings, although they may migrate through it. Migratory birds, with the
exception of certain passerines and a small number of other species, pass through without
stopovers. The fringes of forests and areas in ravines that are overgrown with thornbushes,
hawthorn and hips are inhabited by many insects from different taxonomic groups. Some species
listed in the Red Data Book of Moldova, the stag-beetle (Lucanus cervus), praying mantis
(Mantis religiosa) and butterflies such as the scarce swallowtail (Iphiclides podalirius) and
Polyxena (Zerynthia polyxena) are relatively common.


3.4 Socio-cultural environment
At present, the official total number of residents is 33,200, according to National Statistics
information from 2009. It is assumed, that the real number of inhabitants is about 26,000 people,
since a considerable portion of inhabitants has moved to other places (mostly abroad), without
giving official notification.




Figure 9. Number of inhabitants in Orhei city from 1980-2010


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As in can be observed from Figure 9, the population trend has been steadily decreasing since
independence. The lowest number of inhabitants was registered in 2008 and since that year there
are evidences of slight increase in this number.

With industries active in many different sectors, Orhei seems to have a good industrial base; it
also showed little better than average growth during the last years with an exception the crisis
year 2009.

The number of inhabitants in the surrounding localities follows the same trend as observed in
Orhei city.

Sustainability of investments in constructing a new WWTP based on Constructed Wetlands
technology is linked directly with the number of beneficiaries, their capacity to pay for services,
environment sustainability and other factors. The lack of access to safe drinking water and to
basic sanitation impedes economic development.


3.5 Historical and Cultural resources
An important historical and archaeological complex is Orheiul Vechi located 15 km from the
Orhei city. The museum complex Old Orhei is a system of historical monuments and natural
landscapes situated on meander promontories (headlands), formed by the sinusoidal bed of the
Raut river, between the Trebujeni and Butuceni villages. Parts of the Old Orhei complex are two
huge promontories (Pestere and Butuceni), joined by other three adjacent promontories (Potarca,
Selitra and Scoc) placed in a range from North to South.

Among archaeological pieces considered classic for the Old Orhei complex it should be
mentioned the Gaeto-Dacian Butuceni Fortress, VIII-III cent. BC; the small Trebujeni-Potarca
fortress dated V-II cent. BC; ground fortress from the XII-XIII cent.; the stone fortress dated
XIV-XVI centuries; the Palace of the chief magistrate of the Orhei district; the stone khan from
the XIV century, the stone bathing houses from the XIV century, the churches from the XV-XVI
centuries; the ground fortifications of the medieval city, and others.




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4 Project activities and analysis of alternatives
About 70 % of the population in Moldova use groundwater as a drinking water supply; however,
the source only represents about 15 % of all the abstracted water in Moldova. Water taken from
groundwater sources (wells and springs) are of varying water quality. The remaining part of the
Moldovan population is supplied by surface water but the sources are in general polluted and
treatment not up to the mark. Drinking water quality suffers from presence of coliform bacteria
as well as high concentrations of nitrates, sulphates, chlorine, fluorides, iron and minerals. In
addition, the hardness of the water is high. A study showed that coliform bacteria were present in
16 % of all sampled drinking water in rural areas, while 7 % of all samples had contents of faecal
coliforms8.

The health conditions of population groups correlate with the quality of environmental
compartments, specifically with the water quality. The nutrients compounds have a growing role
in water courses pollution and also in human bodies. It penetrates in human organisms basically
with drinking water. The discharges of waste water in rivers and generally in all water basins
will result with very high probability to infections and parasitical diseases, especially among
teenagers and children.

The main objective of this study is to ensure the environmental security, which consists in
implementing a set of technical and organizational measures in order to keep as much as possible
un-altered state of the environment and to recover the deteriorated components, so that to
maintain the environmental balance.

The project will be implemented in areas with problems of water availability or water quality, a
relatively large population of poor and socially disadvantaged people and high community
demand for improved services. Investments will be implemented in the Orhei city since it is
considered one of the most important town in central part of Moldova with regards to
institutional, socio-economic and cultural, financial and technical aspects.

The investments will include: (a) rehabilitation and expansion of sewerage distribution
networks; (b) renovation of district and sewage pump stations; and (c) construction of a new
wastewater treatment plants based on Constructed Wetland technology.

The following alternatives were analyzed during EIA study:
    1. No project alternative;
    2. Alternative 1 – using the existing WWTP;
    3. Alternative 2 – constructing a new WWTP using CW technology (surface flow);
    4. Alternative 3 - constructing a new WWTP using CW technology (subsurface flow);
    5. Alternative 4 – different WWTP locations as per Figure 10
Construction of a new WWTP will have a tremendous positive impact on socio-economic
development of Orhei city and surrounding villages. The improvement of the sewerage system,
namely the construction of an innovative treatment plant and the extension of the existing
sewage network will have a very positive impact on the living condition of the population and in
particular will reduce the health risks related to the insufficient water supply and sanitation
situation. The villages in the vicinity of Orhei city will also be connected to the centralized water
supply network that in a long term will improve water management in the region and enhance
the industrial pollution control and water conservation to maintain ecosystem integrity.

8
    The World Bank, 2008. Moldova national water supply and sanitation project, The World Bank, Report No: 42300-MD


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Adequate treatment and disposal of excreta of both household and industrial wastewater will
contribute to less pressure on freshwater resources and respectively reducing the risks of
contracting water-related illnesses.


4.1 No project alternative
Under the no-project alternative, the new WWTP based on Constructed Wetlands technology
will not be constructed and the old WWTP will continue to function with high energy costs.
The most important impact of the no project alternative is in the socio-economic sphere. Failure
to construct a new WWTP means that the old WWTP will further degrade and as the energy
prices are steadily increasing the population might not be willing to pay for very high sanitation
services. The surrounding villages will not be connected to the centralized sewerage network and
the quality of environmental will continue to degrade. Pollution of surface and groundwater will
continue which in turn will increase the water-related health risks and thereby worsening the
health status of the population.


4.2 Alternative 1 – using the existing WWTP
The alternative on further exploitation of the existing WWTP is a choice but not a solution or at
least not the best solution from socio-economical and environmental points of view. As energy
prices continue to increase, the economic burden on population or beneficiaries will also
increase. The main disadvantages of continuing exploitation the existing WWTP are:
     Outdated technical aspect which leads to low removal capacity for few important
        parameters such as phosphate and nitrate; ;
     High investments to rehabilitate;
     No possibility to connect additional beneficiaries from surrounding villages;
Once the new WWTP will be constructed, the existing plant will continue to function for 6
months during testing period. During testing period the Apa Canal Orhei will identify options to
use the decommissioned WWTP.

4.3 Alternative 2 - constructing a new WWTP using CW technology
    (surface flow)
Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be subdivided into two main categories: surface-flow or
subsurface- flow design.

A surface flow (SF) wetland consists of a shallow basin, soil or other medium to support the
roots of vegetation, and a water control structure that maintains a shallow depth of water. The
water surface is above the substrate. SF wetlands look much like natural marshes and can
provide wildlife habitat and aesthetic benefits as well as water treatment. In SF wetlands, the
near surface layer is aerobic while the deeper waters and substrate are usually anaerobic. The
advantages of SF wetlands are that their capital and operating costs are low, and that their
construction, operation, and maintenance are straightforward. The main disadvantage of SF
systems is that they generally require a larger land area than other systems.

Due to current constraints Apa Canal Orhei has with finding additional land, this alternative is
not considered feasible.




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4.4 Alternative 3 - constructing a new WWTP using CW technology
    (subsurface flow)
A subsurface flow (SSF) wetland consists of a sealed basin with a porous substrate of rock or
gravel. The water level is designed to remain below the top of the substrate. Because of the
hydraulic constraints imposed by the substrate, SSF wetlands are best suited to wastewaters with
relatively low solids concentrations and under relatively uniform flow conditions. In subsurface
flow or “Reed-bed” treatment systems (RBTS), the wetland is filled with gravel or sand or
similar substrates, and the plants, most commonly reeds (Phragmites australis or communis),
grow rooted in the filling medium.

SSF wetlands have most frequently been used to reduce 5-day biochemical oxygen demand
(BOD5) from domestic wastewaters. The advantages cited for SSF wetlands are greater cold
tolerance, minimization of pest and odor problems, and, possibly, greater assimilation potential
per unit of land area than in SF systems. Since the water surface is not exposed, public access
problems are minimal. The disadvantages of SSF wetlands are that they are more expensive to
construct, on a unit basis than SF wetlands.

The direction of the water flow provides the names of the two most diffused designs for RBTSs,
the horizontal flow (HF) and vertical flow (VF) systems.

Subsurface horizontal vs. vertical flow CWs

                       Horizontal flow                                                   Vertical flow
          under the surface more or less                                   VF systems have a distribution system
           horizontal flow;                                                  covering surface area;
          level control arrangement at the                                 VSF are usually fed intermittently;
           outlet;                                                          liquid percolates vertically down
          treatment during the passage through                              through the medium;
           the rhizosphere;                                                 collection of water by drainage system
          oxygen transport capacity of the reeds                            at the bottom;
           is insufficient.                                                 during drainage of the bed air fills the
                                                                             pores of the medium;
                                                                            oxygen transfer sufficient for
                                                                             nitrification;

As can be seen from the box above, the vertical flow type of a CW has more advantages
compared to the horizontal flow type.

In order to determine the most suitable type and size of the new CWTP for Orhei city, the
detailed engineering design consultant made all necessary investigations such as hydraulic
calculations, organic mass removal, etc. After the treatments goals were defined by the detailed
design engineer, the most appropriate treatment scheme and sizing procedure was performed
using well known and scientifically approved methods. Therefore, it was estimated that the most
suitable type of a CWTP is a hybrid, so called French system. In this hybrid system the
wastewater passes first through a Reed Bed Filter for Raw Sewage (RBF) and then enters into
Vertical Flow bed (VF) in the second stage.

Based on the current available area (5 ha), the detailed design consultant designed a CWTP that
can cover the scenario expected for the year 2015 (4400 m3/d, 2000 kgBOD5/day).



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This alternative is considered to be the most feasible at the moment. The only disadvantage of
this option is that Constructed Wetlands will require a larger area than is allocated presently, i.e
more than 5 ha of land for the long term scenario.


4.5 Alternative 4 - different WWTP locations
Apa-Canal Orhei has tentatively studied four (4) different locations for new WWTP. They are all
located on the western part of the town in the Raut valley. Another location was considered to be
the existing location of the old WWTP. Due to economic reasons, it was concluded that the last
option is not feasible. The other four options are depicted in Figure 10.

Location 1 – the new location for WWTP was chosen nearby the Town of Orhei, at a low
ground. The area selected for the construction of the new CWTP has an extension of 5 ha, and it
is close to an abandoned cattle farm surrounded by fields, which makes it a perfect undisturbed
location for constructing a WWTP based on Constructed Wetland technology. The site was
originally owned by the neighboring village Seliste. In February 2008 an area of 5 ha from this
particular site has been transferred to Orhei, based on the condition to construct a WWTP there.
Provision has to be made to enable future connection of wastewater systems in Seliste and
Lucaseasca villages to the WWTP. An additional area of 10ha needs to be identified on the same
land ensuring future possibility of expansion of the WWTP for the long term scenario.

Location 2 – private land at a distance of 1.2 km west of Orhei and 800 meters south-east from
the former cattle farm. Distance from Vatici River is 500 m and 1,35 km from Raut River. The
land belongs to Seliste village. The elevation is 33 m. This option was rejected because of
potential resettlement and lack of funds.

Location 3 – island of land at confluence of Raut River and its tributary, Vatici located at 200 m
west form Orhei and 1.8 km from former cattle area. Due to low elevation (30,4 m) this location
is in a high susceptibility to flooding zone and is not suitable for constructing a new WWTP.
Moreover is in close proximity to human settlements.

Location 4 – 400 m west of Orhei city. The elevation is 31 m and the site is also in a high
susceptibility to flooding zone and is not suitable for constructing a new WWTP. as location #3.
Moreover is in close proximity to human settlements.




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Figure 10. Spatial alternatives for constructing a new WWTP




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5 Environmental impacts and risk assessment of project
  alternatives
5.1 Environmental impacts
The primary social benefit is improvement of Raut River ecological condition and the living
condition of local residents. The improvement in wastewater collection and treatment will lead to
a better and cleaner urban environment by reducing the exposure of the community to the
untreated wastewater with its associated impact on public health and well-being, such as
waterborne diseases. Thus, there will be a corresponding decline in the number of sick days and
expenses for medical treatment.

In this study, the environmental and social impacts are described for the last alternative described
in chapter 4, constructing a new WWTP based on Constructed Wetland technology.

WWTP using constructed wetland technology, in this new location will give the possibility to
connect the adjacent localities to WWTP and to reduce the expenditure for pumping the effluent
up to hill at old WWTP. The Project will protect the residents and the workers in Orhei city,
Piatra village, Jeloboc village from odors from old WWTP. The new location of WWTP is at 4.5
km from the old WWTP.

Constructed wetland of the projected WWTP will be a subsurface flow wetland that will
maintain the water level bellow the surface of gravel or other media placed in the wetland bed.
The main significant advantage of this type of CW is: (i) lack of odors; (ii) lack of mosquitos and
other insect vectors; and (iii) minimal risk of public exposure and contact with the water in the
system;

The main benefits from socio-economical point of view will be low prices for a m3 of treated
water and promotion of economic growth and industrial development in the region.

In Orhei city there are five9 major business entities heavily polluting sewage:
    - Orhei Vit - fruit and vegetable processing and the production of juices and concentrates;
    - Orhei Vin – wine producing;
    - Milk Factory “Orlact”- milk processing and manufacture of milk products;
    - Wine Factory “Chateau-Vartely”- wine prodicing; and
    - Bakery - bakery products.

 During the construction and operation phase of the Project, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
are anticipated. The GHG emissions of the Project have to be calculated based on the detailed
engineering plan.

In addition cost-effective measures for energy conservation and emission reduction must be
carried out. In terms of the positive impact of the Project, the WWTP, based on constructed
wetland, no sludge will be generated excluding sediments from Imhoff tanks. These sediments
will be transported to the deposition site of the old WWTP.

Constant environmental monitoring will help the rehabilitation of the Raut River ecosystem
condition.
In the aspect of extreme weather events like heavy rainfalls and floods in Raut river valley, the
flood prevention level of the CW has to be designed.

9
    Source: Orhei Apa Canal
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Neither important historical and cultural sites nor rare and endangered species will be affected by
the Project. Construction areas and dredging areas are not located in forests and grassland of
ecological significance, natural reserves, or scientific areas.

In the preparation of the EIA report and during detailed design, the following considerations
have to be incorporated:

      a. Adequate technical design and scheduling of construction activities for the components
         will provide for safety, sanitation, and environmental protection in compliance with
         government regulations and international best practices.

      b. All the component sites will be carefully selected to avoid or minimize potential adverse
         impacts on the environment and surrounding communities.

      c. Water Collection and Treatment Subcomponent will be designed to prevent water
         pollution in receiving water body and to improve the water quality of Raut River area.

      d. Sediment disposal is designed to improve environmental conditions whereby
         contaminated sediments threaten ecological system and to provide healthy and safe
         conditions to workers and residents in WWTP area.

      e. Appropriate environmental mitigation and monitoring measures are included in the EMP.
         The proposed environmental mitigation measures will form part of the design documents
         for the project, and be included in the contracts for procurement of goods and services.
         All contractors and subcontractors will be required to comply with the EMP.

      f. Environmental monitoring program has also to be incorporated into the overall Project
         design to ensure that environmental impacts are closely monitored and the construction
         and operating activities are closely supervised against the approved EMP.

Impacts during Construction Phase and relevant mitigation measures

a.    Water Quality
       Wastewater generated during the construction phase will be (i) the domestic residential
        sewage and wastewater from the work sites, (ii) washing water from the vehicle and
        machinery maintenance, and (iii) muddy runoff along with particles in rainy days.
       Environment-friendly mobile toilets and oil separation tanks will be installed on the
        construction camp. Oil will be collected separately. The temporal canteen will use
        natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. The oils will be taken out regularly. Wastewater
        from oily waste tank, mobile toilets will be collected and treated in septic tanks and
        discharged to an existing sewer system. Unauthorized dumping of wastewater will be
        prohibited.
       Storage tank and temporary wastewater treatment facility will be built to ensure the
        wastewater discharge comply with national standards. The regular maintenance of the
        construction equipment will be carried out to avoid accidents.
       A regulation on handling chemical materials (e.g., store the chemical away from
        watercourses and provision of retention areas to contain accidental spills of such toxic
        and harmful construction materials as caustic and acidic substances, oil and petroleum
        products) will be prepared and applied to prevent soil and surface/ground water
        pollution. A prevention and emergency response plan will be developed and

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        implemented to train the workers on safe and diligent handling of chemicals to avoid
        accidental spills and on emergency response when a spill would occur.
       The proposed pump station, at East of Raut river, has to be protected against flooding, the
        volume of the wastewater mentioned is small, it will have minor impact on the quality of
        the nearby surface water.

b. Air Quality
Anticipated sources of air pollution from construction activities in site include:
     dust generated from earth excavation, loading, hauling, and unloading,
     dust generated by the movement of vehicles and heavy machinery on unpaved access and
        haul roads,
     dust generated from aggregate preparation, concrete-mixing, and haulage activities,
     exhaust discharged from vehicles and equipment.
Dust emission is associated with site conditions (soil, weather, or seasons), mechanization and
management of the construction. It is hard to measure the dust emissions but an analogy was
used in the other EIA to illustrate the impact of the dust. It is concluded that the dust emission
during the construction phase could be moderate.

The vehicles delivering granular and/or fine materials to the sites will be covered with tarpaulin
sheets. Overloading of these vehicles should be avoided. Vehicle speeds will be controlled on
construction sites. No vehicle that emits black smoke will be allowed to operate on-site.

A regular inspection and certification system will be initiated to make sure that exhaust gases
comply with emission standards. Besides, proper maintenance of vehicles and diesel equipment,
and avoid of unnecessary vehicle running and equipment engines will reduce emissions.

The engineering contractor will be required to use commercial ready-mixed concrete. Mixing
cement and lime soil will not be allowed on construction site.

All the roads on the construction site will be paved with stones or concrete. Water trucks will be
used to wet the construction roads twice a day if dry conditions may occur, according to a daily
schedule and taking weather conditions into consideration. These roads will be kept clean, solid,
smooth, and clear of all dust, mud, or extraneous materials dropped from transportation vehicles.

