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					              In-Situ Sensors:
  Their Development and Application for the
  Study of Chemical, Physical and Biological
        Systems at Mid-Ocean Ridges
                NSF/RIDGE-Sponsored Workshop


                             October 22-24, 2000
                       Aptos & Moss Landing, California




Conveners:   W.E.Seyfried, Jr., University of Minnesota
             K.S. Johnson, Monterey Bay Research Institute and Aquarium
             M.K. Tivey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
                     Working Group I

• Sensors and Samplers for High Temperature
  Environments
   –   Eileen Dunn, Arizona State University
   –   Kang Ding, University of Minnesota
   –   Nancy Hinman, University of Montana
   –   Marv Lilley*, University of Washington
   –   Peter Rona, Rutgers University
   –   W.E. Seyfried, Jr., University of Minnesota
   –   M. K. Tivey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
   –   K.L. Von Damm, University of New Hampshire
   –   Richard Wunderman, Smithsonian Institution

   (*) Session Chairs
                    Working Group II

• Sensors and Samplers at Low-Temperatures
  – James W. Ammerman, Texas A&M University, Thomas Chapin, MBARI
  – Carol Chin, Oregon State University, Robert Collier*, Oregon State
    University
  – James P. Cowen, University of Hawaii, Ed DeLong, MBARI
  – Darcy Gentleman, Arizona State University, Hans Jannasch*, MBARI
  – K. Johnson, MBARI, Gary P. Klinkhammer, Oregon State University
  – George W. Luther, III, University of Delaware, Gary J. Massoth, Institute of
    Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Gary M. McMurtry, University of Hawaii
  – Joseph Resing, NOAA/PMEL, Derryl Schroeder, Texas A&M University
  – Kiminoria Shitashima, of Electric Power Industry
  – Geoffrey Wheat, University of Alaska


  (*) Co-Chair
                    Working Group III

• Reliability and Calibrations Issues
   –   Patricia Beauchamp, NASA
   –   Karl Booksh, Arizona State University
   –   Abdellah Cherkaoui, University of California-Santa Cruz
   –   John Frantz, Carnegie Institution of Washington
   –   Gernot Friederich, MBARI
   –   Ken Johnson, MBARI
   –   Harold Kirkham*, NASA-JPL
   –   Gary Massoth*, Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, New Zealand
   –   Gary McMurtry, University of Hawaii
   –   Derryl Schroeder, Texas A&M University
   –   Debra S. Stakes, MBARI
   –   William Wilcock, University of Washington
   –   Rick Wunderman, Smithsonian Institution
   (*) Co-Chair
                    Working Group IV

• “Plug and Play”- Data transfer, Storage and
  Instrument Deployment
   –   A. M. Bradley*, Woods Hole
   –   Kevin Brown, Scripps
   –   Fred K. Duennebier*, University of Hawaii
   –   Duane Eddington, MBARI
   –   George Malby, MBARI
   –   Gene Massion, MBARI
• One charge of this group was to consider factors that
  would affect experimenters use of Observatory
  infrastructure
   (*) Co- Chair
      Sensor Development Strategy

•   Is it still only a dream?
•   Does it work on the bench?
•   Has it gone to sea?
•   Does it work in-situ?
•   Can others use it?
•   Is it reliable?
                Key Topics

•   Progress to Date
•   Future Needs
•   Steps to Success
•   Test-bed Issues
•   Calibration Issues
Monitoring of Resistivity at the Main
  Endeavour Field: Lilley, 2000
   Sensors and Samplers for High
    Temperature Environments
• Significant Progress has been made:
  – Sensors
     •   Temperature
     •   H2, H2S and pH (Ding et al., 2001)
     •   Resistivity (Lilley, 2000)
     •   Flow rate
           – Invasive and non-invasive approaches
     • Ag/Pd H2 membrane (Frantz, 2000)
  – Material Properties
  – Data Transfer Strategies (ICL)
  – Samplers
   Sensors and Samplers for High
    Temperature Environments-
            Continued
• Need for a Wide Range of Sensors
  – CO2, CH4
  – More robust and miniaturized pH sensors
  – Proxies for chloride
     • Na
     • Conductivity
  – Transition metals
• Samplers still necessary for many
  applications
  – Time series actuation, gas-tight capability
             Steps to Success
• Continued Instrument Development
     • Sensors (chemical/physical), samplers, supporting
       electronics
• Closer links to Industry for Technology-
  Transfer
     • New materials for hydrothermal applications
• Instrumentation Test Facility
     • Dissemination and testing of new technologies
     • Calibration
• “Test-Dive” Program
     • Sensors, samplers and supporting electronics need to be
       field tested. ALVIN dive time essential component
    Sensors and Samplers for Low
     Temperature Environments
• Significant Progress has                                                                      840 µM Br
                                                                                                         -
                                                                                                                               2.5

