VIEWS: 53 PAGES: 50 POSTED ON: 6/23/2012
The Portfolio Its Purpose Your Preparation If you are completing this workshop near the end of the semester, you will need: Your portfolio with all of the papers you intend to submit The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Paper and pencil/pen The Purpose of the Portfolio The portfolio is meant to help you understand and appreciate writing as skill that develops over time. It encourages incorporation of a variety of writing strategies, revision, and continued refinement of style. In addition, the portfolio asks that you identify your purposes for writing and understand the perspectives and needs of different audiences. In addition to serving as a learning tool, the portfolio is also an evaluation tool. In other words, it serves as your final exam! However, unlike a traditional exam, you have been able to set goals, revise papers, and develop your portfolio throughout the semester. To create a successful portfolio, you must understand & apply key concepts and strategies related to composition and rhetoric. Specifically, the portfolio demonstrates your ability to: 1. compose using a variety of modes 2. address purpose, engage audience, and establish credibility 3. achieve consistency of tone 4. develop a central idea using specific supports 5. control organization 6. integrate source material and document sources correctly using Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines 7. create polished drafts through drafting and revision 8. use correct grammar and mechanics. Activity: Create a check list using these 8 criteria. Check List X X 1. Compose using a variety of modes 2. Address purpose, engage audience, and establish X credibility X 3. Achieve consistency of tone X 4. Develop a central idea using specific supports X 5. Control organization X 6. Integrate source material and document sources correctly using MLA guidelines X 7. Create polished drafts through drafting and revision X 8. Use correct grammar and mechanics How to proceed… This workshop is going to help you review your portfolio so that you can turn in a product you will be proud of. You will need to move through the workshop at least a week before your portfolio is due. The following slides review the criteria you have on your check list. Find each criteria in your portfolio, then write down whether or not you feel your writing has fulfilled the specific expectations. The check points in this workshop are the activities. If you find that one or more of your papers have not fulfilled certain criteria, take the diagnostic check list and portfolio to your teacher for help. OR go to The Center for Student Success, or visit a drop-in writing center at the Lenawee or Hilllsdale Campus and ask a writing technician to help with a final revision. Later in the workshop, we will review formatting criteria as well. At this point… We are rapidly approaching the portfolio due date in all comp classes. Are you ready? You should already have worked out your message or thesis, your support through research and citation and your overall organization. What else is there? Check Point 1: Does your portfolio demonstrate your ability to write using a variety of modes? Narrative and Descriptive Expository Persuasive Argumentative English 090 portfolios may contain mostly narratives. English 131 portfolios should contain at least two different modes. English 132 portfolios require a research paper and mostly informative essays. College Composition classes generally work with four modes of writing: narrative, descriptive, expository, and persuasive. There are many subcategories to these modes such as compare and contrast, literary analysis, argumentation, process, and so on. Some require support from your personal experience, others require support from primary or secondary sources. The important idea here is that you have selected the mode that best serves your purpose and that your portfolio demonstrates competency in a variety of modes. Check Point 1: continued… On your check list, under ‘variety of modes’ write down the kinds of writing that you have included in your portfolio. If you are unsure, take a guess! Do your best to name modes now, then check in with your instructor before submitting your portfolio for review. Check Point 2 Does your portfolio address purpose? While this workshop cannot focus on all of the strategies, we can give you pointers on writing an effective purpose statement. For instance: Does your purpose statement indicate a mode? As you address this check point, you will be checking both variety and purpose. Check Point 2: continued… Check each of your purpose statements. Do they reflect the mode you chose for your essay? Refer to the list on the following slide for more help connecting purpose statement to mode. If needed, revise your purpose statement to correctly reflect the paper’s mode. Record the original statement and your revised statement. Purpose Statement and Mode Check your purpose statement on each essay’s title page. The purpose statement should begin with an infinitive statement: to + verb. This statement is an indicator of the style of your paper. Effective Infinitive Indicate Statements to show or to share narrative/descriptive* to narrate narrative* to describe