The construction site will be enclosed by the appropriate walls and sprayed with water twice a
day. Dust suppression equipment will be installed in concrete-batching plants. Materials storage
sites should be 500 m from residential areas. The material in the storage site will be organized,
such as separate stone and sand materials; store concrete in separate storage place and reduce the
on-site storage time of the construction. The transportation distance from the storage site to the
construction site will be minimized.

Construction will be stopped during strong winds and heavy rains, and also if snow and ice is
present.

Cooking for workers on the construction site should use clean energy sources such as natural
gas. Better if meal will be prepared in Orhei or neighboring village because of small distances.

Upon completion of construction, the construction and demolition wastes will be cleaned up in
timely manner. All the construction sites will be re-vegetated with trees and grasses.

Ambient air quality will be measured during and after the construction. Additional monitoring
will be undertaken when necessary (e.g., if complaints are made by local communities).
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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




c. Noise
A significant increase in noise is expected during construction, due to various construction and
transport activities. Construction facilities and equipment will include bulldozers, excavators,
graders, stabilizers, concrete mixers, drills, rollers, poker vibrations, concrete pumps, loading
machines, and other heavy machineries.
No residential area is within 300 m from the WWTP. Mitoc village is 900 m far from the site.
The noise from the construction site will not cause disturbance to residents. During the
construction of WWTP, there are only few enterprises that are settled in the former farm. The
potential affected people of the WWTP construction are construction workers and nearby
enterprise staff. It is recommended to avoid any temporary barracks constructions near the
WWTP.

Large amounts of waste materials will be transported to and from the construction sites,
frequently during the 8~10 h workday for the construction period. Activities with intensive noise
levels will not only have an impact on the residents, but may cause injury to construction
workers during operating the equipment. Therefore, these mitigation measures are essential for
construction activities to meet Moldovan construction site noise criteria and to protect sensitive
receptors:
    - Equipment generating low levels of noise will be utilized as first priority;
    - Machinery will be properly maintained to minimize noise. Noise reduction devices or
       methods (the use of temporary hoarding or noise barriers and vibration-proof equipment)
       will be applied to shield noise sources where piling equipment is operating. Noise from
       equipment and machinery will comply with Noise limits for construction site according
       national legislation.
    - The sites for concrete-mixing plants and similar activities will be located at least 1 km
       away from sensitive areas such as residences, schools, and hospitals. But we strongly
       recommend using prepared concrete from specialized concrete plants from Orhei.
    - The operation of machinery generating high levels of noise, such as piling, will be
       restricted near the sensitive area and stopped between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. in
       accordance with Moldovan regulations.
    - The movement of heavy vehicles along urban and village roads will also be restricted to
       between 6:00 a.m. and 10:00 p.m. Adequate route for large trucks will be selected to keep
       away from residential areas.
    - Traffic on the site and blowing of horns will be controlled and limited.
    - Construction activities will be scheduled to minimize the impact of machinery noise.
    - Construction sites will be monitored both regularly and irregularly by local
       environmental authorities or contracted environmental monitoring entity. If noise limits
       are exceeded, equipment and construction conditions will be checked, and mitigation
       measures will be implemented to rectify the situation.
Suitable measures will be taken to protect workers' hearings while operating heavy equipment
according to the worker health protection law of the Republic of Moldova.

d. Soil Quality
Rainfall runoff from the construction sites may pollute the soil. Therefore rainstorm days will be
avoided during excavation activities. Stripped topsoil will be stockpiled. A drainage system will
be built to minimize the soil erosion. Settling ponds will be built on the construction sites. Soils
in settling ponds will be cleared for use as refill soils.

The soils on the tires of construction vehicles will be regularly cleaned.
After the construction, the excavated soils will be refilled on construction site.


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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


As soon as refill and land leveling is done, re-vegetation with trees and grasses will be
undertaken.

e. Ecosystem
Air pollution caused by emissions from vehicle and machinery might affect the vegetation along
the transportation road and around the site. These impacts are short-term and are considered as
minor impacts on the eco-environment.

f. Solid Wastes
The solid wastes generated from the construction are abandoned construction materials, scattered
sands/stones, concretes and domestic wastes. These solid wastes are harmless, however, it will
affect environmental sanitation of the construction site, hamper the traffic and transportations,
damage the surface of roads, further increase idle exhaust emissions of cars, and pollute the
ambient air.

The solid wastes must be collected regularly by the city sanitation bureau and cleaned up in a
timely manner and sorted, transported to the municipal landfill.

g. Construction Traffic
Construction activities and traffic could lead to traffic congestion and inconvenience to the
public due to: (i) increased vehicles for materials and solid wastes transportation, and (ii)
deterioration of the roads condition after excavation and leveling. It might bring negative effects
to the narrower road and cause larger vehicle flux. In conjunction with the local traffic
management authority, traffic flow regulation plans will be prepared before construction begins,
if necessary. Proper transportation time and route will be selected to avoid rush hours and reduce
traffic congestion.

h. Public and Safety
Sanitation is a key public health issue during construction. Workers are prone to infectious
diseases if they are under a poor working and living condition and high work load. Sanitation
services will be maintained, including air quality, food quality and water supply. Medical
facilities and health services will also be provided.

Contractors will be required to take safety measures at the construction site to protect the
workers and the public, including provision of appropriate personal protective equipment for
workers and arrangement of warning signs to alert the public of potential safety risks in and
around the construction sites.

i. Cultural Properties
The main objects of cultural property are located several kilometers distance from the project
area. The most important are churches, monasteries, castles, monuments etc. Findings of
archaeological or historical relics during the network excavation may possibly happen. The
construction works will be coordinated and approved with the Ministry of Culture of Moldova;
the representative of the Ministry will be appointed, responsible for the project supervision.
Before any action is taken, a broad public information campaign will be carried out with the
publication of the intended actions and works in the Official Monitor, display of posters,
publication in local and central (as the Project will have National importance) newspapers, radio
and TV advertising.
In case of any archaeological findings during the excavation works, appropriate measures will be
taken for investigation, study and protection, in accordance with the Moldovan Law. First of all,
the excavation and other works will be stopped in the area of chance findings, and the Works

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


Supervisor and the Representative of the Ministry of Culture supervising the works will be
notified immediately.
This procedure is regulated by the Law on Culture of the Republic of Moldova # 413-XIV dated
27.05.1999 (Official Monitor of the Republic of Moldova # 83-86/401 dated 05.08.1999). The
area of this Law involves the protection and using of cultural properties. The above procedure is
also regulated by the Regulation on organization of Archaeological digging in the Republic of
Moldova (approved by the Session of Archaeological Commission at the Ministry of Culture on
21 March, 2001).
Impacts during the Operation Phase and relevant mitigation measures

a. Water Quality
It is required that industrial wastewater discharged to the municipal sewers should be pretreated
to meet the limits of Discharge Standards for Municipal Wastewater into surface water (Raut
river). Non-compliance discharge of industrial wastewater could lead to toxic effects on
microorganisms and wastewater treatment processes.

An industrial wastewater monitoring system will be established, and strictly enforced the
prohibition of illegal industrial discharges. Industrial pollution control, process control and
management plans will be developed to keep adequate treatment of industrial waste before
discharge into the sewer system.

The constructed wetland WWTP must be built according to appropriate technical design criteria,
best practices, and operated in accordance with national regulations.

After the treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater, the water quality of effluent will reach
the allowed concentrations based on the Government of Moldova Decision # 1141 of October 10,
2008 (Regulation regarding conditions to discharge urban wastewater in natural receptors).

Wastewater from municipal sewer system to the WWTP will be monitored by the parameters of
water quality and flow rate. Regular maintenance will be implemented strictly to ensure normal
operation of all equipment. Besides, wastewater from management offices will be directly
discharged into municipal sewers that will run to the municipal constructed wetland WWTP. In
cases where connection with municipal sewers is not available, septic tank or on-site wastewater
treatment facility will be installed for treating wastewater before being discharged into receiving
water bodies.

Connection of several villages to the new WWTP will be projected once new land is acquired to
extend the capacity of the plant. No significant industries are developed in area of neighborhood
settlements.

To provide a groundwater assessment, surface water and groundwater interactions will be
monitored for the area of the Raut River around the WWTP. At least four monitoring wells shall
be installed using PVC pipe penetrating the aquifer lying below the ground surface, two parallel
transects to the WWTP. Infiltration rings, standpipes, and percolation pits will be used to
quantify infiltration, hydraulic conductivity, and percolation characteristics of surface deposits at
the wetland. Infiltration rings and percolation pits will be used under dry conditions, and
standpipes will be used when the wetlands are inundated.

The monitoring wells will also be utilized in determining water table levels throughout the area
surrounding the borrow wetlands and Raut River, depending on groundwater availability in the
wells. This information will be included in the assessment of groundwater hydrology associated
with this WWTP.
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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
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Depth to water level readings will be recorded bi-monthly and after heavy rains events for twelve
months in each monitoring well and piezometer using an electrical probe. Specific conductivity,
pH, and temperature will also be recorded for each monitoring well, with a temperature probe,
conductivity probe, and field pH meter.

Slug tests, consisting of measuring the recovery of the hydraulic head in a well after a near –
instantaneous change in hydraulic head in the well, will be performed in monitoring wells in
order to estimate aquifer hydraulic conductivity (which quantifies the ability of an aquifer to
transmit water) and from the hydraulic conductivity, effective porosity, and hydraulic gradients,
estimates of groundwater flow rates will be calculated over the broader area encompassing the
borrow wetlands.

The overall outcome to be expected for these wells is to determine the status of the water and the
influence of constructed wetlands on groundwater quality, and to characterize the groundwater
regime of the Raut River.

b. Air Quality
When the CW starts operation, the odor will be generated from effluent, sedimentation tank, and
dewatering and stabilization plant, especially from dewatering plant and grid plant. The
identification and characterization of the odor emission from the potential sources at the WWTP
have been conducted. The only important sources of odors will be sedimentation Imhoff tank
and dewatering and stabilization plant. As a dewatering and stabilization plant will be used the
platform of old/actual WWTP.

The main pollutants are NH3 and H2S. The concentrations of H2S and NH3 will meet the
applicable limits. Thus, at all times, the concentration of H2S and NH3 outside the plant will be
substantially lower than the maximum acceptable emission concentration in the residential area.
It will not have remarkable influences on the environment and the sensitive sites located farther
away (farther than 150 m away).

Odor emission of the WWTP is influenced by the volume of the sewage and sludge,
concentration of the BOD and DO, sunlight, temperature and wind velocity. The constructed
wetlands technology without water at the surface will reduce significant odor emissions.

The odor released into environment will go through physical attenuation (dispersion and
dilution) and chemical attenuation (strong sunshine and ultraviolet) process. To avoid nuisance
odor from WWTP, the following mitigation measures will be implemented:

          The inflow chamber will be covered;
          A 50-100 m buffer belt of trees will be planted around the facilities as a Sanitary
            Protection Zone required by Moldovan Legislation.
          A 150m health protection zone will be established around the WWTP. No new house to
            be built within 100 m sanitary buffer from pumping station;
          Dewatered sludge will be removed in a timely and proper manner and disposed of in
            sealed trucks;
          Water content of the sludge should be controlled; and
          A regular odor monitoring will be carried out and management of odor control will be
            strengthened.




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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


Meanwhile, the air pollution during operation will also come from waste gas emissions from the
vehicles for sludge disposal. Regarding vehicular emissions, all vehicles will require to pass the
Euro-III equivalent test in the annual vehicle safety and environmental protection inspection.

Main components of the designed CWTP are:
    Inlet arrival chamber and diversion chamber;
    Pre-treatment unit composed by two mechanical screw screens working in parallel and
      Grit removal chamber;
    Equalization tank equipped by 4 flow-jet, 4 mixer and 8 submergible electrical pumps for
      the feeding of the 1st stage RBF;
    1st Stage RBF, composed by four lines working in parallel: each line is divided in three
      sectors, that are alternatively feeding by motorized valves controlled by a PLC;
    4 pumping stations for the feeding of the 2nd stage VF: each pumping station contains 4
      centrifugal submergible pumps.
    2nd stage VF, composed by four lines working in parallel: each line is divided in 4
      sectors, that are alternatively feeding by pumps;
    Disinfection by Chlorination system;
    Pumping system for discharge into Raut river (however the emergency outflow reaches
      the ditch closer to the plant, a tributary of Raut river).

c. Noise
During the operation period, on constructed wetlands WWTP, no noise will be generated during
water treatment operations from pumps and blowers. This is an important advantage of this
technology.

Besides, the pumping station must be constructed in form of semi-buried structures, and
designed with efficient acoustic mitigation measures, such as adequate thick walls, soundproof
doors, and double-glazed windows, using low-noise equipment and high-noise equipment
equipped with mufflers, and building a buffer belt of trees around the station, to mitigate the
pump noise. The external appearance of the pumping station will be designed to harmonize well
with the surrounding landscape.

d. Solid Wastes
Large amount of sludge with complex and uncertain components are produced in the old
WWTP. The sludge consists of the residue of grid, sediments of wastewater, and dewatered
sludge. In the new WWTP based on constructed wetland technology sludge will be produced
only at the pretreatment/sediment Imhoff tanks. The quantity of sludge will be lower than in the
conventional treatment method.

The first step of sludge disposal is to reduce water ratio of the sludge so that the volume of the
sludge will become smaller. A temporary storage facility will be built to decrease the water ratio
of the sludge. To accelerate settling speed and removal of phosphorous and solids,
polyaluminium chloride (PAC) dosage was used for the sedimentation tank. Shelter for keeping
the rain away will be built in the sediment zone outside the dewatering room. Leak-proof ground
will be paved in the sludge treatment room.

Chemical tests of sludge will be carried out by Orhei Apa Canal laboratory to identify whether
the quality of sludge complies with the allowed concentrations based on the Government of
Moldova Decision # 1141 of October 10, 2008 (Regulation regarding conditions to discharge
urban wastewater in natural receptors). Dewatered sludge that meets the standard will be
transported to the sanitary landfills in a closed container of a self-dumping truck to ensure the

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


sludge will not lead to a second pollution. Environmental supervision staff will be appointed to
make sure no spill or dumping occurs during the transportation route.

The sediment disposal will take place on the territory of old WWTP platform operated by Apa
Canal Orhei. There is enough capacity in landfill sites to accept the sediments and WWTP
sludge. The sludge will be transported to this facility covering approximately 10 ha and was
authorized by the local authorities and environmental inspection. To keep leachate from seeping
into groundwater, the landfill will be lined from the bottom up with a layer of clay, followed by a
layer of geo-membrane, then a layer of high-density polyethylene geo-membrane, and lastly
another layer of clay. In long term operation, it is considered that the sludge could be utilized for
reclamation after dewatering. According to the quality of the sludge the dewatered sludge may
be used as a resource of improving the soil quality. The future use of it will require an additional
tests and permission from Orhei Ecological Inspection.

e. Ecosystem Quality
The treated wastewater from the WWTP will be discharged into the Raut River.

The effluent of the treated water will be monitored by Orhei Apa Canal laboratory regularly to
ensure that the water drawn off at the outlet of the WWTP has further less impact to the river
water, flora and fauna.

f. Environmental Risks
Potential spill and leakage of wastewater may cause serious water pollution to the surface,
ground water and the river that receive the effluent of the WWTP. Automated flow meter and
water quality monitoring system will be ideal to be installed. However, the regularly basic tests
will be done by the existing laboratory of Apa Canal Orhei. We recommend improving the
accuracy of the equipment and wider the analyses done.

Measures such as determining the damage caused to the environment will be taken if any
potential incidents or illegal discharge is found during regular inspection and maintenance.
Standby equipment and pipes will be installed to reduce the risk of accidental overflow. An
emergency tank will be arranged for wastewater storage while leakage or spill occurs. The
WWTP will be strictly monitored to ensure the enforcement of wastewater discharge standards.
Emergency response plan for accidental wastewater overflows or spills will be also prepared.

Potential spills and leakage of fuel, lubricants, solvents, and other pollutants related to vehicle
and equipment fuelling, maintenance, and cleaning may also cause serious water and soil
pollution.

The following mitigation measures for reducing such risks will be implemented:

          all vehicles and equipment that regularly enter and leave the construction sites will be
           cleaned off-site;
          vehicle and equipment washing areas will be properly identified by signs and located
           away from drainage facilities and watercourses (those areas will be paved with concrete
           and will be equipped with ponds to collect and dispose the washing water);
          appropriate supervision, management and proper maintenance will be provided to the
           sewer pipes.

An operation and maintenance manual for equipment will be provided by the suppliers. The
equipment operators and plant manager will be trained in operational safety, maintenance of the
facilities, emergency procedures and contingency plans will be prepared. Periodic training and

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


practice sessions in safe operating procedures will be held after the plant starts operating.
Protection equipment such as gas masks and breathing apparatuses will be provided for workers.
Environmental emergency response plan will be activated in case of accidents.

The power failure and mechanical breakdown will directly, short-time affect the operation of the
WWTP, but not critically. It is recommended that dual-power supply lines should be equipped
for important facilities, proper operation and maintenance plan should be established, and
emergency response plan will be prepared to minimize the influence of the power and
mechanical failure. The operators should store a generator and enough diesel oil for power
failure.

Constructed Wetland WWTP operation requirements
 The wetland site will be surrounded by vegetation. Insects can be a significant problem
especially in summer if the water will be on top. The insects, such mosquito will cause diseases
and are harmful to neighboring people (Orhei, Mitoc, Seliste, Isacova).

To control the insects through design of the wetland is the first effective step. Such as the
subsurface-flow wetland has much less suitable area for mosquito habitat, to construct the
wetland without an open water layer will be helpful for the insect control.

Mosquito population can also be controlled through various O&M methods (keeping annual
vegetation maintenance such as clear dead vegetation, reducing the accumulation in the pools of
shallow stagnant water, and using ecological friendly insecticide or larvicides) and maintenance
of a balanced ecosystem in a not far from Raut river (fish, birds, frogs, and bats will be used to
prey on mosquitoes and their larvae). The use of insecticides can quickly control mosquito
breeding, but is not recommended as a long term strategy due to potential issues with insecticide
resistance, long term cost of maintaining a mosquito control program and the possibility of the
insecticide applications not being able to target all areas of breeding.