                                                                                                                          a.
  been made                                                             0.6                                                    2.0




                                       Absorbance except Br-




                                                                                                                                     Absorbance Br-
                                                                                                               50 µM I-
   – Physical                                                           0.4
                                                                                                                          -
                                                                                                                               1.5

                                                                                                              50 µM HS
      • Temperature, pressure, fluid                                                      30 M                                1.0
                                                                                              -
        flow rates at a relatively                                      0.2               NO3                      50 M
                                                                                                                        2- 0.5
                                                                                                                   S2O3
        mature stage of development                                               H2S
                                                                        0.0                                                  0.0
   – Chemical                                                              200          220        240         260        280
                                                                                        Wavelength (nm)
      • FIA-style- (NO3-, Br-, HS-,
        H2S, S2O3-2                                                     1.0                                                    100




                                            Absorbance (AU) at 230 nm
      • Voltametry (sulfur species)                                     0.8
                                                                                              % HS
                                                                                                     -                         80

      • MIMS                                                            0.6                                                    60




                                                                                                                                       % HS-
                                                                        0.4                                                    40
      • Osmo-Analyzer                                                                                        Absorbance
                                                                        0.2                                                    20

                                                                        0.0                                                    0

                                                                              3     4     5    6         7     8     9    10
                                                                                                   pH
     Comparison of In-situ (UV-flow injection)
     with Wet Chemical Analysis of Sulfide in
               Hydrothermal Fluid
                                  10000
                                              Juan de Fuca Hydrothermal Fluids
                                                                        2
                                              MB = 0.95 * UV - 10.0 (r    = 0.983)
                                   8000
          Methylene Blue (µM S)




                                   6000


                                                                          15
                                   4000                                              1:1
                                                                          10

                                   2000                                    5

                                                                           0
                                                                                 0   5      10   15
K. Johnson,                           0
                                          0        2000      4000        6000        8000        10000
MBARI                                                       Ultraviolet (µM S)
 Highest Priority for Instrumentation
           Development
• Biological Sensors             • Samplers
   – Biomass and production         –   Large Volume
     rates                          –   Gas Tight
      • Lipid-based analyses        –   Time Series
      • Enzyme activity
                                    –   Biological Samplers
      • In-situ sample
                                         • Maintaining
        manipulators (ESP)
                                           environmental
          – In-situ filtering,
                                           conditions essential
            incubating and
            sensing cells by     • Long-term Monitoring
            various techniques
                                 • Video technology
                                    – Low-light imaging
              Steps to Success
• Development of new materials making full use of the
  range of new carbon-based polymers
• Miniaturization of electronics and power packages
• The need for sensor integration and synergy to
  constrain unambiguously complex, yet related
  phenomena
• Improvements in power transfer and data collection
  technique
• Technology transfer
• Guide for instrument development- lessons learned,
  do’s and don’t’s
       Steps to Success- Continued
• Sensors need to be developed in synergy with deployment
  strategies
   –   AUV, ROV, etc..
   –   Ships
   –   Moorings
   –   Drifters
• Research support
   – full development cycle through science application
   – Test beds- specifications, simulators, and field sites
   – Take advantage of presently developing initiatives
• Test-bed Issues
   – Integrated program of lab and field tests
• Calibration Issues
   – Across temperature range concern, although LT applications need
     higher precision and sensitivity
        Reliability and Calibration
• The charge of this working group was to make
  recommendations on how sensor reliability and
  calibration might be improved.
   – Steps to Success
      • The RIDGE program should provide guidance for instrument
        test plans,as NASA does for space program.
      • There should be a way to share sensor ideas- RIDGE
        sponsored workshops.
      • A set of transfer standards should be created for some
        calibrations
      • There should be held inter-sensor comparison meetings
      • RIDGE should establish a Technical Assistance Group with the
        idea of helping find ship time and deployment opportunities for
        sensors, providing help with test plans and so on.
NEPTUNE: 2000 miles of fiber-optic
cable to provide power and communication to
scientific instruments at the seafloor
 “Plug and Play” Recommendations