descriptive* to entertain Informative with narrative interspersion* to inform Informative* to explain explanatory* to define definition* to classify analysis/classification* to persuade persuasive to argue argumentative to provide response to literary, music, or film analysis literature, music, film * All forms of expository writing Audience? It is difficult to write effectively to a large, anonymous audience. Let’s think about an Ideal Reader… Consider An Ideal Audience What do they know now? What do they need to know about your topic? How might your specific language choices or examples affect your reader? Will they believe you? Understand your points? Consider them – not just yourself- in clarifying your ideas. The audience and purpose statements are identified on each title page. Review the guidelines. Revisers see their work from a reader’s perspective. They convey the whole picture. Once writers discover what they want to say, they begin to consider HOW to say it. Early in the process, writers begin to shape their writing toward an audience. They make choices that fulfill not only their own purpose, but that meet a particular audience’s needs. They provide context and background. Inexperienced revisers see their meaning clearly. They feel the full pull and play of the action. They understand the complexity of the argument. ...in their own minds. Become a more experienced reviser and consider what your reader sees and knows Check Point 3: Consistency of Tone As you work on this check point you will also be checking development and support. Have you engaged specific strategies associated with the type of writing you claim in your purpose statement? Have you done so consistently throughout the paper? As you move through the following slides, review your papers and, for each paper, identify at least three specific strategies associated with modes you have identified in your purpose statements. Narrative Strategies For more information see The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Chapter 14. Narrative writing demonstrates basic strategies for representing action and events. These strategies include: – Specific narrative action – Anecdotes represented by active verb modifying phrases and – Recurring events clauses – Dialogue – Chronological organization represented by verb tense – Use of past and present and temporal transitions perspective (narrative interspersion Which narrative strategies have you employed? In which paper? Have you used narrative as a support in expository or persuasive papers? If so, you are working with higher order writing skills. Descriptive Strategies For more information see The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Chapter 15. Descriptive writing demonstrates basic strategies for representing action and events. These include: – Creating a dominant impression – Naming, or calling attention to observable items – Detailing, or particularizing notable features recognizable by specific nouns, modifying details that work to support the writer’s purpose – Comparing one thing to another Descriptive Strategies continued….. Using Sensory Description Taste Sight Touch Smell Movement Which descriptive strategies have you employed? In which paper? Have you used description as a support in expository or persuasive papers? If so, you are working with higher order writing skills. Informative Strategies For more information see The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Chapters 16, 17, 18 Informative writing demonstrates basic strategies for communicating specific information about a subject with attention to detail, accuracy, & clarity. The strategies include: – A Focused Topic – An Appeal to Reader Interest – A Logical Plan – Clear Definitions – Careful Use of Sources If you need help with MLA check your text, go to owl.english.purdue.edu, or google MLA. Informative Strategies continued….. Classification Clear Definitions Explaining a process Cause & Effect Which of these strategies have you employed? Compare Where? & Contrast Argumentative Strategies For more information see The St. Martin’s Guide to Writing Chapter 19. These strategies include: – Claims: Arguable Assertions – A Thesis that includes a clear position – Data: Plausible Reasons and Supporting Examples, Facts, Statistics, Anecdotes, – A Logical Plan Use of Authority (Data Supports Claims) – Avoidance of Logical Fallacies – Warrant: Explanations that connect data to – Acknowledgement & Accommodation of claims Reader Concerns – Careful Use of Sources using MLA documentation and citation strategies. If you need help with MLA check your text, go to owl.english.purdue.edu, or Google MLA. Argumentation demonstrates basic strategies for asserting a point of view. Which of these strategies have you used in your argument paper? Where? Finishing Check Point 3 Review your notes and answer the following questions. With which modes do you feel most comfortable? Which still make you feel unsure? Which strategies have you used consistently throughout each paper? Awareness of modes and consistent use of strategies help create an even tone in your writing. If you find you have questions or want to revise some papers, take these notes to your teacher, the Center for Student Success, or to a drop in