BACK TO HISTORY
Fairmont High School
9thGrade World History
10th Grade US History
12th Grade Online Government
Protest Music Primary Source Activity
20th Century Conflict
Explain how the Cold War and related conflicts influenced U.S.
foreign policy after 1945 with emphasis on
C. The Vietnam War
The United States in the 20th Century
Trace social unrest, protest and change in the United States
Antiwar protest during the Vietnam War
The counterculture movement
Young people in the 1960s who rejected traditional
Create a counterculture, or an alternative culture that
ran counter to main society
Emphasized peace, individual freedom, nonviolence,
and communal sharing
Also known as hippies
Experiment with different clothing, lifestyles, and drugs
The Role of Music
Music becomes a forum for protest in the 1960s
Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Credence Clearwater Revival,
John Lennon, etc. all write songs protesting U.S.
involvement in Vietnam
Songs become a major form of protest in the 1960s and
the years following…
Get into groups of 4-5
You will each be given a song to read and analyze the
You will then need to nominate one group member to
share with the class the song that you had and what you
interpreted it to mean
Focus on how your groups song would serve as a forum
for protest against the war in Vietnam
You will need to turn in a written interpretation of your
song to me from each of you.
You have 15 minutes to complete this assignment
“For What It’s Worth”- Buffalo Springfield
“What’s Going On”- Marvin Gaye
“Ohio”- Crosby, Still, Nash and Young
“Imagine” – John Lennon
“Blowin’ in the Wind”- Bob Dylan
“Turn, Turn, Turn” – The Byrds
“Fortunate Son” – CCR
“Volunteers”- Jefferson Airplane
“Fixin-to-Die-Rag” – Country Joe and the Fish
“War Pigs”- Black Sabbath
History Works Ohio
Broken into age groups (Grades 3-5, Grades 6-8,
Links all content to primary sources from Ohio
Ohio Flag in Vietnam
Ohio Flag in Vietnam
Author: James E. Hill, Sr.
Allow students, in groups or individually, to examine the primary source linked under
Resources to the right, while answering the questions below in order. The questions are
designed to guide students into a deeper analysis of the source and sharpen associated
Soldier Jim Lundgard
Level I: Description
displaying the Ohio flag that 1. What is the time period of this primary source?
he requested from Governor
James Rhodes while serving
in Vietnam, 1969. The flag is
Level II: Interpretation
part of the Ohio Historical 1. How would you interpret this primary source?
Society museum collections,
catalog number H 82022. Level III: Analysis
1. What is the theme of this primary source?
2. What is the relationship between the man and the flag?
History 9-10, Benchmark E: Analyze connections between World War II, the Cold War
and contemporary conflicts.
Indicator: Grade 10, GLI 8. Explain how the Cold War and related conflicts
influenced U.S. foreign policy after 1945 with emphasis on: c. The Korean War
and the Vietnam War.
Protests at OSU
Ohio National Guard Clearing Protestors from The Ohio State University Oval
Author: James E. Hill, Sr.
Description Students protesting the Vietnam
Allow students, in groups or individually, to examine the primary source linked under Resources to the right, War on Oval at Ohio State
while answering the questions below in order. The questions are designed to guide students into a deeper University, Columbus, Ohio,
analysis of the source and sharpen associated cognitive skills. Franklin County, April, 1970.
Level I: Description
1. Who is pictured in this primary source?
2. What is the time period of this primary source? How do you know?
1. What type of protest is taking place?
2. What justifies students rights to protest?
Level III: Analysis
1. Do you approve or disapprove of the actions of each group? Explain.
2. What does this source tell you about the time period, region or culture?
History 9-10, Benchmark F: Identify major historical patterns in the domestic affairs of the United States
during the 20th century and explain their significance.
Indicator: Grade 10, GLI 13. Trace social unrest, protest and change in the United States including:
a. Antiwar protest during the Vietnam War.
Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities 9-10, Benchmark A: Analyze ways people achieve governmental
change, including political action, social protest and revolution.