Constructed wetland will be monitored by Orhei Apa Canal laboratory periodically to identify
changes in wetland quality or functions. To avoid the eutrophication, the measures will be taken
are:
      monitoring the nitrogen and phosphorus of the effluents, keep the phosphorus level below
       0.08 mg/L in the pond (USEPA’s 2000 Design Manual),
      monitoring the density of the algae and controlling the algae at an acceptable level,
      keeping organic loading rate acceptable to avoid organic overloading of the gravel bed
       with soluble organic matter in the wastewater.

If the eutrophication would take place in the wetland, it is recommended to:
      dilute the eutrophication with more water at higher water velocity or take hand-salvage
        measures when the degree and scope of eutrophication is relatively smaller, and
      use flocculation, filtration, algaecide, and precipitation process. It is essential to use the
        precautionary measures such as employing stirring devices or aeration device in shallow
        and transparent water to accelerate the flow speed of the water when the eutrophication is
        serious.

g. Management of Vegetation
Vegetation is one of the important biological factors in ecological rehabilitation technologies. It
has irreplaceable function in landscape and serves as one of the most important biological
carriers for the reconstruction of the aquatic ecosystems. The long-term performance of
constructed wetland is associated with the density and diversity of the vegetation. Thus, it is
important to keep the vegetation under an appropriate density. Moreover, keeping the diversity

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


of the plant biomass and plant species is vital for the maintenance of ecological function and
water quality of the wetland. Excessive growth of monoculture will cause serious disease or
insect outbreaks. Local indigenous species will be planted in the wetland at the beginning of the
construction phase of the wetland to prevent the invasion of the exotic species and to ensure that
plants are adapted to local environmental conditions. An annual vegetation harvest in summer
appears to be the optimal solution.

In winter period the aerial part of the plants from constructed wetlands has to be mowed and left
in place for a blanket to ensure that excessive freezing of the substrate that provides water
treatment. On spring gather these dead plants and rubbish shall be collected and deposited on
authorized landfill of Orhei. In some cases this can be used as biomass for heating needs or
composts but after treatment and prior permission from environmental authorities. It is forbidden
burning on the territory of WWTP or use as animal feed.

h. Sediments Dredging
After a period of operation, is projected after approximately 10 years there may be sediments
settled in the wetland cell.

These sediments may decrease the flow speed of the water and reduce the efficiency of the
constructed wetland. Dredging would be a choice to remove these sediments. However it might
cause secondary pollution to the water quality due to the re-suspension of the contaminants. Rate
of pollutant release will be considered in deciding whether to go forward on dredging. The
removal rate of phosphorus will be tested and analyzed to determine the scope of environmental
dredging. Environmental dredging methods will be adopted and special environmental-friendly
dredge will be employed. It is recommended to remove accumulated sediment in the pit of the
wetland about every 5-7 years or when the accumulated sediment volume exceeds 10 percent of
the volume of the wetland cell.

In addition, maintenance will be performed regularly to remove accumulated trash and debris in
the wetland cell at the end of could season. The frequency of this activity may be altered to meet
specific site conditions and aesthetic considerations.

i. Soil Erosion
During operation of the wetland, soil erosion would result from neglected maintenance in
erosion-prone areas or the failure to maintain landscaping. To minimize this impact, regular
inspections will be undertaken to ensure that the drainage structures. The riverbank will be well
maintained and stabilized all the time.

As part of the river bank, the retaining wall will be checked regularly against any shift in
position and collapse, especially in the peak natural disaster season on summer. The local
authorities, Commission for Emergency Situations and environmental authorities will undertake
regular monitoring of erosion prevention and control measures during the operation phase. A
maintenance ramp will be included in the design to facilitate access to the site for maintenance
activities and for surveillance and control. The most sensitive place is near Mitoc village.

j. Soil Salinity
The high salinity will have impacts on the living condition of the wildlife. The fresh plants and
purifying bacteria cannot survive under salinity environment.

It is expected no high salinity will be discharged into the effluent.

k.    Public Health and Safety

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


Before discharging into the Raut River, the treated wastewater will be disinfected using chlorine
components. In discussions with the chief engineer of the Apa-Canal Orhei treated water from
WWTP will be disinfected with chlorine output, these are the requirements of health authorities.

Germs, virus and bacteria will be removed from effluents of the WWTP. After the wetland Raut
river is long enough so that the water will be exposed under the direct sunlight for quite a long
time. It also contributes to the removal of virus and control of contagious diseases. Thus the
water quality is safe for public access.

To protect the public safety, the access controls (appropriate safety warning signs) and safety
facilities (bridges, fencing, etc) will be employed. Advisory and interpretive signage will be
installed in consultation with the authority that will be responsible for the management of the
wetland system. The edge of any deep open water will be free from obstruction by waterfront or
plants unless measures precluding access are incorporated. All boardwalk, rocky path, and
bridges will have railings in accordance with design codes and satisfy inundation and safety
criteria. Specialized access for facility maintenances will be closed for the public.

To ensure the successful and sustainable operation of the wetland system, a maintenance plan
will be prepared by the developer during the detailed design phase that will clearly identify all
maintenance tasks and frequency, and allocates maintenance responsibilities to the relevant
authority.

Overall Conclusion and Recommendations

The Project will generate great socio-economic benefits due to the improvement of the
environment conditions on Raut River water flow area to support the sustainable urban
development. The overall findings of the domestic EIAs are that negative impacts on air, water,
and acoustic environment are expected, especially during construction. The most recent data on
Raut River water quality can be found in Annex 3.

However, in general these impacts will be temporary and localized. The proposed measures will
be implemented to mitigate the negative impacts. These measures will also be updated in the
EMPs during the design stage and continuously refined during construction. The EMPs will be
implemented by the Apa Canal Orhei and Contractor; monitored and supervised by Construction
Supervision Company; and regularly reported to PIU.

Any adverse environmental impacts associated with the Project will be prevented, eliminated, or
minimized to an acceptable level if the EMPs proposed under the EIAs are effectively
implemented, particularly through the mechanism for the continuous refinement and effective
implementation of the environmental mitigation measures.

5.2 Social impacts
Purpose of constructed wetlands WWTP and social aspects
A major goal of the proposed CW WWTP is to develop design, construction and operational
criteria for future multipurpose constructed wetlands for environmental enhancement and water
treatment. Some of the wetland-treated water will be utilized indirectly for agricultural and other
irrigation purposes after discharge in Raut River;

The objectives of the wetland treatment are (a) use of constructed wetlands as an alternative to
conventional treatment, (b) feasibility of using constructed wetland systems for wastewater
treatment, recharge, recovery and reuse operations, and (c) environmental value of the proposed

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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


wetlands as a pilot project and best practice, as well as public health and social aspects of the
wetland treatment systems.

Public education is also a very important aspect of the wetlands demonstration project. Public
use is encouraged through access roads and a viewing area which will be partially hidden from
certain areas to minimize disturbance of waterfowl.

Risk, Trust and Fairness
Effective implementation of constructed wetland WWTP options requires public acceptance and
approval and satisfaction of levels of risk.

A voluntary negotiated risk is usually more socially acceptable than an involuntarily imposed or
encountered risk.

Risk can be viewed in terms of attributes of familiarity, visibility, controllability and fairness and
can be socially influenced. Normative influences of peers and/or family, a sense of place or
territory, the conspicuous nature of environmental problems and levels of trust in sources of
news are all important in determining acceptable levels of water resource risk Public viewpoints
on risk are complex and subject to influence by credibility and trust in institutions providing
information about wastewater management risks.

Community opinions are also influenced by how people feel about issues. Where associated risk
is low and people favors an activity, the benefits are deemed to be high. Conversely, unfavorable
attitudes incur greater estimates of risk and lower perceived benefits (CEC 2000). Risk is also
evaluated as more acceptable when directly controlled by themselves, rather than risks controlled
by others. People use their ‘outrage factors’ (social and moral values) to evaluate perceived risks
particularly when risks are ill-defined and unfamiliar.

Public health
It is assumed that the negative health impacts from neighboring villages will not occur. We say
this because the experience of these types of projects abroad, in countries with climates similar
of Moldova. We believe that water purified in this way can significantly reduce the risk of ill
health.

Safety and security
WWTP construction and operation will not create problems of security and public safety.
WWTP operation that will contain fewer parts will be on the safe and environmentally friendly.

Truck traffic
Significant impacts on traffic growth can be during WWTP construction. These impacts are
temporary and reversible.

Noise, dust and Vibrations
Some impacts will be short-lived but during the construction. In addition, most appropriate
inhabited area is approx. 1 km form WWTP.

Appearance
On the largest area WWTP will look like a green area that will give great looking and will fit the
local landscape.

Agricultural land


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Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


It will not be influential on neighboring agricultural land during the operation. Some dust
pollution can be recorded during construction.

Jobs
The construction of WWTP will create new jobs for people who will participate in construction.
The station operation may be needed fewer workers than the current treatment plant which may
require the passage of persons servicing wastewater networks or even dismissal.

Construction of new WWTP station will give the possibility to neighboring villages to be
connected to the sewage system which will increase environmental quality in these communities
and can create new jobs in those villages, related with sewage network management.

Involuntary Resettlement
Based on preliminary estimates, the allocated 5ha of land is not sufficient to ensure long-term
functioning of the Constructed Wetland WWTP. Therefore additional 10 ha of land will have to
be acquired near the existing plant primarily to extend the plant.
Presently, the Orhei Apa Canal initiated discussions with land owners and evaluates the
possibilities to acquire the necessary land for WWTP extension.

A Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF) will have to be prepared to guide mitigation and
entitlement assessment. The RPF must be consistent with the international best practices and
resettlement requirements of the World Bank, OP 4.12. If the RPF determines that fewer than
200 people will be subject to physical or economic displacement or if all affected parties are
expected to lose less than 10 percent of their productive assets, an abbreviated Resettlement
Action Plan as described in Annex A of OP 4.12 may be developed in lieu of a full Resettlement
Action Plan.

A fundamental requirement of resettlement activities based on OP 4.12 is to restore, at least,
standards of living and preferably improve the livelihoods of those households, families,
extended families and individuals who are losing land, assets or access to resources due to the
implementation of a project. Compensation for lost assets can be monetary, in-kind (e.g., new
land, housing and social infrastructure, work places or other replacement for lost assets) or a
combination of both. Several additional important principles of resettlement activities based on
OP 4.12 relate to consultation and the form of compensation payments. Project-affected persons
(PAPs) are to be: (i) informed about their options and rights pertaining to resettlement; (ii)
consulted on, offered choices among, and provided with technically and economically feasible
resettlement alternatives; and (iii) provided prompt and effective compensation at full
replacement cost for losses of assets attributable directly to the project. When land taken is the
primary source of income and livelihood, PAPs should be provided with land (“land for land”)
for which a combination of productive potential, location advantages, and other factors is at least
equivalent to the advantages of the land taken. In some situations, moving assistance or
allowances and compensation for lost income during the move and the cost of re-establishing a
livelihood (for example, at a new work place or prior to planting a new crop) will be provided.
By developing a Resettlement Action Plan (RAP) consistent with WB OP 4.12, the entire
compensation package as applicable to the various situations of PAPs shall be described. The
RAP should also propose a grievance process that includes informal as well as formal or
administrative measures to deal with disputes when they arise. The RAP will also include a
detailed budget and description of the particular mechanisms for any monetary compensation.

A preliminary screening to identify the number of Project Affected Persons was done during this
EA. As it can be observed from Figure 11, approximately 35 land owners will be affected
according to the records from the National Fund for Geospatial Data of the Cadastre and Land

Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                 46
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project


Relations Agency of Moldova. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable development of Orhei
city and adjacent localities, it is recommended to assess different options and acquire the
necessary land for extension of the CWTP.




      Individual land parcel
      representing one
      legal owner (holder
      of a land title)




                                                                         Additional land for the
                                                                         long term scenario (10
                                                                         ha in total)



                                                                                  Selected site for CWTP
                                                                                           (5ha)




Figure 11. Potential land acquisitions under the long term scenario




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                            47
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




6 Environmental Management Plan
6.1 Summary of key environmental and social impacts

The potential negative impacts during construction phase are of short-term magnitude and with
proper mitigation measures these impacts can be minimized to insignificant levels. The potential
environmental risks during operation of the WWTP based on Constructed Wetland technology
might occur during accidental spills and leakage of wastewater that may cause serious surface
and ground water pollution and the river that receive the effluent of the WWTP. Automated flow
meter and water quality monitoring system will be ideal to be installed. However, the regularly
basic tests will be done by the existing laboratory of Apa-Canal Orhei. Specific measures should
be taken if any potential incidents or illegal discharge is found during regular inspection and
maintenance.

Table 1: Key environmental and social impacts
           Environmental impacts                                                      Social impacts
    Water Quality                                                          Public health
    Air Quality                                                            Safety and security
    Noise                                                                  Truck traffic
    Soil Quality                                                           Noise, dust and Vibrations
    Ecosystem                                                              Landscape Appearance
    Solid Wastes                                                           Agricultural land
    Construction Traffic                                                   Jobs
    Public Health and Safety                                               Involuntary Resettlement
    Cultural properties



Prediction of the potential adverse environmental and social impacts arising from development
interventions is at the technical heart of the environmental impact assessment (EA) process. An
equally essential element of this process is to develop measures to eliminate, offset, or reduce
impacts to acceptable levels during implementation and operation of projects. The integration of
such measures into project implementation and operation is supported by clearly defining the
environmental requirements within an environmental management plan (EMP).
EMP provides an essential link between the impacts predicted and mitigation measures specified
within the EA report, and implementation and operational activities. They outline the anticipated
environmental impacts of projects, the measures to be undertaken to mitigate these impacts,
responsibilities for mitigation, timescales, costs of mitigation, and sources of funding.
Environmental management plan (EMP) outlines the mitigation, monitoring, and institutional
measures to be taken during project implementation and operation to avoid or control adverse
environmental impacts, and the actions needed to implement these measures. They provide a
crucial link between alternative mitigation measures evaluated and described within the EIA
report, and ensuring that such measures are implemented. EIA reports are essentially planning
documents with no legal basis. In many cases, mitigation measures outlined in EIAs are
described in illustrative terms, or have neither been committed to by the borrower nor reflected
in the project design. In this regard, the EMP is a basis for negotiation and reaching agreement
with borrowers on a project’s key social and environmental performance standards.
Next chapters give more details on key aspects of the EMP designed for construction of a new
WWTP based on Constructed Wetland technology.

Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                           48
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




6.2 Mitigation plan

                                                                                   Environmental Mitigation Plan

     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                      Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                            probability of
                                                                                                                        Cost           Institutional Responsibility                         Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                             Mitigating                                                                                    occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                 Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                               Oper
                                                                                                               Install                     Install        Operate
                                                                                                                                ate


                                                                               WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLAN
                                                                                                                                      Local
                                                         Selection of optimal location of WWTFs and                                                                                     The     wastewater
                                                                                                            To be                     authorities   ,
                                                         routs   for    accession    roads,   electricity                      N/A                      N/A           Significant       pipes has to pass
                                                                                                            determined                Apa       Canal
                                                         transmission lines and wastewater pipes                                                                                        thru Raut river bed
                                                                                                                                      Orhei
                        Permanent or temporary
                                                         Use proper temporary storage of construction       To be                                                     Moderate-
 P-C                    withdrawal of land sites                                                                               N/A    Contractor        N/A
                                                         materials                                          determined                                                Possible
                                                                                                                                      Local                                             In     case       of
                                                         Ensure a sufficient land for extension of          To be                     authorities   ,                                   connection        of
                                                                                                                               N/A                      N/A           Significant
                                                         constructed wetlands                               determined                Apa       Canal                                   adjacent villages to
                                                                                                                                      Orhei                                             this WWTP


                                                         Safe working procedures to be written and                                                                    Moderate-
                                                                                                            Bill of Q          N/A    Contractor        N/A
                                                         followed by contractor                                                                                       Possible
                        Injury    to   contractor’s
 C                      workers and other persons        Working areas to be temporarily out of bounds      To be                                                     Moderate-
                                                                                                                               N/A    Contractor        N/A
                        during works                     to non-works                                       determined                                                Possible
                                                         Special equipment and clothing corresponding                                                                 Moderate-
                                                                                                            Bill of Q          N/A    Contractor        N/A
                                                         to type of work to be assured                                                                                Possible


                                                         All waste material to be stored in a secure,       To be                                       Apa Canal     Moderate-
                        Injury to contractors workers    designated area prior to removal to a                                 N/A    Contractor
                                                                                                            determined                                  Orhei         Possible
 C , O, D               and others from unsafe           designated waste landfill site
                        storage of waste                 No easy flammable waste will be stored             To be                                       Apa Canal
                                                                                                                               N/A    Contractor                      Significant
                                                         on/near site                                       determined                                  Orhei




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                       49
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                       Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                             probability of
                                                                                                                         Cost           Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                              Mitigating                                                                                    occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                  Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                                Oper
                                                                                                                Install                     Install       Operate
                                                                                                                                 ate
                                                                                                             To be                                      Apa Canal      Moderate-
                                                         Waste to be disposed of at a designated waste                          N/A    Contractor
                                                                                                             determined                                 Orhei          Possible
                        Pollution (visual and other)     landfill site.
 C , O, D               caused       by     improper                                                         To be                                      Apa Canal
                        disposal of waste materials      Recycling of materials will be allowed if is case                      N/A    Contractor                      Minimal
                                                                                                             determined                                 Orhei
                                                         Workers will be instructed regarding waste          To be                                      Apa Canal      Moderate-
                                                                                                                                N/A    Contractor
                                                         management procedures                               determined                                 Orhei          Possible

                                                                                                                                       Contractor,
                        Destroying      of       state   Use construction materials just from authorized                               Construction     Not            Moderate-
 C                                                                                                           N/A                N/A
                        protected areas                  quarrying of sand, clay, gravel                                               supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                                                                                                       company
                        Soil, surface      water, air
                                                         Cover the trucks transporting the fine materials                                               Not            Moderate-
 C, D                   pollution with     transported                                                       N/A                N/A    Contractor
                                                         or waste                                                                                       applicable     Possible
                        materials

                                                                                                                                       Contractor,
                                                         Separation of topsoil and subsoil during
                                                                                                                                       Construction     Not            Moderate-
 C                                                       excavation works, with careful replacement of       Bill of Q          N/A
                                                                                                                                       supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                         topsoil after pipe is laid
                                                                                                                                       company
                                                                                                                                       Contractor,
                        Loss of topsoil leading to                                                                                     Construction     Not            Moderate-
                                                         No long time storage of topsoil will be allowed     N/A                N/A
                        increased soil erosion                                                                                         supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                                                                                                       company
                                                                                                                                       Contractor,
                                                         Avoid topsoil erosion from temporary storage,
                                                                                                                                       Construction     Not            Moderate-
                                                         to insure measures against overflow in case of      N/A                N/A
                                                                                                                                       supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                         heavy rainfall
                                                                                                                                       company

                                                                                                                                       Contractor,
                                                                                                                                       Construction     Not            Moderate-
 C, D                                                    Daily checks of machinery for leaking oil           N/A                N/A
                                                                                                                                       supervision      applicable     Possible
                        Oil pollution of soil and                                                                                      company
                        water at construction site                                                                                     Contractor,
                                                                                                                                       Construction     Not            Moderate-
                                                         No washing of machinery at construction site        N/A                N/A
                                                                                                                                       supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                                                                                                       company



Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                        50
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                      Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                            probability of
                                                                                                                        Cost           Institutional Responsibility                        Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                             Mitigating                                                                                    occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                 Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                               Oper
                                                                                                               Install                     Install       Operate
                                                                                                                                ate
                                                                                                                                      Contractor,
                                                         Works performed strictly       during    normal                              Construction     Not            Moderate-
 C, D                   Noise pollution on site                                                             Bill of Q          N/A
                                                         weekday working hours                                                        supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                                                                                                      company

                                                                                                                                      Contractor,
                                                         Works performed strictly       during    normal                              Construction     Not                              To far from any
                                                                                                            Bill of Q          N/A                                    Minimal
                                                         weekday working hours                                                        supervision      applicable                       settlements
                        Noise pollution on adjacent
                                                                                                                                      company
 C, D                   localities
                                                                                                                                      Contractor,
                                                                                                                                      Construction     Not            Moderate-
                                                         No explosion materials has to be used                                 N/A
                                                                                                                                      supervision      applicable     Possible
                                                                                                                                      company
                                                                                                                                      Contractor,
                                                         Minimize dust and traffic emissions by good                                  Construction     Not            Moderate-
                                                                                                                               N/A
                                                         operation management and site supervision                                    supervision      applicable     Possible
                        Temporary      air   pollution
                                                                                                                                      company
                        (CO2, NOx, dust etc.) from
 C, D
                        construction     works    and
                        increased traffic                Apply dist suppression measures (water                                                        Not
                                                                                                            Bill of Q          N/A    Contractor                      Significant
                                                         sprinkling), especially during long dry periods                                               applicable



                        Pollution and damages of
                                                         Construction of fence / safety dam in the valley                                              Not
 C                      the construction site in case                                                       Bill of Q          N/A    Contractor                      Significant
                                                         of river to prevent flooding                                                                  applicable
                        of valley river flooding.

