Music: An Appreciation by Roger Kamien - Download as PowerPoint by vm0zf90

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									Music: An Appreciation
8th Edition
by Roger Kamien


            Unit IV
           巴洛克時期
           1600-1750


                  Presentation Development: Robert Elliott
                           University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Chpt. 3:大協奏曲與Ritornello形式
  • Concerto Grosso
   • For small group of soloists and orchestra
   • Multi-movement work
   • Usually 3 movements
     • Fast
     • Slow (usually quieter)
     • Fast (sometimes dance-like)
Chpt. 3: 大協奏曲與Ritornello形式
   • Ritornello
     • Frequently used in 1st & last movements
       of concerto grosso

     • Theme repeatedly presented in fragments

     • Contrast between solo sections and tutti
Listening
Brandenberg Concerto No. 5 in D
 major by Johann Sebastian Bach
 For string orchestra and group of soloists
    Soloists: flute, violin, and harpsichord
 First movement
 Ritornello form
 Listening Guide p. 167

 Brief Set, CD 1:60
Chpt. 9: 巴洛克奏鳴曲
• 器樂
• 多樂章之器樂曲

 • 三重奏鳴曲 (trio sonatas)
   • 三重樂譜線:兩重高及一個數字低音
   • 三重奏鳴曲往往有四位樂器演奏家

 • 教堂奏鳴曲 (da chiesa,即 church sonata)
   高貴
 • 室奏鳴曲 (da camera,即chamber sonata)
   更富舞蹈意味
Arcangelo Corelli (柯賴里 )
   Trio Sonata in A Minor, Op.3 No. 10
     by Arcangelo Corelli
     For 2 violins and basso continuo
    Listening Guide: p. 154
    Supplementary Set, CD 1:2

   Note: Polyphonic texture
         Multi movement work
         Contrast between
    movements
Chpt. 11: Antonio Vivaldi (威瓦第)
     • 巴洛克時期義大利大師
     • 人稱為「紅神父」(il prete rosso)
     • 擔任Pieta威尼斯一所孤兒院或私生女收
       容所教授音樂
   • 女士出席教堂管絃樂和聲樂的音樂會,他們置身
     於一處頂層迴廊,以一道格子式的鐵製品區隔。
     • Wrote sacred and secular vocal and
       instrumental music
     • Famous as a virtuoso violinist &
       composer
Francesco Guardi: Ladies Concert at the Phiharmonic Hall, 1782
                               Chpt. 11-Antonio Vivaldi


Listening
Vivaldi,<春> (Spring), 取自《四季》(
  Four Seasons) (1725)
  Listening Guide: p. 158
Concerto for violin and string
 orchestra
Note:Polyphonic texture & ritornello form
     Baroque program music
     Descriptive effects (e.g., bird songs)
Chpt. 12: Johann Sebastian Bach (巴哈)
     • 日耳曼,巴洛克音樂的高峰
     • Organist and violinist
       • Deeply religious (Lutheran)
       • Worked in sacred and secular positions
         • Weimar/Cothen/Leipzig
       • Large family
     • 巴哈被公認為是最出色的風琴演奏家、
       大鍵琴演奏家
     • 以歌劇除外之巴洛克形式創作
       • Recognized for technical mastery
         • 展現一種令人驚奇的和諧加對位法的嫻雅
         • All music majors study Bach’s compositions
            • He is the model for learning to write music
Chpt. 4: Fugue 賦格曲

• 多聲部織體作曲形式
• 主要是器樂、聲樂、獨奏或合奏
• Subject
  • 主要的主題
  • 模仿主題的方式出現
  • 每聲部在前一聲部演唱主題後進
    入
                                 Chpt. 4-The Fugue


Listening
C小調賦格
 by J. S. Bach
 Note individual voice entry on same melody
  (subject)

 Listening Guide p. 109

 Brief Set, CD 1:65
Chpt. 13: 巴洛克組曲
• 多樂章樂曲
• 係由一系列舞蹈引發的樂章
• 組曲的樂章通常是二段體自行反複—
  AABB
• 組曲通常以「非」舞蹈之序曲開始
    • 「法國序曲」(French overture)通常是二間
      體
       • 首先以充滿莊嚴與壯麗的附點節奏呈現一個緩
•        慢的部分
    Forerunner of forms used in the next
       • 第二個部分是快速而較輕巧氣氛,以類似賦格
    period
         的形式起頭。
                              Chpt. 13-The Baroque Suite


Listening
Suite No. 3 in D Major (~1730)
 by J. S. Bach, 2nd, 4th, & 5th mvts.
 Listening Guide: p. 171
 Basic Set, CD 2:33, 35, 37


 Note:   Extensive polyphony
         Contrast of dance forms and
         tempo in various movements
Chpt. 14: Chorale 聖詠與
Church Cantata教會清唱套曲
• 路德教會星期日的禮拜是該週的社交大事
  • 持續約四小時,講道一小時。
  • 音樂是路德教會禮拜的重頭戲
  • 唱聖詠是讓會眾直接參與禮拜

• 聖詠(chorale): 或者聖詩調,是以地方語唱出
• 教會清唱套曲(cantata)
  • 通常是為合唱團、聲部獨唱、風琴及一個小型管絃
    樂團
  • 地方語宗教文句
  • 使用詠嘆調、二重唱與朗誦調,和當時的歌劇非常
    相似
                              Chpt. 14-The Chorale and Church Cantata


     Listening
Cantata No. 140:《醒來吧,有一聲音在呼喚我
 們》(Wachet Auf, Ruft Uns Die Stimme)
 by J. S. Bach (1731), Movements 1, 4, & 7
 Listening Guides: p. 177
 Basic Set, CD 2:39, 42, 45

Note:Vernacular (German) text
     Chorale tune basis
     Polyphonic until chorale in movement 7
     Movement 7—provides for congregation
     to join in
                 Chpt. 16-George Frederic Handel


Listening
Handel,Messiah, Sinfonia 序曲
Chpt. 15: 神劇(Oratorio)
• 與歌劇一般:
 • 融合了合唱團、聲樂獨唱,以及管絃樂團的大規
   模創作
 • 一系列的合唱、詠嘆調、二重唱、朗誦調,以及
   管絃樂團演奏之間奏曲所組成。
•異於歌劇之處:
 •他沒有表演、佈景或戲服
 •依據聖經故事創作
•不是為了禮拜而作
 •現今,他們在音樂廳或教會演出
Chpt. 16: George Frederic Handel (韓德爾)
      • 出生於德國Halle,只比Bach早一個月
        • 並非出身音樂世家
           • 父親希望兒子學習法律
      • Studied music in Germany, then to Italy
        to study opera, finally England to work
        • Became England’s most important
          composer
        •創作了不少具相當水準的歌劇 in London
        •經營了一所歌劇院韓德爾為其音樂總監
           • Worked as composer, performer, & impresario
        • Buried in Westminster Abbey
                                  Chpt. 16-George Frederic Handel


Listening
Handel,Sinfonia
Recitative: Comfort ye
<每座山谷都是要被提高>(Every Valley Shall Be Exalted),凡自高的,
  必降為卑; 自卑的, 必升為高。
取自《彌賽亞》

  Listening Guide: p. 187   Basic Set, CD 2:50



For Unto Us A Child Is Born
  Listening Guide: p. 189            Basic Set CD 2:52

Hallelujah Chorus
  Listening Guide: p. 190             Basic Set CD 2:54

								
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