writing lab on the Lenawee or Hillsdale campus. Ask for help. Check Point 4 Develop your subject with a central idea and specific supports Each of your essays has come to life because of an idea. You have taken an idea and created a statement about it, your thesis. In drafting, you have found support or example to help explain your thesis to your reader. Whatever the mode of the paper, it shows evidence of this explanation and support. To review each paper, reread your purpose and audience statements, and then measure the relationship of these to your thesis statement. An Effective Thesis As readers, we look for an indication of meaning. In expository writing, we look for one or two sentences, the thesis, that condense the information or argument contained in the paper. The Thesis Contains Your Justifies Takes a stand Central discussion idea Expresses Is specific Clarifies the ONE point of main idea your paper Activity 2a: Identify the thesis statement in one of your portfolio papers. Write it down. Specific supports & clarity on the sentence level As a writer, you cannot assume that your audience has prior knowledge or understanding of your topic. Try to use specific words that show meaning rather than offering generic or passive prose that tell about your ideas. In this case, the writer keeps all Passive verb the good stuff in Vague pronoun Generic, boring language her head. No sharing. We were planning to meet at a nice restaurant for a celebration. Nominalization Connie and I celebrated our anniversary at Daryl’s Downtown Clear, Stronger verb specific subject Specific noun phrase In this case, the writer offers details and important in order to share information detail and engage audience interest. Check Point 5: Control organization Since good writing requires organization, Narrative anecdotes strong writers map out their plan. and recurring events Narrative with perspective Try outs for NYC School of the Arts Broken Mrs. M Ankle & fun therapy Early dance Living my classes Overcoming passion for dance obstacles 1st recital Audience claps Narrative anecdotes and recurring How I felt Practice + then events How I felt Dedication= then Success Past perspective Past perspective Present perspective Overall Organization in a variety of modes The purpose of all organization is to make your material clear to the reader. Ask yourself these questions: – Does your lead paragraph have focus? – Are paragraphs in a reasonable order? – If you have multiple supporting examples, what order seems most logical for presenting them? – Does your evidence in each paragraph support that paragraph’s main idea? Remember, every paragraph serves a function. Make a scratch outline of one of your essays. How well are your paragraphs serving your essay? Check for Effective Leads and Conclusions The successful lead draws the reader into your paper. The unsuccessful lead does not. The successful lead interests readers. The unsuccessful lead does not. The successful lead is clear and uncluttered. The unsuccessful lead contains unnecessary, process-based language. At this stage, remove all process language from your lead. Process language is language that you might use in drafting a paper, helping you get started, helping you find your subject. For example, “I am writing this paper about my first day as a college student.” When you revise for the final draft, remove this language and make assertive statements: “My first day of college matched the dream in my head.” The conclusion of an essay gives the reader a sense of closure. They are often one of the least considered aspects of an otherwise strong writing. Closure is critical for effective writing. Your conclusion is what the reader remembers first. Make it count. Activity: Addressing Conclusions Review the conclusion of each paper, asking these questions: How do I achieve a sense of closure? Have I simply restated my introduction? How do I make the conclusion more memorable or more forceful? Is there a Call to action? A Summary statement? Avoid simply trailing off…you lose the reader. Check Point 6: Integrate source material and document sources correctly Learning to accurately Your instructor has document source material is a undoubtedly explained that fundamental task of good MLA is the required format for writing. Whether you quote citation in your portfolio. You directly or simply employ may use the research section information that you’ve in your textbook or find gathered from research, you appropriate guidelines online. must acknowledge each and every source in your paper. See the Purdue University You do that through direct website through the JCC quotation or by paraphrasing. Library website or by going In either case, you must to: reference your source. http://owl.english.purdue.edu Text citations MLA documentation generally uses the author/page form in citation. EX.: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry is marked by “a spontaneous overflow of powerful emotion” (263). There are many other forms to use, and your text outlines integration of source material in Chapter 22 on “Using and Acknowledging Sources.” Review these. Check Point 7. Create polished drafts through drafting and revision A ”polished” paper accomplishes its goals. It communicates the main idea