                                                                                                                                      Contractor,
                                                         If any archaeological artifacts are found, work
                        Archaeological         “chance                                                      To       be               Construction     Not
 C                                                       must stop immediately and the respective local                        N/A                                    Significant
                        finds”                                                                              determined                supervision      applicable
                                                         authorities and experts informed
                                                                                                                                      company




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                       51
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                 Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                       probability of
                                                                                                                  Cost            Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                             Mitigating                                                                               occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                 Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                         Oper
                                                                                                             Install                  Install        Operate
                                                                                                                           ate
                                                                                                                         Cost
                                                                                                                         estim
                                                                                                           Cost          ates
                                                         Selection of suitable technology for wastewater   estimates     by      Apa       Canal    Apa Canal
                                                                                                                                                                 Significant
                                                         treatment and adherence to this technology        by Design     Desig   Orhei              Orhei
                                                                                                           company       n
                                                                                                                         comp
                                                                                                                         any
                                                                                                                         Cost
                        Pollution of ground and                                                                          estim
                        surface      waters      from                                                                    ates
                        accidental    discharge     of   Ensure that industries discharge to the           To       be   by      Apa       Canal    Apa Canal
 O                                                       municipal sewerage properly pre-treated                                                                 Significant
                        unsatisfactory        treated                                                      determined    Desig   Orhei              Orhei
                        effluent from wastewater         sewage only                                                     n
                        treatment facilities                                                                             comp
                                                                                                                         any
                                                                                                                         Cost
                                                                                                                         estim
                                                                                                           Cost          ates
                                                         Ensure proper monitoring          systems    of   estimates     by      Apa       Canal    Apa Canal
                                                                                                                                                                 Significant
                                                         discharges and treated effluent                   by Design     Desig   Orhei              Orhei
                                                                                                           company       n
                                                                                                                         comp
                                                                                                                         any

                                                                                                                         Cost                       Apa Canal
                                                                                                                         estim                      Orhei
                                                                                                           Cost          ates    Design
                        Pollution of soil and ground     Construction of sludge processing unit (sludge
                                                                                                           estimates     by      company        ,                Moderate-
 O, D                   water      from     improper     digesters, de-watering equipment), when
                                                                                                           by Design     Desig   Contractor,                     Possible
                        handling of sludge               practicable
                                                                                                           company       n       PIU
                                                                                                                         comp
                                                                                                                         any




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                  52
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                       Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                             probability of
                                                                                                                       Cost             Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                             Mitigating                                                                                     occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                 Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                              Oper
                                                                                                              Install                       Install        Operate
                                                                                                                                ate
                                                                                                                              Cost                        Apa Canal
                                                                                                                              estim                       Orhei
                                                                                                                              ates     Design
                                                                                                                              by       company        ,
                                                         Development of a Sludge Management Plan           Bill of Q                                                   Important
                                                                                                                              Desig    Contractor,
                                                                                                                              n        PIU
                                                                                                                              comp
                                                                                                                              any
                                                                                                                              Cost                        Apa Canal
                                                                                                                              estim    Design             Orhei
                                                                                                           Cost               ates     company      ,
                                                         Sludge to be stored in a secure, designated
                                                                                                           estimates          by       Contractor,
                                                         area prior to removal to a designated waste                                                                   Significant
                                                                                                           by Design          Desig    construction
                                                         landfill site
                                                                                                           company            n        supervision
                                                                                                                              comp     PIU
                                                                                                                              any
                                                                                                                                       Design             Apa Canal
                                                                                                                              To be    company       ,    Orhei
                                                         Sludge to be disposed of at a designated waste    To       be        deter    Contractor,
                                                                                                                                                                       Significant
                                                         landfill site                                     determined         mine     constucruction
                                                                                                                              d        supervision,
                                                                                                                                       PIU
                                                                                                                              To be                       Apa Canal
                                                         Reuse sludge as fertilizer in agriculture,
                                                                                                           To       be        deter                       Orhei        Moderate-
                                                         forestry etc. Only sludge that meets respective
                                                                                                           determined         mine                                     Possible
                                                         safety standards can be reused
                                                                                                                              d
                                                                                                                              Appr                        Apa Canal
                                                                                                                                       Consulting
                                                                                                           Approximat         oxim                        Orhei
                                                                                                                                       company / ISO
                                                         ISO 14001 standards to be implemented             ely 10 th          ately
                                                                                                                                       certifying
                                                                                                           usd                2-3 th
                                                                                                                                       company
                                                                                                                              usd
                    WASTE WATER NETWORKS THAT NEED TO BE REDIRECTED TO THE NEW WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                        53
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                   Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                         probability of
                                                                                                                     Cost           Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                               Mitigating                                                                               occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                   Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                            Oper
                                                                                                                Install                 Install        Operate
                                                                                                                             ate
                                                                                                                                   Contractor,        Apa Canal
                                                                                                                                   State Sanitary     Orhei
                                                          Repair and maintenance of construction
                                                                                                                                   Inspection,
                        Pollution by waste gas from       machinery and transport vehicles will be
                                                                                                              To       be          Raional
 C                      construction machinery and        strengthened at normal time; traffic control will                 N/A                                    Significant
                                                                                                              determined           Ecological
                        transport vehicles                be properly done to avoid traffic jam and
                                                                                                                                   Inspection,
                                                          reduce gas emission
                                                                                                                                   Road       Orhei
                                                                                                                                   authority
                                                          Control construction methods         and   used                   N/A                       Apa Canal
                                                                                                                                   State Sanitary
                                                          machinery and equipment                                                                     Orhei
                                                                                                                                   Inspection,
                        Noise pollution/ vibrations                                                                                Raional
                                                          Careful timing of works in residential areas)/
                        from hauling tracks/ moving                                                           To       be          Ecological
 C                                                        restrict construction to certain hours                                                                   Significant
                        vehicles    and      working                                                          determined           Inspection,
                        equipment                                                                                                  Road       Orhei
                                                          To avoid loud beep signals in settlements/ to
                                                                                                                                   authority, Road
                                                          minimize disturbance to residents
                                                                                                                                   Police
                        Littering of territory adjacent                                                                     N/A                       Apa Canal
                                                          To plan carefully construction works to
                        / road                                                                                                                        Orhei
                                                          minimize impact on flora, fauna, habitats/
                        damage to landscape due to                                                            To       be
 C                                                        careful sitting, alignment, design of associated                         Contractor,                     Significant
                        waste        &       excavated                                                        determined
                                                          infrastructure to minimize impacts
                        materials            disposals/
                        stockpiling of materials
                                                          To plan carefully construction works to                           N/A                       Apa Canal
                        Rehabilitation           and      minimize impact on flora, fauna, habitats/                                                  Orhei
                        construction     works   will     careful sitting, alignment, design of associated
                        possibly result in removal or     infrastructure to minimize impacts                  To       be                                          Moderate-
 C                                                                                                                                 Contractor,
                        relocation of trees and                                                               determined                                           Possible
                        vegetation along or within        Replanting trees       and    vegetation    after
                        the construction sites.           rehabilitation




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                    54
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                      probability of
                                                                                                                  Cost           Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                             Mitigating                                                                              occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                 Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                         Oper
                                                                                                             Install                 Install        Operate
                                                                                                                          ate
                        Human health /                             To train personnel on occupational                   N/A                       Apa Canal
                        settlements                      safety and measures towards compliance with                                               Orhei
                                                         occupational safety requirements
                                                                   Appropriately experienced
                                                         contractor, good supervision, careful planning                         Contractor,
                                                         and scheduling of work activities                                      constucruction
                                                                   Excavated potholes should be either                         supervision,
                                                         covered with crushed stone or sand or fenced if                        PIU
                                                         they are going to be left opened over night       To       be                                          Moderate-
 C
                                                                   Avoid working during unfavorable       determined           Raional                         Possible
                                                         weather conditions to minimize risk of                                 Ecological
                                                         accidents/ bitumen should not be applied                               Inspection,
                                                         during strong winds or heavy rains                                     Road       Orhei
                                                                                                                                authority
                                                         To ensure accident prevention for population
                                                         in residential areas/ to plan carefully
                                                         construction works to minimize impact on local
                                                         residents
                        Health impact on workers                   Incorporation of safety and                                 Contractor,        Apa Canal
                        due to work with hazardous       environmental requirements in contract                                 constucruction     Orhei
                        materials                        documents/ providing of workers with uniforms,                         supervision,
                                                         glasses, gloves, etc.                                                  PIU
                                                                                                           To       be                                          Moderate-
 C                                                                 Foreseeing compensations in case                     N/A    Raional
                                                                                                           determined                                           Possible
                                                         of health damage                                                       Ecological
                                                                   Fencing of dangerous areas                                  Inspection,
                                                         (stockpiling of hazardous materials)                                   Road       Orhei
                                                                                                                                authority




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                 55
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                   Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                         probability of
                                                                                                                     Cost           Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                              Mitigating                                                                                occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                  Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                            Oper
                                                                                                                Install                 Install       Operate
                                                                                                                             ate
                        Fire and explosion hazards                 Incorporation of safety and                             N/A                     Apa Canal
                        due to accidents during          environmental requirements in contract                                                     Orhei
                        works                            documents/ providing of workers with uniforms,
                                                         glasses, gloves, etc.
                                                                   Foreseeing compensations in case
                                                                                                                                   Contractor,
                                                         of health damage
                                                                                                                                   constucruction
                                                                   Fencing of dangerous areas
                                                                                                              To       be          supervision,                    Moderate-
                                                         (stockpiling of hazardous materials)
                                                                                                              determined           PIU,                            Possible
                                                                   To train personnel on occupational
                                                         safety and measures towards compliance with                               FireService
                                                         occupational safety requirements
                                                                   Appropriately experienced
                                                         contractor, good supervision, careful planning
                                                         and scheduling of work activities

                        Impact     of      accidental    Emergency measures for specific accidents will                     N/A                     Apa Canal
                        discharge of pollutant           be worked out, so that control and solution can                                            Orhei
                                                         be done promptly in case of an accident;
                                                                                                                                   Contractor,
                                                         In case of an accident, the cause will be found                           constucruction
                                                         out as soon as possible, to organize prompt                               supervision,
                                                         repair and to solve the problem in the shortest                           PIU
                                                                                                              To       be                                          Moderate-
                                                         possible time, to prevent spreading of pollution.                         State Sanitary
                                                                                                              determined                                           Possible
                                                                                                                                   Inspection,
                                                         To prevent leaks/spills during transportation/                            Raional
                                                         loading-unloading of waste materials and                                  Ecological
                                                         waste water                                                               Inspection

                                                         To plan carefully construction          works   to
                                                         minimize air / water / soil pollution




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                    56
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




     Phase :
 Pre-construction                                                                                                                                                 Significance &
      – P-C                                                                                                                                                       probability of
                                                                                                                   Cost           Institutional Responsibility                     Comment
 Construction - C               Environmental                             Mitigating                                                                               occurrence
  Operation – O                    Impact                                 Measure(s)
 Decommissioning
       -D
                                                                                                                          Oper
                                                                                                              Install                 Install       Operate
                                                                                                                           ate
                        Complying with the technical     To be certain that the project implementation is                                         Apa Canal
                        design     documents      and    complying with the technical design documents                                            Orhei
                        effective construction norms     and effective construction norms.

                                                         Verify if:
                                                                                                                                 Contractor,
                                                                                                                                 constucruction
                                                         Appropriate human health and worker safety
                                                                                                                                 supervision,
                                                         measures during construction are developed
                                                                                                                                 PIU
                                                         and implemented by the construction company,
                                                                                                            To       be
                                                         which will be responsible for these measures;                    N/A                                    Significant
                                                                                                            determined           State Sanitary
                                                         The documents prepared for specific works by                            Inspection,
                                                         the construction company are correct;                                   Raional
                                                                                                                                 Ecological
                                                         The reconstruction works are conducted in                               Inspection,
                                                         accordance with construction norms and
                                                         according to construction technologies;
                                                         construction timetables and traffic diversion
                                                         schedules at the project site are posted




Environmental Impact Assessment                                                                                                  57
Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant using Constructed Wetland technology
National Water Supply and Sanitation Project




6.3 Monitoring plan
In order to ensure efficient implementation of the mitigation measures proposed, including the
respect of environmental obligations during the construction stage, a program of monitoring
activities will be required, which includes two major types of monitoring:
     compliance monitoring - the general environmental monitoring of construction and
         operation site and activities;
     impact monitoring - the specific monitoring of water and air quality, noise, WWTPs’
         effluent and sludge generated.

The monitoring will be conducted by respective authorities and beneficiary during the
construction and operation stages.

It should be noted that this monitoring plan is general, for the whole project, and it is expected
that more detailed monitoring plans will be developed for specific interventions, following
detailed project planning.

Compliance monitoring
  - The compliance monitoring for the construction and operation stages is presented in
      tabular form below. It should be noted that:
  - State Labor Inspection is responsible for the issues related to occupational safety and
      health.
  - State Construction Inspectorate is responsible for overall supervision of construction
      works.
  - Ministry of Culture is responsible for cultural issues, including handling of
      archaeological sites and finds; and
  - Raional environmental authorities are responsible for environmental supervision.

Inspections of construction sites are among the duties of these authorities’ staff and are covered
form their budgets.

Impact monitoring
This section specifies general requirements for monitoring of water and air quality, noise,
WWTPs’ effluent and sludge from sedimentation tanks.

Impact monitoring: water quality
It is expected that the project will have beneficial effect on the water quality from improved
wastewater treatment. However, accidental discharges of unsatisfactory treated sewage can
pollute ground and surface water. To avoid pollution and ensure prompt and efficient response in
case such pollution occurs, effluent from a WWTP should be constantly monitored, along with
the water quality of receiving water bodies.

Sampling points should be established at (i) the treated effluent discharge point from a WWTP,
(ii) downstream and upstream of the receiving river (iii) in case effluent is discharged into a
canal before reaching a river or lake, the canal water quality should also be monitored.

Impact monitoring: air quality and noise
Monitoring of air quality and noise will be maintained throughout the construction stage of the
project. Purpose of monitoring is to ensure that air pollution, dust, NOx and CO, and noise
standards are respected on the construction sites and that these nuisances are kept at the
minimum acceptable level for the surrounding residents.

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In order to reduce the impacts of construction noise on adjacent residents, should not be allowed
to operate during the period from 10 PM to 6 AM next morning. In addition, it is required that
equipment with low noise outputs is used. If it comes necessary, for construction purposes, to
work occasionally at night, causing a noise nuisance to local residents, it is required i) to use
noise-reduction measures ii) to limit as much as possible the duration of the nuisance and iii) to
provide information on location, date and expected duration of the nuisance, in advance to the
concerned population using posters and local medias (radios, newspapers).

The air quality monitoring will be the duty of the local environmental and sanitary authorities
and will be covered from the authorities’ budget if not otherwise stipulated in the budget of
WWTP constructions.

Impact monitoring: sewage sediments
The sewage sediments monitoring will be conducted by a WWTP’ operator, with control
sampling done by the Raional environmental inspection. The sediments monitoring will paid for
from the WWTP’s and environmental authorities’ budgets respectively.

The purpose of this monitoring will be: (i) to enable the operator to control the operation of the
wastewater treatment process, particularly with regard to sediments from Imhoff tank, before
treatment; (ii) to provide information concerning the composition of sediments and/or its
toxicity to identify and control the was the sediments is disposed of.