Indicator: Grade 10, GLI 2. Explain how civil disobedience differs from other forms of dissent and Ohio National Guard clearing
evaluate its application and consequences including: c. Student protests during the Vietnam War. protestors from The Ohio State
University Oval, April 30,
*This lesson should be done after discussing the first amendment and the rights guaranteed in it.
Students will listen to several song selections of Vietnam War protest music. Following a class discussion about the
Vietnam War and the Kent State Riot, students will access the Kent State Riot scrapbook on Ohio Memory and
complete the activities listed with each item.
Play the songs ar by Edwin Starr, For What It’ sung Ohio
s Worth by Buffalo Springfield, and sung by Neil
Discuss the freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under the first amendment and how these songs fit into this
Give some background information about the Vietnam War. (I usually just discuss the length of the war, why we were
fighting, about the draft and then about the controversy surrounding the War.)
Discuss the Kent State Riot, first seeing what the students already know, then giving some general background
information about the events leading up to the Riot.
Have students get onto this Ohio Memory scrapbook on the Kent State Riots
Students should then look at the documents and photos on the website and answer the questions for each source.
Allow one to two periods to complete the web activities.
Students will turn in their paper with the answers to the questions from the website. All three level of spiral
questions are on the website
Read through the interviews of
those involved in the Kent
State Riot. Answer the
following questions. Were
there differences in the
accounts of the events that
occurred? Can you relate this
event to any other event in
U.S. history? Which one and
how does it compare? How do
our rights guaranteed by the
first amendment apply to this
Letters to the Editor
Read these editorial letters. Answer
the following questions. Who is
writing the letters? What is the main
topic of the letters? How has this
event effected these students?
Kent State Army ROTC Building
View the photograph and write a description of what you see. Be sure
to put as many details that you see in the picture. What world events
led to the event pictured? What does this event the events that followed
tell you about people's view of the Vietnam War and the draft?
Kent State before shootings…
View the following photographs. Answer the following questions. What would it have been
like to be a student trying to learn and study and seeing this on your way to class? What
other things could the government have done to keep the students more under control
without the use of violence?
Kent State University News Service
View the previous photographs. Answer the following questions. What is
the sequence of events? What one picture really effected you? Why and
explain how it effected you? If you were a newspaper editor, what
picture would you choose to put on your paper and why?
Gov. Rhodes Press Release
Read the following press release from Governor
Rhodes. Answer the following questions. Was
closing the universities the right thing to do. If
you had been a student at a local college,
would you have participated in a protest?
Explain your answer.
Following the completion of this lesson, the class listened to other songs
that showed government criticism, told of political action, expressed an
opinion related to the government or a government action. For
example – ister Rosa”by Aaron Neville, “ et Up, Stand Up”by Bob
Marley, “ here is the Love”by Black Eyed Peas, and many others.
Students could be solicited to bring some examples in as well. Then they
could pick two or three of their favorites and explain the message the
song is portraying.
History 9-10, Benchmark F: Identify major historical patterns in the
domestic affairs of the United States during the 20th century and explain
Indicator: Grade 10, GLI 13. Trace social unrest, protest and change
in the United States including: a. Antiwar protest during the Vietnam
Letters to Diem
October 23, 1954
Eisenhower VS. December 14, 1961
Dear Mr. President, Dear Mr. President, I have received your recent letter in which you described so cogently
the dangerous conditions caused by North Vietnam's effort to take over your
I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Vietnam, particularly country. The situation in your embattled country is well known to me and to the
since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva. The implications of the agreement American people. We have been deeply disturbed by the assault on your country.
concerning Vietnam have caused grave concern regarding the future of the country Our indignation has mounted as the deliberate savagery of the Communist
temporarily divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened by a long and programs of assassination, kidnapping, and wanton violence became clear.
exhausting war, and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators
within. Your letter underlines what our own information has convincingly shown - that the
campaign of force and terror now being waged against your people and your
Your recent requests for aid to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several Government is supported and directed from outside by the authorities at Hanoi.
hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizens away from areas which are passing under They have thus violated the provisions of the Geneva Accords designed to ensure
a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled. I am glad peace in Vietnam and to which they bound themselves in 1954.
that the United States is able to assist in this humanitarian effort.