• It is important that the community view observatories
  as facilities-not experiments, with easy access.
   – Data storage and transfer should be flexible
   – Platforms (ROV or submersible) used to deploy
       experiments
   – Test-bed issues must involve the relationship
       between experiments and the observatory- neither
       can be viewed in isolation
   – The success of a large observatory will not be
       measured by how much money is spent, but on
       how much it is used.
   Integrated in-situ                       ICL communication


   chemical sensor




                                                YSZ

                              pH, H2, H2S
                              sensing                       J-thermocouple




In-situ, real time,
Continuous, high-resolution
In-Situ Sensor Deployment at the
    MEF, Juan de Fuca Ridge
                Ding et al., 2001
Comparison of dissolved H2 and H2S concentrations
         measured using different methods
                 30
                 25    H2S

       (mM/kg)
                 20                                     BGT
                 15                                     Sensor
                 10                                     Major

                  5
                  0
                       Hulk/F   Hulk/S     Cantilever

                 0.8
                 0.7   H2
                 0.6
       (mM/kg)




                 0.5                                    BGT
                 0.4                                    Sensor
                 0.3                                    GT
                 0.2
                 0.1
                  0
                       Dante    Bastille   Cantilever
   In-situ measurement:          Dissolved H2S and H2
   as a function of temperature at Cantlever vent site

                                                                   1.0
             20
             18
                                                                   0.8
             16




                                                        a x 1000
                                                                                              PPM
  a x 1000




             14
                                                                   0.6
             12
             10
                                                                   0.4
              8
              6
                                                                   0.2
              4
                                            PPM
              2
                                                                   0.0
              0                                                      100   150   200    250   300   350   400
              100   150   200   250   300   350   400
                                T°C                                                    T°C

                          H2S                                                          H2
This observed near critical phenomena may have a profound
effect on mineral precipitation and biological activity..
                                                                                        5.0                                          5.0


                                                                                        4.6                                          4.6




                                                                          pH(in-situ)




                                                                                                                                           pH(in-situ)
                    First measured in-situ                                              4.2                                         4.2

                       pH of vent fluids                                                 3.8                                        3.8

                                                                                         3.4                                        3.4
                                                                                               0.4                                 400
              5.2                                    Dante                                                                   350
                                                                                                     0.8
              5.0                                                                             NaCl(M) 1.2             300   T°C
                                                                                                             1.6 250
pH(in-situ)




              4.8
              4.6
                                                                                              Theoretically Predicted
              4.4                                          Hulk/F
                                                                                                    in-situ pH
              4.2                                Hulk/S
                    Bastille
              4.0
              3.8
                240    260     280   300       320   340    360     380
                                           o
                                      T C
                    Rationale

• Hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges are
  inherently dynamic where chemical, physical and
  biologic processes can change dramatically in space
  and time challenging the use of conventional
  approaches as a means of assessing key
  phenomena.
• In-situ instrumentation that is capable of short and
  long-term measurement and monitoring of dissolved
  inorganic chemicals, biologically active compounds,
  and physical parameters, such as fluid flow rates is
  essential
Sensor Development for Ocean (top) and
       Space Sciences (bottom)
         research and                    production,
                         design          calibration
                                          production         installation
                                                                 install        operate
                                                                                operation
         development
                                         and test



                                        test data feedback


       research and                                      calibration
                        design         production        and test           installation    calibration   operation
       development


                                  design review

                                        test data feedback

                                                                operational data feedback




Both diagrams emphasize the need for calibration and testing, although
greater emphasis on feedback loops and a more mature testing protocol is
apparent for space applications

				
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