The price for the laboratory analyses for a sample differs but can be calculated depending on the
number of parameters and samples. It is expected an average price for monitoring to be
approximately 500 lei (average. 40$)




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                                                                                   Environmental Monitoring Plan

                                                                                                          Why is the                     Cost                    Institutional Responsibility
                                                    Where will the       How will the   When will the
                    What parameter is to be                                                               parameter
   Phase                                            parameter be         parameter be   parameter be
                         monitored?                                                                         being             Install           Operate            Install         Operate
                                                     monitored?           monitored?     monitored?
                                                                                                          monitored?
                   Water quality of the Raut river - Water from a receiving water body – Raut river
                                                                                                                                                                   WWTP
                                                                                                                                                                  operator
                                                                                                                                                                 (Apa-Canal        WWTP
                                                                           Sampling
                                                                                                                                                                   Orhei)       operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method         Before                         It is expected a   It is expected a
                                                        200 m                                            Determine the                                                          Canal Orhei),
                     oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according      construction                     middle price to    middle price to
 Baseline                                           upstream Raut                                         background                                                SHS
                  suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national        starts –                           me 500 lei         me 500 lei
                                                         river                                             pollution                                             Hidrometeo         Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation      monthly                        (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)
                                                                                                                                                                                Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions
                                                                                                                                                                    Orhei        Inspection
                                                                                                                                                                Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                 Inspection
                                                                                                                          It is expected a   It is expected a      WWTP
                                                                                                                          middle price to    middle price to      operator
                                                                                                                              me 500 lei         me 500 lei      (Apa-Canal        WWTP
                                                                           Sampling
                                                                                                                          (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)        Orhei)       operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method         Before
                                                       200 m                                             Determine the                                                          Canal Orhei),
                     oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according      construction
 Baseline                                            downstream                                           background                                                SHS
                  suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national        starts –
                                                      Raut river                                           pollution                                             Hidrometeo         Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation      monthly
                                                                                                                                                                                Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions
                                                                                                                                                                    Orhei        Inspection
                                                                                                                                                                Environmental
                                                                                                                                                                 Inspection
                                                                                                                          It is expected a   It is expected a
                                                                                            Ad-hoc                        middle price to    middle price to
                                                                                        measurements                          me 500 lei         me 500 lei                        WWTP
                                                                           Sampling                                       (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)
                                                                                             if any                                                                             operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method                          Prevent                                                WWTP
                                                        200 m                             complaints                                                                            Canal Orhei),
Constructi           oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according                      pollution from                                           operator
                                                    upstream Raut                        received / or
   on             suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national                       construction                                           (Apa-Canal
                                                         river                              visual                                                                                  Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation                        works                                                 Orhei)
                                                                                         examination                                                                            Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions
                                                                                          concerns /                                                                             Inspection
                                                                                         heavy rains /
                                                                                        any accidents
                                                                                                                          It is expected a   It is expected a                      WWTP
                                                                           Sampling                                       middle price to    middle price to
                                                                                            Ad-hoc                                                                              operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method                          Prevent           me 500 lei         me 500 lei        WWTP
                                                       200 m                            measurements                                                                            Canal Orhei),
Constructi           oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according                      pollution from   (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)       operator
                                                     downstream                              if any
   on             suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national                       construction                                           (Apa-Canal
                                                      Raut river                          complaints                                                                                Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation                        works                                                 Orhei)
                                                                                         received / or                                                                          Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions
                                                                                            visual                                                                               Inspection
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                                                                                                           Why is the                        Cost                    Institutional Responsibility
                                                    Where will the       How will the   When will the
                    What parameter is to be                                                                parameter
   Phase                                            parameter be         parameter be   parameter be
                         monitored?                                                                          being               Install              Operate         Install          Operate
                                                     monitored?           monitored?     monitored?
                                                                                                           monitored?
                                                                                         examination
                                                                                          concerns /
                                                                                        heavy rains /
                                                                                        any accidents
                                                                                         Initial stage:                      It is expected a   It is expected a
                                                                                        first quarter –                      middle price to    middle price to                        WWTP
                                                                           Sampling
                                                                                           monthly;                              me 500 lei         me 500 lei                      operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method                           Prevent                                                  WWTP
                                                        200 m                                                                (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)                      Canal Orhei),
                     oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according                       pollution from                                             operator
Operation                                           upstream Raut                         Later: -
                  suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national                        operation of                                             (Apa-Canal
                                                         river                           quarterly                                                                                      Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation                        WWTP                                                     Orhei)
                                                                                          routine                                                                                   Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions
                                                                                         monitoring                                                                                  Inspection
                                                                                         Initial stage:                      It is expected a   It is expected a
                                                                                        first quarter –                      middle price to    middle price to                        WWTP
                                                                           Sampling
                                                                                           monthly;                              me 500 lei         me 500 lei                      operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method                           Prevent                                                  WWTP
                                                       200 m                                                                 (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)                      Canal Orhei),
                     oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according                       pollution from                                             operator
Operation                                            downstream                           Later: -
                  suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national                        operation of                                             (Apa-Canal
                                                      Raut river                         quarterly                                                                                      Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation                        WWTP                                                     Orhei)
                                                                                          routine                                                                                   Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions
                                                                                         monitoring                                                                                  Inspection
                                                                                                                             It is expected a   It is expected a                       WWTP
                                                                           Sampling                            Prevent
                                                                                                                             middle price to    middle price to                     operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method                         pollution from                                             WWTP
   De-                                                  200 m                                                                    me 500 lei         me 500 lei                      Canal Orhei),
                     oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according     Random basis             de-                                                 operator
commissio                                           upstream Raut                                                            (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)
                  suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national                       commissioning                                             (Apa-Canal
  ning                                                   river                                                                                                                          Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation                       / reinstall of                                            Orhei)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions                          WWTP
                                                                                                                                                                                      Inspection
                                                                                                                             It is expected a   It is expected a                        WWTP
                                                                           Sampling                            Prevent
                                                                                                                             middle price to    middle price to                     operator (Apa-
                    Temperature, dissolved                                  method                         pollution from                                             WWTP
   De-                                                 200 m                                                                     me 500 lei         me 500 lei                      Canal Orhei),
                     oxygen, COD, BOD5,                                   according     Random basis             de-                                                 operator
commissio                                            downstream                                                              (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)
                  suspended solids, oils, N, P,                            national                       commissioning                                             (Apa-Canal
  ning                                                Raut river                                                                                                                        Orhei
                   pH, sulphates, chlorates,                              legislation                       / reinstall of                                            Orhei)
                                                                                                                                                                                    Environmental
                           bacteria                                      instructions                          WWTP
                                                                                                                                                                                     Inspection
                                  Effluent at the discharge points from local industries
                                                                                                            Ensure that
                                                                                        Random basis         water was
                                                         Hole                                                                                                                          WWTP
                                                                           Sampling      (in average,     pretreated and
                  Temperature, COD, BOD5,             connecting                                                                 To be                 To be                        operator (Apa-
                                                                            method            four              is in
                 oils, suspended solids, N, P,       sewer pipes                                                              determine by          determine by      WWTP          Canal Orhei),
                                                                          according     measurement         accordance
Operation        pH, sulphates, chlorates, Fe,         from the                                                                Apa-Canal             Apa-Canal     operator (Apa-
                                                                           national     campaigns per     with approved
                         Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni.             company in                                                                   Orhei                 Orhei       Canal Orhei)        Orhei
                                                                          legislation        year)        concentrations
                                                       municipal                                                               laboratory            laboratory                     Environmental
                                                                         instructions                     at the entrance
                                                       sewage                                                                                                                        Inspection
                                                                                                               to the
                                                                                                             municipal
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                                                                                                            Why is the                       Cost                    Institutional Responsibility
                                                     Where will the      How will the   When will the
                      What parameter is to be                                                               parameter
   Phase                                             parameter be        parameter be   parameter be
                           monitored?                                                                         being               Install            Operate           Install         Operate
                                                      monitored?          monitored?     monitored?
                                                                                                            monitored?
                                                                                                            sewerage
                      Treated effluent at the discharge point from a WWTF – special equipped tank
                                                                                                                              It is expected a   It is expected a                      WWTP
                                                                                                                              middle price to    middle price to                    operator (Apa-
                                                                           Sampling                         To prevent            me 500 lei         me 500 lei                     Canal Orhei),
                  Temperature, COD, BOD5,
                                                          Treated           method                           Raut river       (average. 40$)     (average. 40$)        WWTP
                 oils, suspended solids, N, P,
                                                      effluent at the     according                       pollution / to be                                           operator          Orhei
Operation        pH, sulphates, chlorates, Fe,                                               Daily
                                                     discharge point       national                        in conformity                                             (Apa-Canal     Environmental
                    Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, bacteria
                                                     from a WWTP          legislation                      with national                                               Orhei)        Inspection
                                                                         instructions                      requirements
                                                                                                                                                                                    Orhei Sanitary
                                                                                                                                                                                     inspection
                                    The sewage sediments monitoring from Imhoff tanks
                    Depending on the type of
                 disposal/reuse way for sludge,                                         Random basis
                  the chemical composition of                                           (in   average,
                 the sludge will be determined.                                         four
                      For agricultural (land                                            measurement
                      application including                                             campaigns per
                    composting) the following                                           year)
                                                                                                           to use sludge
                    measurements are to be             Imhoff tank         Sampling                        in agriculture
                          undertaken:                                       method                         as fertilizer or                      It is expected a      WWTP             WWTP
                                                            &             according     Ad-hoc                 other                             middle price to      operator         operator
Operation                Agronomic parameters :                                                                                    N/A
                                                                           national     sampling when       destination                              me 500 lei      (Apa-Canal       (Apa-Canal
                           NH4, P2O5, K2O, CaO,
                                                        Sludge            legislation   new industries        without                            (average. 40$)        Orhei)           Orhei)
                          MgO, As, B, Co, Fe, Mn,
                                                     dewatering pad      instructions   are introduced    polluting soil or
                                   Mo,
                                                                                        which                  water
                         Trace elements : Cd, Cr,                                      discharge their
                          Cr6+,Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn,                                      effluent to the
                          Organic components :                                         municipal
                            PCB, fluoranthene,                                          wastewater
                           benzo(b)fluoranthene,                                        system
                             benzo(a)pyrene.
                                                     Air quality and noise
                                                        Monitoring                                        Ensure that air
                                                       points will be                   Random basis      pollution, dust,
Constructi                                               identified                                        NOx and CO,
                 Dust from earth works and                                                                                                                              Local            Local
   on                                                   around the                            or             and noise
                 traffic (measured as Total                                                                                                                         environmental    environmental
                                                       construction        Special                        standards are
                 Suspended Particulates) and                                                                                   price based          price based      authorities      authorities
    /                                                    site, near      equipment         Ad-hoc          respected on
                 fumes     from    machinery                                                                                     services             services
   De-                                               sensitive areas   measurements     measurements             the
                 (measured as NOx and CO).                                                                                                                             Sanitary     Orhei Sanitary
commissio                                            (Mitoc, Seliste                        if any          construction
                                                                                                                                                                     inspections     inspections
  ning                                               villages, Orhei                     complaints       sites and that
                                                        city, vicinity                    received             these
                                                      industry etc.)                                      nuisances are

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                                                                                                         Why is the                   Cost                  Institutional Responsibility
                                                    Where will the       How will the   When will the
                    What parameter is to be                                                              parameter
   Phase                                            parameter be         parameter be   parameter be
                         monitored?                                                                        being          Install             Operate         Install         Operate
                                                     monitored?           monitored?     monitored?
                                                                                                        monitored?
                                                                                                         kept at the
                                                                                                          minimum
                                                                                                         acceptable
                                                                                                        level for the
                                                                                                        surrounding
                                                                                                         residents.
                                                       Monitoring
                                                      points will be
                                                                                        Random basis
                                                         identified
Constructi                                                                                               In order to
                 Noise levels will be monitored         inside and                                                                                             Local            Local
   on                                                                                        or          reduce the
                 inside the construction sites         around the                                                                                          environmental    environmental
                                                                           Special                       impacts of
                 and around, following the            construction                                                      price based          price based    authorities      authorities
    /                                                                     equipment        Ad-hoc       construction
                 national standards for                  site, near                                                       services             services
   De-                                                                   measurements   measurements      noise on
                 measurement methods.               sensitive areas                                                                                           Sanitary         Sanitary
commissio                                                                                   if any        adjacent
                                                    (Mitoc, Seliste                                                                                         inspections      inspections
  ning                                                                                   complaints       residents
                                                    villages, Orhei
                                                                                          received
                                                       city, vicinity
                                                     industry etc.)



        Monitoring is a duty of WWTP operator, Orhei Apa-Canal, environmental and sanitations authorities and will be paid respectively from the
        WWTP’s or the environmental authorities’ budgets.




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6.4 Institutional arrangements
This EIA report contains predictions about environmental impacts that may have certain
proposals/recommendations, mitigation measures and properly the management. It translates
recommended mitigation and monitoring measures into specific actions that will be carried out
by the proponent. It will form the basis for impact management during project construction and
operation. The mitigation plan is a major component of the EMP. The mitigation plan manages
the potential negative (and positive) impacts of the project. A mitigation or enhancement
measure is a modification of a proposed project activity using different types of categories of
actions summarized.

                                                                                                                  Responsibility
                                                                                     Difficulty grade
Nr.     Mitigation measures                                           Location
                                                                                      (from 1 to 5)
                                                                                                        Implementation        Supervision

For Negative Impacts
        Description of mitigation measure to prevent or               In office                         Policy Division of      Board of
1.                                                                                          3
        reduce negative impact                                         On site                           Apa Canal Orhei        Directors
                                                                                                        Control Division of     Board of
2.      Location of mitigation measure                                 On site              2
                                                                                                         Apa Canal Orhei        Directors
                                                                                                          Quality Control         Local
        Schedule and frequency of mitigation measure                  On site In
3.                                                                                          2             Division of Apa     Environmental
        implementation                                                 office
                                                                                                           Canal Orhei           Agency
                                                                                                                                  Local
        Responsibility      for     implementing         mitigation
4.                                                                    In office             1           Board of Directors    Environmental
        measure
                                                                                                                                 Agency
        Key indicator      of     effectiveness     of   mitigation                                     Policy Division of      Board of
5.                                                                    In office             3
        measure                                                                                         Apa Canal Orhei         Directors
                                                                                                         Quality Control
        Reporting requirement and reporting schedule for                                                                        Board of
6.                                                                    In office             3            Division of Apa
        mitigation activity                                                                                                     Directors
                                                                                                          Canal Orhei
                                                                                                          Accountancy
                                                                                                                                Board of
7.      Estimated cost of mitigation measure                          In office             4            Division of Apa
                                                                                                                                Directors
                                                                                                          Canal Orhei
For Positive Impacts
        Description of enhancement measure                       to   On site In                        Policy Division of      Board of
8.                                                                                          3
        strengthen or create positive impact                           office                            Apa Canal Orhei        Directors
                                                                                                        Control Division of     Board of
9.      Location of enhancement measure                                On site              2
                                                                                                         Apa Canal Orhei        Directors
        Schedule and frequency                 of   enhancement                                           Quality Control         Local
                                                                      On site In
10.     measure implementation                                                              4             Division of Apa     Environmental
                                                                       office
        enhancement measure                                                                                Canal Orhei           Agency
                                                                                                                                  Local
11.     Responsibility for implementing                               In office             2           Board of Directors    Environmental
                                                                                                                                 Agency
        Key indicator of effectiveness of enhancement                                                   Policy Division of      Board of
12.                                                                   In office             3
        measure                                                                                         Apa Canal Orhei         Directors
                                                                                                         Quality Control
        Reporting requirement and reporting schedule for                                                                        Board of
13.                                                                   In office             2            Division of Apa
        enhancement activity                                                                                                    Directors
                                                                                                          Canal Orhei
                                                                                                          Accountancy
                                                                                                                                Board of
14.     Estimated cost of enhancement measure                         In office             3            Division of Apa
                                                                                                                                Directors
                                                                                                          Canal Orhei


The mitigation plan consists of three project phases:
    Pre-Construction Phase Activities
    Construction Phase Activities
    Post-Construction (Operation) Phase Activities

The monitoring plan consists of the same three project phases. In this regard, it can be specified:
Nr.                        Stakeholders                                            Involvement gradient (high / medium / low)




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                                                                                                           Post-Construction
                                                                Pre-Construction         Construction
                                                                                                            Operation Phase
                                                                Phase Activities        Phase Activities
                                                                                                               Activities

1.     Investors                                                          High                 High             Medium

2.     Developers                                                         High               Medium              Low

3.     Operators                                                          Low                Medium              High
4.     NGOs                                                               High               Medium              High

5.     The mass-media sources                                             High               Medium              High

6.     The general public                                                Medium              Medium              Low

7.     Planning authority                                                Medium              Medium              High

8.     Assessing authority                                                Low                Medium              High

9.     Environmental agency                                               High               Medium              High

10.    Sanitary and epidemiologic authority                              Medium              Medium              High



In order to clarify the monitoring responsibilities, we can mention a list of stakeholders
interested in the EIA process, each stakeholder with different interests and responsibilities.
Therefore, proper coordination between the parties including investors, developers, and
operators, NGOs, the public, the planning authority, assessing authority and environmental
agency is important for effective implementation. An appropriate institutional and legal
arrangement is also important in this regard.

The development and implementation of EMP requires management, technical skills and
resources for:
     implementing mitigation plan;
     implementing environmental monitoring plan;
     interacting with public; and
     preparing environmental reports.


Environmental information flow
In recent years, systems for processing environmental information have been evolving from
research and development systems to practical applications. In our particular case, you will find
described information process and flow of information.

Environmental information is done based on Law of Republic of Moldova nr.982-XIV from
11.05.2000 regarding access to information, Law of Republic of Moldova nr.1515-XII from
16.06.1993 regarding environmental protection, Law of Republic of Moldova nr.851 from
29.05.96 regarding environmental expertise and environmental impact assessment.

Methods for stakeholder involvement
In participatory decision making, there is no single source of ultimate control or authority. The
participating parties must discuss and reach a decision by means of an agreed process. There are
numerous methods which can be utilized to involve stakeholders, especially the public, in EIA
process:
Nr.              Method of information                                                   Description


1.      Public meetings                               Open with no restriction as to who may attend.


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                                                      Group of individuals chosen to represent stakeholders, meet periodically to assess
2.      Advisory panels
                                                      work done/results obtained advice on future works.


                                                      This role has been played by local public administration (LPA) because of the
                                                      accessible location to the mayoralty. Information was about the project, specifics.
3.      Public information centers
                                                      Members of the public were able to visit local administration, obtain information and
                                                      express concerns.


                                                      Open-ended interviews on mass media that was a source of information for local
4.      Interviews
                                                      representatives.