At that time, the United States, although not a party to the Accords, declared that it
We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Vietnam to be more effective "would view any renewal of the aggression in violation of the Agreements with
and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of grave concern and as seriously threatening international peace and security." We
Vietnam. I am, accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Vietnam [Donald R. continue to maintain that view.
Heath] to examine with you in your capacity as Chief of Government, how an
intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government can serve to In accordance with that declaration, and in response to your request, we are prepared to
assist Vietnam in its present hour of trial, provided that your Government is prepared help the Republic of Vietnam to protect its people and to preserve its
to give assurances as to the standards of performance it would be able to maintain in independence. We shall promptly increase our assistance to your defense effort as
the event such aid were supplied. well as help relieve the destruction of the floods which you describe. I have already
given the orders to get these programs underway.
The purpose of this offer is to assist the Government of Vietnam in developing and
maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or The United States, like the Republic of Vietnam, remains devoted to the cause of peace
aggression through military means. The Government of the United States expects that and our primary purpose is to help your people maintain their independence. If the
this aid will be met by performance on the part of the Government of Vietnam in Communist authorities in North Vietnam will stop their campaign to destroy the
undertaking needed reforms. It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing Republic of Vietnam, the measures we are taking to assist your defense efforts will
efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Vietnam endowed with a no longer be necessary. We shall seek to persuade the Communists to give up their
strong Government. Such a Government would, I hope, be so responsive to the attempts to force and subversion. In any case, we are confident that the Vietnamese
nationalist aspirations of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in people will preserve their independence and gain the peace and prosperity for
performance, that it will be respected at home and abroad and discourage any who which they have sought so hard and so long.
might wish to impose a foreign ideology on your free people.
Source: Department of State Bulletin, January 1, 1962
Source: Department of State Bulletin, November 15, 1954
Vietnam Veterans Against the War
by John Kerry
testimony to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
April 23, 1971
I would like to talk on behalf of all those veterans and say that several months ago in Detroit we had an
investigation at which over 150 honorably discharged, and many very highly decorated, veterans testified
to war crimes committed in Southeast Asia. These were not isolated incidents but crimes committed on a
day-to-day basis with the full awareness of officers at all levels of command. It is impossible to describe to
you exactly what did happen in Detroit -- the emotions in the room and the feelings of the men who were
reliving their experiences in Vietnam. They relived the absolute horror of what this country, in a sense,
made them do.
They told stories that at times they had personally raped, cut off ears, cut off heads, taped wires from
portable telephones to human genitals and turned up the power, cut off limbs, blown up bodies, randomly
shot at civilians, razed villages in fashion reminiscent of Ghengis Khan, shot cattle and dogs for fun,
poisoned food stocks, and generally ravaged the countryside of South Vietnam in addition to the normal
ravage of war and the normal and very particular ravaging which is done by the applied bombing power
of this country.
We call this investigation the Winter Soldier Investigation. The term Winter Soldier is a play on words of
Thomas Paine's in 1776 when he spoke of the Sunshine Patriots and summertime soldiers who deserted at
Valley Forge because the going was rough…
Primary Sources: Interviews
INTERVIEWS- American History
DIRECTIONS: As the interviewer in your group, you should have recorded an interview with either a war
veteran or someone who lived through the war on the homefront. These interviews should be 12-15 minutes
long and should be able to be uploaded to your website. If you have the capability, please convert all
VHS to digital format so that the videos can be uploaded on the web. If you are unable to do this, please
let me know before completing your interviews!!!
Besides completing the interview I want you to reflect on your experience speaking with a firsthand source
about the war. I want you to think about and answer the following questions:
How did you feel about the interview process?
What did you learn from your subject?
Do you think primary sources are important? Why or why not?
What did you learn from your interviewee?
What would you do differently?
Was this something you enjoyed doing? Why or why not?
You are to summarize your interview and answer these questions in a one page reflection paper. Your papers
should be double-spaced, 12 point Times New Roman font, and normal margins. Theyshould AT LEAST BE
ONE PAGE long and should summarize the interview experience from your point of view. Do NOT just
answer the questions above, expand and write in essay form please.