in a clear and Creating multiple drafts insightful way to the has allowed you to think identified audience. The about your subject, to re- reader moves through the think your ideas and to writing smoothly, following arrange them in the most the pattern of organization effective pattern possible. and understanding the points made, in a seamless and effortless way. Check Point 8: Use correct grammar and mechanics Activity: Identify two grammar and/or mechanics issues that you worked with this semester. Read through all of your papers to ensure that you corrected any issues related to your identified areas. Activity: Editing Comma Use Look at every comma in each of your papers. Yes, I know, this will take some time. Look for commas in each of these situations. They are correct ones. If you have other commas, ask me about them. A. After an introductory phrase When it stopped raining, we went outside to play. B. With an appositive My sister, Cindie, is my best friend. C. With a coordinating conjunction and compound sentence We wanted to play outside, but the rain prevented it. More often than not, the mistakes we make with commas involve using them unnecessarily. Correct all of those and eliminate 85% of the errors. Other Common Punctuation Semicolons The semicolon has a particular use: to join two sentences in meaning, although each could stand on its own. Both sides of the semicolon can stand as complete sentences. I love this class; the students are my friends. Colons Only use colons when you are giving a list. Please add the following to the agenda: new tables, new wiring, and more memory for the computers. There are, of course, other appropriate uses for each of these symbols, but these are the most common. Activity: Editing on Sentence Level Sentences are made up of words which are functioning as particular parts of speech. Every sentence must have a subject (the thing which is acting) and a verb (the action itself). “She drove.” This is about as simple as it gets: subject/verb But actually you might have a sentence like this: “Stop!” The verb is clear – stop The subject of this sentence is implied – You A sentence fragment is a phrase, a group of words, which does not have a subject or which does not have a verb. For example: “After we saw the movie.” Examine the sentences in your papers looking at this issue. Has your instructor identified a problem with your sentences? Run-sentences? Fragments? Comma splices? Work on that problem now. Finally: Remember to Follow the established guideline Cover Page Title Pages Minimum Number of Pages Formatting Cover Page Course Number and Section Instructor Name Student Number Tip: First impressions count. Center Your Information. Title Pages While the MLA does not require title pages, this process does. The title page helps your reader evaluate your understanding of the role of audience and purpose. Title Statement of Audience Statement of Purpose Title Functions: Engage and connect readers. Point readers in the direction of the essay Convey focus Convey purpose Convey mode Convey tone Minimum Number of Pages ENG 090 8 ENG 131 10 ENG 132 12 Formatting Double Space 12 Point Font One Inch Margins ID # in Upper Right Hand Corner Papers are anonymous – no names Submit in Two Pocket Folder How is the Portfolio Assessed? Your portfolio will be read and assessed holistically. The reader will look at your work as an interconnected collection, assessing how successfully you use writing strategies under a variety of circumstances. Criteria include the outcomes identified earlier in this workshop. Review slide 6. Who Grades Your Portfolio? Your instructor will not evaluate Portfolio Response your portfolio. The Strengths Your Writing Exhibits: Another composition instructor will Reader observations read, grade, and comment on the writing strengths and areas in To Make Your Writing Stronger: which you could improve. Reader suggestions You will receive a written Overall Commentary and Portfolio evaluation of your portfolio with its Grade: return. The evaluation will include comments, a grade, and the Reader clarification of grade and any evaluator’s name. deductions We have chosen this system of Signed_________________ assessment to provide you with an objective reading of your writing. Date____________________ Review Take this time to reflect on what you have learned. Write a paragraph or two focusing what you have learned or had reinforced for you during this workshop. Review and list the general portfolio requirements for a writer in your course (090, 131, or 132). Make a list of the eight (8) outcomes identified by composition faculty that are used to assess the portfolio. Order your list by starting with the outcomes you understand and feel comfortable with, then move to the outcomes that are most problematic for you. Clearly identify areas you do not understand. Take a few moments before, during, or after class to share this list with your instructor in conversation. List any questions you have about the portfolio grading process and seek the answers for them from your instructor. For three hours of GPAW credit, print this slide & attach it to the activities completed during the workshop. Submit them to your instructor.
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