                                                      Some sources were used in order to inform instantly general public of Orhei District
5.      On-line information
                                                      about the project.


                                                      A systematic approach to appraisal based on group inquiry and analysis with
6.      Participatory Appraisal techniques
                                                      multiple and varied inputs.



From the list of local people we can mention:
    Individuals that attend the meetings;
    communities/villages;
    traditional authorities e.g. village leaders.
NGOs were represented by:
    those NGOs which are active in local area or have interest on natural resources/social
       welfare;
    interested parties in Orhei District.
Voluntary organizations:
    local community
    development or users groups
    neighborhood associations
    labor unions
    gender groups
    ethnic organizations
    cooperatives
    Private sector:
    business interest groups
    professional societies, etc.

In particular, EIA team has taken into consideration the following aspects:
Nr.                  Way of information                             From                                       To


Pre-Construction Phase Activities
                                                                                      Mass-media, general public, subordinated bodies
1.      Main Intention                                Local Public Administration
                                                                                      of LPA
                                                      Contractor     (EIA    Team),
                                                                                      General public (NGOs, local inhabitants, target
2.      Preliminary Scoping Meeting                   beneficiary     (Apa    Canal
                                                                                      groups, direct beneficiaries)
                                                      Orhei)
                                                                                      General public, LPA, business interest groups,
3.      Dissemination of preliminary Draft of EIA     Contractor and Beneficiary
                                                                                      professional societies, interested beneficiaries
        Publishing in mass media, internet
4.                                                    Contractor and Beneficiary      General public
        sources, environmental portals
                                                                                      Local Public Administration of Orhei city
5.      Information letters                           Contractor and Beneficiary      Local Public District Administration participating or
                                                                                      impacted
        Interviews regarding the intention and        Contractor, Beneficiary and
6.                                                                                    General public
        construction                                  LPA
Construction Phase Activities
7.      Mitigation plan implementation                Beneficiary and Contractor      General public, State Control Entities
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                                                                                    State Control Entities (State Environmental
8.      Monitoring methodology and activities          Beneficiary                  Inspection,     local   Sanitary Epidemiologic
                                                                                    Inspection), general public
                                                                                    Target groups (NGOs, schools and kindergarten,
9.      Education for Health Plan                      Beneficiary
                                                                                    direct beneficiaries)
                                                                                    State Control Entities (State Environmental
10.     Final Reception                                LPA, beneficiary             Inspection,     local   Sanitary Epidemiologic
                                                                                    Inspection), general public
Post-Construction Operation Phase Activities
11.     Seminars, trainings, workshop                  Beneficiary                  Employed persons
12.     Mitigation result and reporting                Beneficiary                  General public
13.     Monitoring results and reporting               Beneficiary                  General public
14.     Level of achievement of EIA                    Beneficiary and Contractor   General public, LPA
                                                                                    State Control Entities (State      Environmental
15.     Final reporting                                LPA, beneficiary             Inspection,    local    Sanitary   Epidemiologic
                                                                                    Inspection), general public



Environmental management process is divided into the same pre-construction, construction and
post-construction phases. In this way, we will describe decision making process regarding
environmental performances of the EIA.

Decision making on environmental management
                                   Phase               of
Nr.     Involved entity                                      How this entity will be involved
                                   involvement
                                                              Coordinating the organization process
                                                              Accepting EIA
                                   Pre-construction           Accepting SIA
                                                              Accepting technical design and drawings
                                                              Organizing public hearings
                                                              Supervising the construction activities
        Apa Canal Orhei                                       Supervising quality control activities
1.                                 Construction
        (the beneficiary)                                     Supervising mitigation process
                                                              Supervising monitoring process
                                                              Operating the WWTP
                                                              Reporting to state control entities regarding the
                                   Post-construction         environmental, health, safety and financial performances
                                                              Reporting to LPA regarding the management process and
                                                             price coordination
                                                              Participation in organizing of public hearings
                                                              Coordination of land acquisition
                                                              Preliminary environmental control and coordination of
                                   Pre-construction          WWTP location
                                                              Coordination of issuing of local documentation in base of the
                                                             15th 16th article of Land Code of Republic of Moldova, such as
        Local      Public
2.                                                           LPA Decision, Certificate of Urbanism and preliminary scheme
        Administration
                                                             of object location
                                                              Supervising and issuing of necessary documentation for
                                   Construction
                                                             construction (Construction Authorization)
                                                              Conducting Final Reception of the WWTP
                                   Post-construction          Examination of beneficiary reports
                                                              Coordination of prices for cubic meter
                                                              Preliminary environmental control and coordination of
                                   Pre-construction          WWTP location. Regarding this SEI has to issue a Control Act
        State                                                and Decision regarding WWTP location.
3.      Environmental
                                                              Supervising of environmental performances during
        Inspection                 Construction
                                                             construction phase, issuing of appropriate acts.
                                   Post-construction          Participation at Final Reception of the WWTP.
        State     Sanitary                                    Preliminary sanitary control and coordination of WWTP
4.      Epidemiologic              Pre-construction          location. Regarding this Sanitary Inspection has to issue a
        Inspection                                           Control Act and Decision regarding WWTP location.
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                                                              Supervising of sanitary performances during construction
                                   Construction
                                                             phase, issuing of appropriate acts.
                                   Post-construction          Participation at Final Reception of the WWTP
                                                              Participation in decision making process by all possible ways
                                   Pre-construction
                                                             (attending meetings, comments of issued acts etc).
5.      General public
                                   Construction               Informal monitoring
                                   Post-construction          Beneficiates from the proposed services
                                                              Assures decision making process and represent the “voice” of
                                                             general public;
                                   Pre-construction
                                                              Assures the link between general public, local public
                                                             administration and state entities.
                                                              Informal monitoring and represent general public in relation
6.      NGOs                       Construction
                                                             with local public administration and Apa Canal Orhei.
                                                              Gives suggestions regarding price formation criteria.
                                                              Monitors that the project is implemented properly as
                                   Post-construction
                                                             proposed initially
                                                              Informal supervising of EIA and its results
                                                              Assures the dissemination of information to general public,
                                                             NGOs and other participants regarding the EIA, SIA and
                                   Pre-construction
                                                             technical drawing
                                                              Insures the transparency during the decision making process
                                                              Guarantee informal proper information regarding the
7.      Mass-media                 Construction
                                                             realization in base of the initial project
                                                              Represent voice of the general public, NGOs, target groups,
                                                             beneficiaries, LPA, state entities and other participants.
                                   Post-construction
                                                              Inform properly about legal violations during management
                                                             and operation of WWTP.
                                                              Elaboration of the EIA
                                                              Coordination of EIA with appropriate state environmental
                                   Pre-construction          and sanitary control entities
                                                              Organizing public hearings at LPA and Apa Canal Orhei
8.      EIA Team
                                                             request
                                                              Supervising the process of respecting EIA clauses
                                   Construction
                                                              Dissemination of information regarding construction works
                                   Post-construction          Conclusions regarding proper implementation of EIA
                                                              Elaboration of the detailed technical design
                                   Pre-construction           Coordination of detailed technical design with State
                                                             Environmental Inspection and National Construction Inspection
9.      Design Institution
                                                              Supervising the construction works and its conformity with
                                   Construction
                                                             detailed technical design
                                   Post-construction          Participation at Final Reception of the WWTP.
                                   Pre-construction           Examination of legal, technical and EIA requirements
        The construction                                      Construction of WWTP with respecting of legal, technical
10.                                Construction
        company                                              and EIA requirements
                                   Post-construction          Participation at Final Reception of the WWTP.
                                                              Elaborate criteria of supervising the environmental
                                   Pre-construction
                                                             performances specified in EIA.
        The supervising                                       Supervising the environmental performances specified in
11.                                Construction
        company                                              EIA.
                                                              Reporting to LPA and beneficiary regarding supervising of
                                   Post-construction
                                                             the environmental performances specified in EIA.



6.5 Institutional strengthening
6.5.1 Training
Under this project are proposed some trainings to improve the institutional capacities. The core
criteria will rely on time, and namely pre-construction, construction and post-construction
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phases, which are crucial in planning trainings, study visit and other activities that lead to
institutional strengthening.

It is recommended that a number of institutions and target groups will benefit of specific
trainings. They have been classified taking into account the potential institutional base, their
capacity of learning-by-doing, the available financial resources and other criteria, like:

"Apa Canal Orhei" needs trainings in several areas, namely environmental management,
monitoring, mitigation and other topics related to technical abilities and international practice in
this area. Due to the crisis and lack of funds are excluded the costs related to institutional
strengthening.

Local Public Administration of Orhei city and some neighborhood villages that intend to be
connected to the sewerage network have a lack of knowledge because of some internal and
financial reasons. For example it is not known neither the EU practice in environmental
management nor the experience of other settlements that have implemented similar projects on
aquatic resources.

Local NGOs in Orhei district do have enough knowledge and resources to stimulate the public
participation in decision making process, environmental management and monitoring. This
phenomenon minimizes the local capacity of public participation and transparency in decision
making process.

As a best practice in environmental management it is recommended that Orhei Apa Canal
implement internationally recognized standards such as ISO 9000 and ISO 14000.


Training for strengthening environmental performances.
                                                                             Duration              Venue               Costs
                                                             Number of
Nr.   Institution         Trainers
                                                            participants                                        Local,   Foreign,
                                                                           Start   End     Domestic    Abroad
                                                                                                                 MDL      USD
Training on Mitigation
      Apa      Canal      Environmental consultancy                           4 hours
      Orhei               companies,                NGO
1.                                                               4                           Yes           No    768           64
      (the                representatives,          other                  8.00    12.00
      beneficiary)        environmental experts and
      Local Public        individuals. From the list:                         4 hours
2.                         a. Ecologie-Expert Ltd, a             3                           Yes           No    576           48
      Administration                                                       8.00    12.00
                               consultancy firm from
                               Republic of Moldova.                           4 hours
3.    NGOs                                                       4                           Yes           No    768           64
                           b. Vlad Garaba, expert                          8.00    12.00
                               from Chisinau Branch of                        4 hours
                               Environmental
4.    Private sector           Movement of Moldova.              4                           Yes           No    768           64
                           c. Ilia Trombitkii, expert                      8.00    12.00
                               from “Eco-Tiras”
                               Ecological Society.
Totally              4                                                       Totally 4
                                     2 trainers                  15                          YES           NO   2880       240
institutions                                                                  hours
Training on Monitoring
      Apa      Canal      Environmental consultancy                           4 hours
      Orhei               companies,                NGO
5.                                                               8                           Yes           No   1536       128
      (the                representatives,          other                  13.00   17.00
      beneficiary)        environmental experts and
      Local Public        individuals. From the list:                         4 hours
6.                                                               2                           Yes           No    384           32
      Administration       a. Ecologie-Expert Ltd, a                       13.00 17.00
                               consultancy firm from                          4 hours
7.    NGOs                     Republic of Moldova;              3                           Yes           No    576           48
                                                                           13.00 17.00
      Orhei                b. Vlad Garaba, expert                             4 hours
8.    Environmental            from Chisinau Branch of           4                           Yes           No    768           64
                               Environmental                               13.00   17.00
      Inspection
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      Orhei Public           Movement of Moldova.                               4 hours
9.                        c. Ilia Trombitkii, expert              2                           Yes            No          384       48
      Health Center                                                        13.00 17.00
                             from “Eco-Tiras”
                             Ecological Society.                              4 hours
10.   Private sector                                              4                           Yes            No          768       64
                                                                           13.00 17.00
Totally              4                                                       Totally 4
                                     2 trainers                   23                          YES          NO            4416      384
institutions                                                                   hours
Training on Environmental Management
      Apa      Canal                                                            6 hours
      Orhei               Environmental consultancy
11.                       companies,                NGO           8                           Yes            No          2304      192
      (the                                                                 8.00     15.00
      beneficiary)        representatives,          other
                          environmental experts and                           6 hours
      Local Public
12.                       individuals. From the list:             4                           Yes            No          1152      96
      Administration                                                       8.00    15.00
                           d. Ecologie-Expert Ltd, a
                               consultancy firm from                          6 hours
13.   NGOs                                                        4                           Yes            No          1152      96
                               Republic of Moldova;                        8.00    15.00
      Orhei                e. Vlad Garaba, expert                             6 hours
14.   Environmental            from Chisinau Branch of            5                           Yes            No
                                                                           8.00     15.00
      Inspection               Environmental
      Orhei Public             Movement of Moldova.                             6 hours
15.                        f. Ilia Trombitkii, expert             2                           Yes            No          576       48
      Health Center                                                        8.00    15.00
                               from “Eco-Tiras”
                               Ecological Society.                            6 hours
16.   Private sector                                              6                           Yes            No          1728      144
                                                                           8.00    15.00
Totally              4                                                       Totally 6
                                     2 trainers                   23                          YES          NO            6912      576
institutions                                                                  hours
*Note: The price for one trained person per hour is 4 USD.

List of consultants is divided in:
     Consultancy companies,
     NGO representatives,
     Private experts.

Training has to take into consideration all relevant target groups that will benefit out of this
training. The complementary participation of different target groups will be an asset because of
its diversity. One of the principles of these trainings will rely on promoting the reduced
consumption of water resources, water saving principle and preserving natural resources.

Training for target local target groups.
                                                                         Number                        Activity                 Costs
N                                                                          of        Theo   Pract
      Training in:                             Target group                                                                Loca    Forei
r.                                                                       particip    ry      ice      In          On-
                                                                                                                            l,      gn,
                                                                          ants                      office        site
                                                                                                                           MDL     USD
Day one, theory
                                               NGOs                         4
                                               Church
                                                                            2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers             2
                                               Kindergarten teachers        2
                                               Gender groups                2
      Method of water resources
                                               Neighborhood                           1      1
1.    accumulation             (formation),                                 2                        Yes          Yes       720     60
                                               associations                          hour   hour
      particularly drinking water
                                               Local mass-media             2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                            2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies       2
                                               Other local community
                                                                            2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                         4
                                               Church
                                                                            2         1      1
2.    Price formation techniques               representatives                                       Yes          Yes       720     60
                                                                                     hour   hour
                                               Biology teachers             2
                                               Kindergarten teachers        2


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                                               Gender groups             2
                                               Neighborhood
                                                                         2
                                               associations
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
                                               Gender groups             2
     Techniques for water resources            Neighborhood                   1      1
3.                                                                       2                 Yes   Yes   720   60
     mitigation measures                       associations                  hour   hour
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
                                               Gender groups             2
     Techniques for mitigation of
                                               Neighborhood                   1      1
4.   WWTP (Constructed Wetland                                           2                 Yes   Yes   720   60
                                               associations                  hour   hour
     Systems)
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
                                               Gender groups             2
     Techniques for water resources            Neighborhood                   1      1
5.                                                                       2                 Yes   Yes   720   60
     monitoring                                associations                  hour   hour
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
     Techniques for monitoring the             Gender groups             2    1      1
6.   WWTP (Constructed Wetland                 Neighborhood                                Yes   Yes   720   60
                                                                         2   hour   hour
     Systems)                                  associations
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community     2

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                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
                                               Gender groups             2
     Preventing inappropriate use of           Neighborhood                     1       1
7.                                                                       2                     Yes   Yes   720    60
     water resources                           associations                    hour    hour
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
                                               Gender groups             2
                                               Neighborhood                     1       1
8.   Saving water resources                                              2                     Yes   Yes   720    60
                                               associations                    hour    hour
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                               NGOs                      4
                                               Church
                                                                         2
                                               representatives
                                               Biology teachers          2
                                               Kindergarten teachers     2
                                               Gender groups             2
     Legitimate audits of compliance
                                               Neighborhood                     1       1
9.   with the legislation, normative                                     2                     Yes   Yes   720    60
                                               associations                    hour    hour
     acts, the fines for sewage pollution
                                               Local mass-media          2
                                               Business     interested
                                                                         2
                                               groups
                                               Professional societies    2
                                               Other local community
                                                                         2
                                               leaders
                                                                                 9       9
                                                                               hour    hour
                                               Totally 9 local target
In total are proposed 9 trainings                                               s of    s of   YES   YES   6480   540
                                               groups
                                                                               theo    pract
                                                                                 ry     ice




6.5.2 Consultancy
In Republic of Moldova, there are few consultancy companies:
                                                                                           Contacts
Nr. Consultancy entity                                            Address of head quarter (telephone, fax, e-mail,
                                                                                           gsm)
                                                                                           Tel.: 022-745661
                                                                  156, Mitropolit Dosoftei
                                                                                           Fax: 022-745661
        Ecologie-Expert Ltd                                       Str., of. 103,
1.                                                                                         Gsm: 00 373 681 96999
        Environmental Consultancy Company                         Chisinau City, MD2004,
                                                                                           office@ecoexpert.md
                                                                  Republic of Moldova
                                                                                           www.EcoExpert.md



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                                                                           Tel.: 022-226227
         Vlad Garaba                             1, Mihai Eminescu Str.,
                                                                           Fax: 022-226227
2.       Expert, president of Chisinau Branch of Chisinau City MD2009,
                                                                           Gsm: 00 373 691 10664
         Environmental Movement of Moldova       Republic of Moldova
                                                                           chbemm@moldnet.md

         Ilia Trombitki
                                                 11A, Teatrala Str.,
         Expert, president of Chisinau Eco-Tiras                           Tel.: 022- 550953
3.                                                Chisinau City,
         NGO                                                               ilyatrom@mail.ru
                                                 Republic o fMoldova



The trainings can be financed from the both budgets of “Apa Canal Orhei” and local public
administrations. Of course they are reluctant to plan any money for trainings or seminars, so
there are proposed other sources of financing these trainings. We can mention a number of
national and international financing bodies that provide environmental programs.

In Moldova there are the following funding sources:

          Internal sources - existing sources planned by Apa Canal Orhei or the local city hall of
           Orhei.
          National sources - financing sources that are included in various national governmental
           funds that are allocated for certain types of actions, for instance, the National
           Environmental Fund.
          External sources - extra budgetary funding, and funds allocated by international
           institutions, and generally aiming the types of environmental problems identified by the
           EMP, like: SDC, Soros Foundation, EU, UNDP, Central European Initiative, Embassies,
           Foreign Foundations, etc.
          Voluntary Donations from juridical persons and individuals.

The funding sources identified do not necessarily represent mandatory allocations for the actions
specified in the EMP. Regarding this, EMP implementation will have to carry out finding
funding sources by the means and methods specific to each of EMP action; promotion of eligible
projects for external funding. This has to be the responsibility of the beneficiary institution /
organization, in this particular case Apa Canal Orhei, or local NGOs that represent the
beneficiary or local public authorities.




