Ritual and Belief by vm0zf90

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									Ritual and Belief
         What is Belief?
powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting
moods and motivations in people
conceptions of a general order of
existence
auras of factuality
moods and motivations seem uniquely
realistic
  Clifford Geertz on Religion
a religion is: "(1) a system of symbols
which acts to (2) establish powerful,
pervasive, and long-lasting moods and
motivations in people by (3) formulating
conceptions of a general order of
existence and (4) clothing these
conceptions with such an aura of factuality
that (5) the moods and motivations seem
uniquely realistic." (Geertz:90)
 Psych Anthro and the Study of
           Emotion
patterns of affect – how people feel about
themselves and others
Emotion as cultural construct
emotional feeling is structured by particular
cultural systems and particular social and
material environments
emotions are appraisals, judgments based on
cultural beliefs and values
emotions involve the self in relationships to
others
emotions are learned or acquired rather than
naturally given
Ritual (Practice) and Belief: Geertz
 belief & practice - "a
 group's ethos is
 rendered intellectually
 reasonable by being
 shown to represent a
 way of life ...
 rendered emotionally
 convincing by being
 presented as an
 image of the actual
 state of affairs...”
What does religion do?
     functional, psychological
           explanations
satisfy cognitive & affective/emotional
demands for a stable, comprehensible,
and coercible world for the individual
provides an orderly model of the universe
explains the unknown
reduces anxiety and fear
enabling the individual to maintain an inner
security in the face of natural contingency
social, structural explanations
sets precedents for appropriate behavior
sanctions conduct
a form of social control
justifies perpetuates a social order
maintains social solidarity
educates believers in social knowledge
provides a sense of control and a source of
solace
– alleviation of grief
  i.e. witchcraft accusations
accusations provide a socially proscribed
way to deal with these problems
allows for public hearing
entire complex of social relationships
investigated
effects for the community of witchcraft
accusations
– evil outsider  community solidarity
– evil insider  necessary societal realignment
     religion and worldview
sacred symbols function to synthesize a
people's ethos
– the distinguishing character, sentiment, moral
  nature, or guiding beliefs of a person, group,
  institution
– a basic congruence between a particular style
  of life and a specific metaphysic/cosmology
encompassing pictures of reality based on
a set of shared assumptions about how
the world works
       Religion and society
belief & ritual reinforce social ties between
people
religion (ritual & spirituality) represents one
form of collective consciousness
Durkheim: shared representations that
form the basis for religion
   Religion and social structure
Geertz: "the way in which the social structure of
a group is strengthened & perpetuated through
the ritualistic or mythic symbolization of the
underlying social values upon which it rests."
                Ritual
ritual is a vital element in the processes
that make and remake social facts and
collective identities everywhere (Comaroff
& Comaroff)

the symbolic behavior through which
religion comes alive
ritual is repetitive, sequential,
non-ordinary, and “powerful”
repetitive: innovation not tolerated

sequential: amen is at the end

non-ordinary: marked in time or space

“powerful”: power to change the world
– by intervention of supernatural entities
– transformation of the participant
        Functions of ritual
Reinforce social bonds
Relieve social tension
Deal with life crises
Celebrate life cycle events
ritual is also a way a society remembers
– through habit
– through bodily practices
Types of ritual
          Rites of Passage
Van Gennep and Victor Turner

rites include three stages
– Separation
– marginality or liminality
    Communitas and anti-structure
– incorporation or re-aggregation
       Other Types of Ritual
Rites of intensification
– cyclical rituals that reinforce the solidarity of the group
ritual inversion
Divination rituals
– predict future & gain hidden info
Technological rituals
– designed to control nature for the purpose of human
  exploitation
Protective rites
– aimed at coping with uncertainty of nature, seas, floods,
  crop diseases
               More Types
therapy & anti-therapy rituals
– designed to control human health; curative, witchcraft,
  sorcery
ideological rituals
– intended to control the behavior, mood, sentiments &
  values of groups for the sake of community as a
  whole
salvation rituals
– aimed at repairing self esteem & other forms of
  impaired identity
  Violence as ritual practice?
Violence, its forms and controls, is fundamental to
human social existence and is central to theories
regarding the nature of society.
Violence as cultural expression and/or performance
– Scripted
From anthropology of identity (pol. org.) to
experience, emotive forces, bodily practices
A discursive practice with rituals and symbols
Violence as cultural practice
– Not just instrumental
A way of affirming and subverting “culture”

								
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