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7 Public participation, information and consultations
The approach of environmental impact analysis was participatory via ongoing public
consultation, building on the initial public scoping, so as to allow stakeholders’ and affected
parties’ inputs to be taken into account.


7.1 Public consultation methodology
Appropriate public consultation is vital to the success of the entire Project, not just the
development of the EIA. As such, the EIA team developed and implemented a system that
allowed effective communication dialogue between the WB PIU, LPA, the public, non-
governmental organizations, the Project teams, and other involved agencies.

The procedure of public consultation was based on a methodology that took into account
recommendations and public opinion. To ensure wide participation by all interested stakeholders,
the information about the project and details about consultations was disseminated through local
mass-media, radio channel, newspapers, and sent by letters to the interested persons and
representatives.

Before starting the meetings, EIA team prepared agendas and presentation materials for each
participant. In order to rapidly register questions, comments and recommendations as well as the
specialists' replies, all the discussions were audio recorded.
The public debates lasted more than 2 hours, of which approximately 40 minutes were used for
the presentations and the remaining time for discussion.

The materials were presented environmental experts of EIA team. After the discussions,
minutes of meetings were compiled and included into this EIA report.


7.2 Scoping meeting
The scoping meeting in project area was organized on July 16m 2010 in accordance with the
national normative acts such as the main law nr.851 of 29.05.96 on Environmental Expertise and
Environmental Impact Assessment. The public hearings approach was also consistent with the
World Bank Environmental Assessment Sourcebook (Volume II), (iii) OP 4.01 Annex B Content
of an Environmental assessment Report for a Category B Project) and the Inception Report
prepared by EIA team on June 18th 2010. Representatives of the local public administrations,
NGOs active in the social and environment domains, representatives of the private sector and of
relevant institutions and territorial structures took part in this meeting. In general terms, the
Consultations were focused on collecting opinions on the aspects that need to be specifically
considered and reflected in the environmental impact assessment of the new Waste Water Plant
based on Constructed Wetlands technology.

The main objectives of the scoping meeting were to:

          Inform the interested public and local public administrations of the intention to construct
           a new WWTP based on Constructed Wetlands technology;
          Inform and collect opinions from the public and local authorities on the potential positive
           and negative impacts of carrying out construction and operation of the new WWTP on
           the environment and on the communities; and,


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          Offer an organized framework in which the interested public and local authorities could
           express their opinions, agreement or disagreement on the proposed intention.

The Agenda for the meeting was distributed before the meeting. Also presentation materials that
contain some of the main principles that explain the Public Consultation process and procedures
were distributed to all registered participants. The presentation materials were elaborated in 100
copies and disseminated to the public that attended the meeting.

During the process of information dissemination the national, regional and international
principles were considered. The information was disseminated to local public by internet, local
radio, with help of local public administration and “Apa-Canal” Orhei.

Information dissemination approach

   Method of dissemination                                       Comments                          Number
                                               The responsible person was asked to
E-mail to local public
                                               disseminate this information to other               1 e-mail
administration
                                               beneficiaries, around 50 persons
E-mail to “Apa-Canal” Orhei                    It was disseminated further on to 25 persons        1 e-mail
Published on internet, on
                                               It was accessed by 379 persons during 10
environmental portal                                                                               1 article
                                               days
GreenMedia
Published in Orhei newspaper
                                               500 units of newspaper                              1 article
“Plaiul Orheian”
Radio announcements                            Announced 6 times                                      6
                                               Five mayoralties were contacted personally
Village mayoralties                                                                              5 mayoralties
                                               by environmental expert
                                               An official Invitation letter was sent by “Apa-
Village mayoralties                                                                              5 mayoralties
                                               Canal” Orhei to all 5 mayoralties

The box above summarizes the information dissemination process. It can be concluded that
public consultation event was widely advertised through all existing means.

Participants registered at the start of consultation meetings, and the attendance lists are included
as Annex 4 to the current EIA.

The scoping meeting was attended by around 100 persons from 5 villages and Orhei town.
However, only 67 participants registered in the list provided.

The discussions primarily focused on collecting opinions and suggestions on issues that need to
be reflected in the environmental and social assessment initiated within the new wastewater
treatment plant (WWTP) based on Constructed Wetlands (CW) project of the World Bank
through the National Water Supply and Sanitation Project. Therefore, the participants initially
were informed about the main activities fulfilled during the development process of the project.
Particularly this was focused on the Feasibility Study performed by a local company for Orhei
“Apa Canal”. Thereafter, the main issues to be taken into consideration in preparing the
Environmental Assessment study for the new technology were presented.

The first part of the introduction presentation discussed about:
    Why Public Consultations are necessary?
    What are the requirements stipulated in legal acts and procedures of different the
        international organizations/donors, etc?
    What are the requirements stipulated in national legislation?
    What are World Bank Policies?
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          Steps to follow within the project.

The second part of introductory sections was focused the content of an EIA to give an
explanation to all participants about why such a study is necessary and how it should be
conducted. During presentation, the EA expert focused mainly on:
    The content of an EA.
    Description of CW technologies.
    Possible environmental impacts,
    Some mitigation measures that will be required in order to minimize the impacts.

 After the introduction session, that lasted approximately 40 minutes the public was asked about
their opinion regarding construction of the new WWTP in the vicinity of their localities.

Besides the benefits of the proposed project, some potential negative impacts were identified.
The short-term activities related with connection of old sewage network to the new WWTP
might have some potential negative impacts on the environment and public health. However,
these impacts are local and minor compared with the long-term benefit of the project and its
positive impact on water resources, environment and human health. The environmental issues
likely to be associated with these activities include: 1) odor, 2) impact on water quality and
resources; 3) impact on water by the construction run-offs; 4) morbidity with water related
diseases; 5) disposal of water treatment sludge; 6) disturbance during construction and
rehabilitation works; and 7) protection of air quality from the construction dust; 8) Workers
safety.

The participants also proposed and some recommendations which needs to be taken into
consideration in the planning stages, construction and full functioning of the new WWTP.

The most asked questions were:
    Will be connected “Lupoaica” region to the WWTP?
    What is the objective of the first consultation meeting?
    What plans for new networks, will they be constructed?
    What is the solution with waste water from factories of Orhei?
    Primary sedimentation – what will be done with the sludge?
    How the plants are used? Does it have an exploitation term?
    What is the water distribution process to the lagoon after the sedimentation?
    In case of floods landslides, how to solve the situation?
    How are the protection walls around this zone?
    Is right that treated water will go to Raut?
    What is the temperature during the winter?
    It is necessary to do chlorination; it will be done before or after Constructed Wetlands?


7.3 Draft EIA public discussions
The       meeting         for      discussing        Draft       EIA     results   was   held   on   December   9th.

The invitation letter has been sent to the following institutions:

 #                       Institution
1.       Ecological Inspectorate of Orhei District
2.       Public Health Center
3.       Seliste Mayoralty
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4.      Orhei Radio
5.      Orhei City Hall
6.      Orhei District Council
7.      Mitoc Mayoralty
8.      Orhei-Vit SA
9.      Orhei-Vin SA
10.     Iscaova Mayoralty

The number of participants to the public discussion of the Draft EIA report was 42 coming from
Orhei city and Orhei District.

The dissemination process was similar to scoping meeting. The information was disseminated to
local public by internet, local radio, with help of local public administration and “Apa-Canal”
Orhei.

    #       Method of dissemination                                   Comments                         Number
                                                      The responsible persons was asked to
          E-mail to local public
   1.                                                 disseminate this information to other            1 e-mails
          administration
                                                      beneficiaries, around 50 persons
      E-mail to “Apa-Canal”
   2.                                                 It was disseminated to 25 persons                1 e-mails
      Orhei
      Published on internet, on
                                                      It was clicked by 379 persons during 10
   3. environmental portal                                                                             1 article
                                                      days
      GreenMedia
      Published in Orhei
   4.                                                 500 units of newspaper                           1 article
      newspaper “Plaiul Orheian”
   5. Radio announcements                             6 times                                             6
                                                      5 mayoralties were contacted personally
   6. Village mayoralties                             by the environmental expert                    5 mayoralties

                                                      invitation letters were sent officially to 5
   7. Village mayoralties                                                                            5 mayoralties
                                                      mayoralties by “Apa-Canal” Orhei


The presentation approach was also similar to the one used for scoping meeting. A presentation
summarizing the public discussion process with a summary of potential environmental and social
impacts during construction and operation of the new CWTP was distributed to each participant.
An agenda of the meeting was also attached to the materials distributed.

The EIA team explained the public the content of the EIA study, description of CW technology,
potential environmental and social impacts and mitigation measures accompanied by monitoring
actions.

The pubic also received an extract from Aarhus convention; Law of access to information;
Environmental protection law; and Law on environmental expertise and environmental impact
assessment.

Minutes of meetings questions:

Q1


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Audience: Usually, the sewage emanates and spreads odors, is there provided any mitigation
measures to reduce the sludge odor?
Mr. Vladicescu: Orhei Waste Water Treatment Plant will not be working according to obsolete
principles like in the past. After the process of dehydration there will be produced no sludge, and
subsequently no odors.

Q2
Audience: The wastewaters contain liquid and solid fractions. Usually the liquid fractions do not
smell, but the solid fractions emanate odors?
Mr. Vladicescu: Solid fractions will be separated, then transported and stored on drying
platforms.

Regarding the constructed wetland technology used at WWTP, there will be used two stages of
wastewater treatment.
At the Ist stage, the waste waters will flow from the main collector in a mixing tank, because the
collected wastewaters represent both industrial and domestic wastewaters. Then the mixed
wastewaters will be mechanically separated into solid fractions, that will pass further to the first
stage (based on a French system), which is divided into 8-9 sectors. This process will be
automated, while monitored by the control operators.

The waters after being leached and purified at the Ist stage, ends up in a pumping station and then
the IInd phase of treatment begins: the vertical flow stage. The wastewater passes through several
layers, where is treated and then pumped into another tank. Before being discharged into Raut
River, the waters will be treated with chlorine to destroy the bacteria components, viruses, and
microorganisms. The amount of chlorine will be approved by the Center for Preventive Medicine
and Ecological Inspectorate. The water quality will be monitored at the inlet and outlet of the
WWTP. The water samples will be regularly taken by Orhei Apa Canal laboratory before and
after the treatment process to monitor its quality.

Q3
Audience: What is the expected volume of wastewaters per day?
Mr. Vladicescu: Each stage of treatment allows a certain amount of waste waters. The volumes
were estimated according the forecast of wastewaters until 2030, including potential connections
of other neighboring settlements. So, there was taken into account the potential increase of
population and the need to develop and extend the CWTP with additional 10 hectares of land
(long term scenario).
The statistics for 2010 show that the number of urban population was 33 000 inhabitants – 2 110
m3/day; and 487 m3/day industrial wastewater. The volume of wastewaters is expected to be 6
070 m3/day, and 1 214 m3 of industrial wastewaters/day in 2030.

Q4
Audience: If the amount of sludge will decrease, where will disappear the sludge?
Mr. Vladicescu: The technology is developed in the following way:
Usually, within the classic WWTP, the sludge is formed during the process of phagocytosis and
treatment process of organic substances into minerals.

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The treatment process of wastewaters takes place into the Constructed Wetland System, which
has a term of life of 15-20 years. The rhizomes and roots of reed are grown to consume the
sludge. This represents the green mass, which is about 70% minerals extracted from the sludge.
In addition, the micro flora is producing less sludge.




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8 Conclusions
The objective of the present EIA & EMP report is to provide assistance to Agency “Orhei Apa
Canal” and other project beneficiaries in undertaking Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
for the proposed National Water Supply and Sanitation Project including preparation of
Environmental Management Plan, in order to comply with relevant World Bank requirements
and Moldovan environmental and construction regulations. The aim of the EIA report is to
analyze the potential adverse environmental issues related to the Constructed Wetland
technology investment in Orhei and to ensure that these aspects are addressed or mitigated in the
project design consistent with World Bank requirements and Moldovan environmental
legislation. The impacts associated with redirecting the wastewater flow to the new WWTP were
also summarized in the Environmental and Management Plan.
The proposed investment program is to be financed by the European Commission (EC) through a
grant that is considered environmental category B in accordance with the World Bank
operational policy on environmental assessment (OP/BP), since the project will provide
construction of a new Waste Water Treatment Plant based on Constructed Wetlands (CW)
technology. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Assessment                 Report including an
Environmental Management Plan was prepared.
The investments will include:
     d) construction of a new Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) based on Constructed
        Wetlands technology;
     e) rehabilitation and expansion of sewerage distribution networks; and
     f) renovation of sewage pump stations.

The improvement in wastewater collection and treatment will lead to a better and cleaner urban
environment by reducing the exposure of the community to the untreated wastewater with its
associated impact on public health and well-being, such as waterborne diseases.
Constructed wetland planned to be built, is a subsurface flow wetland that will maintain the
water level bellow the surface of gravel or other media placed in the wetland bed. The main
significant advantage of this type of CW over the surface flow type of wetland is: (i) lack of
odors; (ii) lack of mosquitos and other insect vectors; (iii) minimal risk of public exposure and
contact with the water in the system;

Environmental and social impact significance was determined on the basis of an impact’s
magnitude, duration, and compliance with accepted standards. Application of the appropriate
mitigation as described in the EIA and EMP aims to reduce significant negative impacts to a
less-than-significant level.
It is anticipated that the Project will generate great socio-economic benefits due to the
improvement of water supply and wastewater services along with improved environmental
conditions on Raut River water and will generally support sustainable development in the region.
The overall findings of the EIA are that negative impacts on air, water, and acoustic environment
are expected, especially during construction.

The project alternatives analyzed under this study considered different types of WWTPs
(conventional WWTP vs Surface Constructed wetland and Subsurface Constructed Wetland) and
different locations (four locations in the Raut valley and the existing location of the old WWTP).
The environmental issues likely to be associated with all alternatives include: noise generation;
impact on water quality and resources; impact on water by the construction run-offs; morbidity
with water related diseases; disturbance during construction and rehabilitation works;
construction dust; and workers safety.

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However, in general these impacts will be temporary and localized. The proposed measures will
be implemented to mitigate the negative impacts. These measures will also be updated in the
EMP during the design stage and continuously refined during construction. The EMP will be
implemented by the Apa Canal Orhei and Works Contractor; monitored and supervised by
Construction Supervision Company; and regularly reported to PIU.

Any adverse environmental impacts associated with the Project will be prevented, eliminated, or
minimized to an acceptable level if the EMP proposed under the present EIA is effectively
implemented, particularly through the mechanism for the continuous refinement and effective
implementation of the environmental mitigation measures.

Large and participative public discussions were held during EIA preparation. The participants
acknowledged the positive impacts on the environment and are aware that some minor negative
impacts could occur if the construction of the new WWTP and extension of the network to
redirect the waste water is not done properly. However, it is undoubtedly necessary to have
additional public discussions with the aim to increase the awareness of the local population about
the potential long-term negative impact will have on future generations the use of polluted water
for drinking purposes.




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      Annex 1 Water quality in Orhei

                                                                                               Jeloboc
                                                                         “Mitocul   “Gradina
                Parameter                 Unit      Requirement                                Natural
                                                                          Vechi”    Publica”
                                                                                               Spring
                   pH                     -                 9               7.0        8.1        7.2
               Hardness                  Mol/l            <7                6.0       11.6        7.8
              Dry residuals              mg/l            1,000             640       1,150       653
                Nitrates                 mg/l              45               0.5       27.2       11.5
               Chlorides                 mg/l             350              56.8       99.4       42.6
               Sulphates                 mg/l             500              166        314        147
                Copper                   mg/l             1.0             0.005      0.007      0.005
                   Fe                    mg/l             0.3               0.1        0.1        0.1
               Ammonia                   mg/l             2.0            2.8-3.4       1.3        0.5
                Silicates                mg/l              10              11.9        8.9        3.7
               Strontium                 mg/l             7.0               8.9        8.3       3.25

This table summarizes the water quality parameters for each source of water used in Orhei town.
The “Mitocul Vechi” source is not suitable for drinking water purposes because of high
concentration of ammonia, silicate sand strontium. The deep groundwater wells from public park
is also not suitable for drinking because of high concentrations of strontium, high dry residuals
content and very high hardness values. The most suitable water source for Orhei town is the
Jeloboc spring. The concentrations of most parameters are well bellow the drinking water
standards except a slightly above the requirement hardness value.




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      Annex 2 Waste Water Treatment Plan Efficiency in 2009

                                               Suspended
       Month            IN/OUT                                           BOD5     NH4+    NO3-    PO43-
                                                 Solids
                         IN                        856                     282     49.6    1.03   3.92
         Jan
                       OUT                         103                      18     18.6    9.95   2.97
                         IN                        878                     151     42.7    1.42   4.08
         Feb
                       OUT                          57                      14     17.1    5.67   3.64
                         IN                        648                     170     44.3    0.56   5.16
         Mar
                       OUT                          50                       9     20.2    14.3   4.32
                         IN                        800                     200     40.7    1.41   6.35
         Apr
                       OUT                          51                      20     14.6   15.85    3.5
                         IN                        949                     198       -*     -       -
        May
                       OUT                          45                      20        -      -      -
                         IN                        669                     290     40.9    1.74   4.93
         Jun
                       OUT                          38                      24     19.6    16.8   3.77
                         IN                        435                     180    41.65    2.44   3.75
          Jul
                       OUT                          26                      17    13.58    6.85    2.9
                         IN                        540                     458    54.93    0.79   3.64
        Aug
                       OUT                          26                      30    16.51   10.53   2.87
                         IN                        388                     272    43.31    1.34   4.58
         Sep
                       OUT                          36                      29    18.91   11.15   2.73
                         IN                        769                     424    43.69    0.92   4.65
         Oct
                       OUT                          56                      59    17.49    4.94   3.29
                         IN                        749                     451     56.1    0.31   4.26
        Nov
                       OUT                          35                      42     20.4    3.33   3.29
                         IN                        342                     209     44.1    0.39    4.5
         Dec
                       OUT                          39                      15      4.9    16.7   2.25
      Averag             IN                      668.58                  273.75   45.63    1.12   4.53
        e               OUT                       46.83                   24.75   16.54   10.55   3.23
                      %removal                      93                      91      64    -840     29




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      Annex 3 Raw water quality data in Raut River

                                                 Maximum
                                Units           admissible               Oct 11, 2010   Oct 20, 2010   Oct 29, 2010
                                               concentration
       pH                     pH units            6.5-8.5                     7,9            8,0           8,0
       COD                     mg/l                 15                       24,0           24,0           8,0
       BOD5                    mg/l                  5                       11,5           11,5           3,8
       Suspended
                                 mg/l                                       199,4          106,0          415,2
       Solids
       Sulphides                 mg/l                 500                   518,2          630,3          632,2
       N (NH4)                   mg/l                 2,0                    0,46          0,43            0,3
       P (PO4)                   mg/l                                        0,94          0,95           0,98
       Fats                      mg/l                  0,2                    2,8           0,3            0,9
       Nitrates                  mg/l                  50                    16,0          21,4           14,9
       E Coli                  number               absent                 950 000        950 000        900 000




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      Annex 4: List of Participants, Scoping meeting on 9th of July 2010 and Draft EIA meeting 9th
      of December, 2010




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           Draft EIA meeting 9th of December, 2010




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      Annex 5 Photo Gallery – Scoping Meeting




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      Annex 6 Photo Gallery – Public discussion of the Draft
      EIA




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      Annex 7 Terms of Reference
                                                TERMS OF REFERENCE
                                               REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA


Regional Development and Social Protection Project (RDSPP)
Orhei WWTP


Environmental Assessment CONSULTING SERVICES

The Government of Moldova has received a grant from the European Commission (EC) to
improve wastewater treatment in the city of Orhei. Parts of the proceeds of the EC grant will be
applied for consulting services to conduct an environmental assessment for the construction of
WWTP in Orhei.
Accompanying measures are required in the existing wastewater system that has to be adapted
to permit a re-direction of wastewater flows to the new wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)
developed based on Constructed Wetlands (CW) technology. These measures shall be financed
by an IDA credit and local resources from Apa Canal Orhei.

           Project background

           General

Orhei is located in the centre of the Republic of Moldova, on the left bank of River Raut, 35
km north of the capital on the road between Chisinau and Balti. At present, the official total
number of residents is 33,200, according to National Statistics information from January 2009.
It is assumed, the real number of inhabitants is about 26,000 people, since a considerable
portion of inhabitants has moved to other places (mostly abroad), without giving official
notification.

           Water supply and wastewater collection

The city features both piped water supply and sewerage system. More than 90% of total
population is connected to the central water supply system, but only 50% is discharging into
the sewer system.
The first stage of water supply rehabilitation works has been implemented in 2006-2007.
During this period about 2,45 million USD from an IDA credit were invested into 28 km new
pipes (including valves, fittings, etc.) and 12 new pumps. The works were partially contracted
to local construction companies and partially carried out by Orhei Apa Canal using community
contribution. Notwithstanding this investment, further rehabilitation works are still needed.

           Existing Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP)

All collected wastewater is currently being pumped more than 100 m geodetic height up to a
wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located on a hill. The WWTP based on trickling filter
technology was constructed in 1976. Consequently, the physical state of the WWTP is dire.
These current conditions are causing high operation cost for the energy needs of pumping and
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poor treatment efficiency. Hence there is a pressing need for a new wastewater treatment
facility with improved treatment efficiency and substantially reduced pumping energy cost.
This implicates that the future WWTP should be located at a different, low-lying site.
Rehabilitation of the existing WWTP is not considered a feasible option.

The rehabilitation and construction proposed will involve varying types of civil works and
technologies. Since the potential for environmental impacts exists during the construction
works and future operation of the new plant an Environmental Assessment (EA) must be
prepared. The EA tasks specified under this TOR will cover the investment proposed for
development of a CW in Orhei as the new WWTP for this city. .

ToR Objectives

The objective of this Consulting Services assignment is to provide assistance to the Agency
“Orhei Apa Canal” and other project beneficiaries in undertaking Environmental Assessment
(EA) for the proposed new constructed wetland technology investment in Orhei including
preparation of Environmental Management Plan (EMP), in order to comply with relevant
World Bank requirements and Moldovan environmental and construction regulations. The aim
of the EA report is to analyze the potential adverse environmental issues related to the CW
investment proposed in Orhei and to ensure that these aspects are addressed or mitigated in the
project design.


Implicit with this objective are the procedural EA requirements for consultation and disclosure
of EA documents with affected groups and NGOs.

Scope of Work and Tasks of the Consultant

For the tasks detailed below, the Consultant together with the PIU will visit the project location
in Orhei and will be in constant coordination with appropriate local government authorities
(Municipality Water, Environment institutions) and/or research institutes for collecting
necessary environmental and social data (e.g., noise; air, water, groundwater and soil quality;
land use and cultural heritage aspects, land ownership, etc.) that will help determine a baseline
situation of the proposed investment. During the project site visits particular attention should
be paid to the local public (affected people) views on environmental and social effects imposed
during the construction works as well as future operation of the proposed investment.

The Consultant working closely with the Project implementation team and the EC project team
will undertake the following interrelated tasks:

1. Review of the available relevant information on the project site

Provide a review of the existing relevant information on environmental and overall ecosystem
aspects specifically related to the project site (e.g., location of the future CW and
surroundings). Include findings of any existing hydrological surveys, geotechnical
investigations, water quality data, environmental and social studies as well as economical
evaluations related to the proposed investment in the project area.

Identify and assess the environmental issues described in these documents (with a focus on
water quality and quantity related issues and environmental effects) in comparison with
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national EIA legislation requirements and compliance with environmental criteria and laws as
well as with the World Bank requirements for EIA category B projects. Advise on further
collection of environmental data if needed to update the existing local environmental baseline
for water, groundwater and soil quality at the project site.

Provide an overview of the institutional, legislative and regulatory framework that addresses
environmental and public health issues in relation to the proposed project. This should include
all relevant regulations and standards governing environmental quality, health and safety,
protection and sensitive areas related to the planned civil works in the project context. Also, the
Consultant will review new government legislation, decisions and/or guidance notes relevant to
the environment, determining their relevance to the project.
Assess the institutional arrangements for EA including the mechanisms and responsibilities for
environmental screening and the review of EA results. This should include a description of
feasible institutional arrangements for monitoring the compliance (who will be responsible
for enforcement at various levels). Also, identify institutional capacity building needs.

2. Description of relevant works under the proposed project and relevant environmental
baseline

Provide a summary technical description of the planned or projected activities under the
Project, with a special emphasis to those that are of particular relevance to the EA.
Provide, as far as possible, a detailed list of all physical interventions and civil works
planned for the project.

The environmental concerns are associated primarily with the civil works for the construction
of wastewater treatment system, as well as its operation. Clearly describe all aspects relevant to
the proposed construction and operation of CW technology (including different options for site
location). Assess the different wastewater treatment technologies studied for the new Orhei
WWTP including evaluation of technical (e.g., ease of operation, required skills, land
availability), financial (investment costs, O&M costs, wastewater tariff) and environmental
criteria (safety of compliance with EU standards, risk of odor, noise, etc) as well as social
criteria (population acceptability of proposed CW technology, extent of necessary
resettlement). Describe the proposed and selective treatment alternatives including flow
schematics, mass balance for sludge and liquid, design criteria, proposed operating conditions,
and sludge and vegetation removal and disposal methods.

Describe in a separate section the project alternatives including the “no-project” option. Assess
the possible environmental impacts or benefits of each studied alternative.

Provide assessment of current situation of the CW project site including areas of environmental
consideration such as: flood plain/river corridor; aquatic life; water supply and overall
resources including groundwater; storm water and wastewater sources; air quality and noise;
solid waste; soil stability; protected environment and species, critical habitats; historical and
archeological sources; fauna and flora; use of forest or farm land; and overall site safety.

3. Determination of the potential impacts of the proposed project

Present briefly the potential environmental and social impacts associated with the works
identified under Task 2, which will include mainly construction activities relating to the
wastewater treatment facility and relevant distribution networks.
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The project is not expected to have significant or irreversible long-term negative environmental
impacts and will likely have some positive impacts. However, during construction some short-
term, limited-scale environmental and social disturbances might occur, related to site
preparation, earth moving, excavating, backfilling and grading that might generate increased
noise levels, exposure of workers to dust, or accumulated piles of construction waste. During
its operation the CW might generate odors, suspended solids in the vegetated submerged beds,
pests and insects, etc. The Consultant should therefore list and describe potential impacts –
both positive and negative – which may occur at various phases: design, construction,
operation. The Consultant should perform a simple analysis of the expected environmental
impacts (including those on natural habitats, international waterways, wildlife, and human
health), taking in consideration the design and operational conditions of the CW, and
distinguishing between significant positive and negative impacts, direct and indirect impacts,
and immediate and long-term impacts.

4.      Development of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) The Consultant should
recommend feasible mitigation measures to prevent or reduce possible environmental and
social impacts to acceptable levels during the relevant project phases: mitigation measures
should be streamlined into design and implemented during construction and operation phases.
Special attention should be paid to issues such as minimizing risks of dealing with
carcinogenic or harmful materials, complying with health and occupational safety rules,
classifying separating and delivering construction waste to designated landfills, minimizing
noise, generation of dust and other emissions in the process of construction. Estimate the
impacts and costs of those measures, and of the institutional and training requirements needed
to implement them.

Prepare an environmental mitigation plan and provide specific mitigation actions of possible
loss of vegetation and harm to natural habitats and physical cultural resources during the
proposed construction and future operation of the CW.

Prepare an environmental monitoring plan including monitoring activities and specific
sampling and proposed work program, budget estimates, staffing and training requirements,
and other necessary support services to implement the mitigating measures. Establish a plan for
analyzing, testing and checking procedures for environmental materials, flows and ambient
conditions (e.g., the environmental monitoring plan). The following influent and effluent
parameters should be monitor during the CW operation: (i) physical parameters (pH,
temperature, total suspended solids, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand,
settled solids); (ii) biological parameters (fecal coliforms); (iii) metals (copper, lead, zinc,
cadmium), and (iv) nutrients (total phosphorus, nitrite/nitrate, total nitrogen). The monitoring
should also include a qualitative assessment of the vegetative health and observations of
wildlife presence in the CW area. Also, typical technical operation control considerations
relevant to CW design (e.g., detention time, dike maintenance) should be constantly monitored
in line with the operational permit of the facility.

Provide EMP cost estimates (in US$) associated with the overall EMP implementation.
Describe (as an annex to EMP) the environmental mitigation requirements to be followed by
the Contractor and measures to be carried out by the Contractor related to environmental
protection (e.g., Contract provisions for the Contractor who will perform the civil works, which
should also be included in the technical specifications for these contracts).

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5. Public Consultation and disclosure information

Assist in coordinating the EA process with relevant agencies on the national, regional and
municipal level. The consultant will arrange discussions with groups likely to be affected by
the proposed project and with local NGOs on the environmental aspects of the proposed
project at the proposed site in Orhei. At the community meetings, the environmental and social
aspects of the project in general and various investments will be discussed. Since the project is
designed to work primarily at the municipal level and with Orhei Apa Canal, the consultant
will help the government to ensure that all stakeholders' views regarding project selection,
design, implementation and monitoring are taken into account.

The record of the public consultation should be carefully documented. Any comments and
questions discussed during the public awareness campaign should be recorded in the final draft
EA.

6. Deliverables – EA reports

The consultant should prepare a draft EA report consistent with any documentation
requirements of Moldovan environmental assessment regulations and the World Bank policies
(see OP 4.01 Annex B Content of an Environmental assessment Report for a Category B
Project)
The draft EA should include Annexes providing updated maps of zone of the study, pictures
taken during the visit and/or public consultation meeting; furthermore, any other relevant
information should be attached to the Final Report.

    Issues to be addressed in the EA should be developed from: (i) public consultation, (ii) the
    World Bank Environmental Assessment Sourcebook (Volume II), (iii) the Consultant’s own
    knowledge and experience, and (iv) information secured during a required field visit of the
    project site and discussions with local environmental authorities. The dates for all site visits
    and key meetings with the client agency and other governmental bodies should be included
    with the Preparation and Approval Schedule to be attached to the EA.

A critical section of the EA report is the Environmental Management Plan (EMP). The
Consultant should prepare the EMP in accordance with the specifications presented in
Addendum 1. All priority issues addressed in the EA must be incorporated into the EMP. A
sample outlined for the EA is provided in Exhibit 1.


After completion of the consultation, the Consultant should incorporate any comments
received into the EA and send the draft to environmental authorities of Moldova and to the
World Bank for final review and comment Final report will be issued in 3 copies in English
and Romanian, and also presented in electronic form.

7. Qualifications

The candidates for the assignment will have at least 8 years of relevant experience in
carrying out environmental assessment and environmental impact assessments, especially in
the water and sanitation sector with an emphasis on constructed wetland technology. Prior

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involvement in infrastructure projects supported by the World Bank and other IFIs is an
advantage.
The following qualifications will also be an asset: (i) knowledge of Moldovan environmental
legislation and procedures as well as the World Bank EA requirements; (ii) a university degree
(preferably related to engineering - water, sanitation, civil and/or environmental engineering),
an environmental science, Chemical Engineering or a related subject; (iii) specific experience
in the management of the outcome of environmental assessment related to water and sanitation
sector investments; (iv) proficiency in English, and use of computers, word processing,
spreadsheets and other basic software.

8. Duration of assignment and deliverables

The consultant will sign a Short-term contract with the Project PIU per World Bank standard
terms and conditions. Duration of the assignment will be 60 days. Consultant will be paid
against specific deliverables.

It is envisioned that 30% would be paid on delivery of the inception report (within 10 days
from the date of award of contract), 40% on the delivery of the draft final report (within 40
days from the date of award contract) and the remaining 30% on the submission of the final
report (within 10 days after receiving the comments on draft final report).

The consultant will report to the PIU Director and will work closely with the representatives of
the World Bank including the Task Team Leader and other members of the Project preparation
team.



.




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           Exhibit 1: Sample EA Outline


Executive Summary
       I.    Introduction
       II.   Baseline Situation
             A.     Existing Technical Investment
             B.     Geography
             C.     Social
             D.     Historic/Cultural
       III.  Proposed Investment
       IV.   Analysis of Potential Environmental Impact
             A.     Physical
                    1.       Short-term (Construction)
                    2.       Long-term
             B.     Social
       V.    Alternatives (including site selection)
       VI.   Environnemental Management Plan
             A.     Summary of Key environmental impact issues
             B.     Institutional Issues
             C.     Mitigation Plan
             D.     Monitoring Plan
             E.     Public Consultation

           Annexes
           1.    TOR for Preparation of the EA
           2.    Preparation and Approval Schedule for EA, Dates of Site Visits and Key
                 Meetings
           3.    Minutes of Consultation
           4.    Contract Terms for Environmental Protection for Contractors in
                 Performance of Works




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ADDENDUM 1:                                    ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN FORMAT

A. MITIGATION PLAN

                                                                                Cost                      Institutional         Comments
                                                                                                          Responsibility*       (e.g. secondary
                                                                                                                                impacts)
Phase                          Issue                               Mitigating   Install   Operate         Install     Operate
                                                                   Measure
Construction                   
                               
                               
Operation                      
                               
                               
Decommissioning                
                               
                               

*          Any responsibilities designated for a Contractor, shall be specified in the Contractor Bid Document and attached to EMP




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B. MONITORING PLAN
                                                                                                    Cost                Responsibility*
Phase                      What                Where        How           When          Why         Install   Operate   Install Operate
                           paramete            is    the    is      the   is      the    Is   the
                           r is to be          paramete     parameter     parameter     paramete
                           monitore            r to be      to       be   to       be   r to be
                           d?                  monitore     monitored/    monitored-    monitore
                                               d?           type     of   frequency     d
                                                            monitoring    of            (optional
                                                            equipment?    measureme     )?
                                                                          nt       or
                                                                          continuous
                                                                          ?
Baseline
(Usually     for
Category      A
Projects only)


Construct


Operate


Decommission




*          Any responsibilities designated for a Contractor, shall be specified in the Contractor Bid Document


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C.         INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

The Consultant should provide a narrative discussion supported by organizational charts
detailing:
     Responsibilities for mitigation and monitoring
     Environmental information flow (reporting—from who and to who and how often)
     Decision making chain of command for environmental management (to take action, to
        authorize expenditures, to shut down, etc.)
In short, explain how all the monitoring data is going to be used to maintain sound
environmental performance—who collects the data, who analyzes it, who prepares reports, who
are the reports sent to and how often, and who does that person send it to, or what does he/she do
with the information—who has the authority to spend, shutdown, change operations etc.

D.         INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING

The Consultant should identify the current institutional capacity of key players (public and
private) and areas where capacity needs to be improved relative to environmental protection.
Then give information on the following areas as is relevant to any required capacity building.

1.      Training/Study Tours
     List:
      Type of Training (Mitigation, Monitoring, Environmental Management, Other)
      Number of Students
            - Current and Future Organizational Unit in Which They Work or Current and
            - Future Title/Job Description
      Duration of Training
      Start Date/End Date (for each student)
      Venue of Training (Domestic or Abroad)
      Institute or Organization to Provide Training
      Cost (Local and Foreign)

2.      Consultant Services
     List:
      Type of Service
      Terms of Reference
      Justification
      Cost

3.      Special Studies
     List:
      Justification
      Terms of Reference
      Cost

4.      Equipment Purchases (Tabular Presentation Preferred)
     List:
      Type of equipment
      Number of Units
      Unit cost
      Total Cost
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          Local or International Purchase


E.         SCHEDULE

The Consultant should present (preferably in Chart Form) the start and finish dates for:
    Mitigation Activities
    Monitoring Activities
    Training Activities

This information should be keyed to the overall project schedule.

F.         CONSULTATION: LOCAL NGOs AND PROJECT-AFFECTED GROUPS

Provide documentation of the following:
    Manner in which notification of the consultation was announced: media(s) used,
       date(s), description or copy of the announcement
    Date(s) consultation(s) was (were) held
    Location(s) consultation(s) was (were) held
    Who was invited
                  Name,      Organization      or   Occupation, Telephone/Fax/e-mail
                  number/address (home and/or office)
    Who attended
                  Name,      Organization      or   Occupation, Telephone/Fax/e-mail
                  number/address (home and/or office)
    Meeting Program/Schedule
                 What is to be presented and by whom
    Summary Meeting Minutes (Comments, Questions and Response by Presenters)
    List of decisions reached, and any actions agreed upon with schedules and
       deadlines.




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