IAL Cost Paper � Prague DRAFT by Qqw13dJm

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									Interference Assisted Lithography (IAL):
A Way to Contain the Lithography Costs for the
32nm and 22nm Half-Pitch Device Generations


         Rudi Hendel; David Markle;
      John S. Petersen; Andrew Barada;
           Periodic Structures, Inc.
                 Zhilong Rao
            Applied Materials, Inc.
                   Presentation Overview
  Semiconductor Manufacturing Costs:
  A quick calibration
  Cost Model Overview
  Basics and Assumptions
  Interference Assisted Lithography
  An introduction into the Concept
  Process and Lithography-related cost factors
  and their impact
  Results and Discussion
  Conclusions
                                 Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009       Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   2
                              1,000
                                      “Lithography is a Bargain!*”
                                          * Paul Arnold, ASML at the VLSI Litho Panel 2008 (November 18, 2008)
                                                                                               450mm projections
Tool Sales Price (no units)




                               100




                                10




                                 1




                                 0
                                      0               1                  10                100         1,000       10,000
                                                                  Pixel Transfer Rate
                                                                          Bitrate
                                                                    Periodic Structures, Inc.
          October 23. 2009                                Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                    3
     Still – Time for Reality Check:
(Comparing the price-tag for a Fab with….)
                                                                Megafab:
                                                                $6B to $10B


                                                                          $5B


                                                                          $3B

                                                                          $1B




                              Periodic Structures, Inc.
 October 23. 2009   Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague         4
        Should the size of Fab Price Tags
                 be a concern?


                                                                   Yes




Bob Johnson (Gartner DQ) at ISS 2009
                                 Periodic Structures, Inc.
 October 23. 2009      Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague         5
      The basis of our Cost Model:

                            Tool component – Depreciation and Tool Maintenance

                            Allocation of Mask Cost

                            Process Cost (Resist, Develop, BARC, Metrology, Inspection, etc.




  Model by “Screenivasan et al.” as quoted by Frank Goodwin, November 7, 2005 – Trends in the Cost of Photolithography

                                                Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009                      Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                                          6
                   Cost of Lithography
Direct Impact Costs                               Indirect Impact Costs
  ̶   Cost and Complexity of                      (Factors of high importance
      the Patterning Process                      to a customer on which the
  ̶   Cost of additional Tools                    Choice of Lithography has a
      required (ex.: S.I.T.)                      critical impact)
  ̶   Cost of Mask(s)                              ̶     Cost of Design
  ̶   Depreciation Cost and                          ̶   Time to Design
      Maintenance Expense of                             Implementation
      the Exposure Tool                                ̶ Risk of First Silicon Fail
           Tool Price to Customer
           Effective Throughput
           Scheduled & unscheduled
           Maintenance

                                 Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009       Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                7
                   Per Yan Borodovsky; Semicon West; July 15, 2009




                             Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009   Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague         8
How to reduce cost? Start with the Tool
                               1,000


                                           Either:
 Tool Sales Price (no units)




                                           Simplify the pattern, reducing
                                100        Pixel Transfer Rate
                                           which leads to
                                           lower capital cost
                                 10




                                  1                               Or:
                                                                  Trade off general purpose capability
                                                                  with acceptable restrictions
                                                                  leading to cost savings
                                  0
                                       0            1                  10                100        1,000   10,000
                                                                  Pixel Transfer Rate
                                                                         Bitrate
                                                                  Periodic Structures, Inc.
           October 23. 2009                             Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague               9
 Effective Means to segment (and reduce)
Information Content contained in a pattern:
   Interference Assisted Lithography
       It separates high frequency component
        of the image (dense line-spaces)
        from the design content (line-ends)
   Simplified Imaging Rules allow lower tool cost
       without sacrificing minimum resolution
   Several technology approaches are available
       Ultimate Selection will accommodate
        key requirements in both, logic and memory.
                              Periodic Structures, Inc.
 October 23. 2009   Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   10
What is Interference Assisted Lithography?
  I.A.L. is a two-exposure process:
      Exposure One – Fixed Pitch Pattern (a grating)
      Exposure Two – a Block-Mask,
       determining where the lines defined in the
       first exposure end and start




                    +                                    =
                              Periodic Structures, Inc.
 October 23. 2009   Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   11
               The I.A.L. Technology Principle
                  has been demonstrated




                                                                              Source: MIT Lincoln Lab (2005)
 M. Fritze, T. M. Bloomstein, B. Tyrrell, T. H. Fedynyshyn, N. N. Efremow, D. E. Hardy, S. Cann, D. Lennon, S. Spector and M. Rothschild,
 “Hybrid Optical Maskless Lithography: Scaling Beyond the 45nm Node”, J. Vac, Sci. and Tech. B 23(6) (2005), pp. 2743–2748.



                                                    Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009                          Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                                                         12
        Benefits of Interference-based
               Exposure Tools
Cost benefits
   Simplified Optics and thus lower Tool Cost
   OL requirements for IAL are relaxed compared to
    OL requirements for traditional Double Patterning
   Significant savings in Cost of Masks
    IAL requires 1 critical mask,
    Double Patterning requires 2 +
Technical Benefits
   Wider process window
   Increased Contrast/DOF
                             Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009   Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   13
                                            Double Patterning: –
                                     22nm Technology Node Lithography Cost Comparison
                                                 Traditional DP vs. IAL DP
Comparing Traditional D.P. vs. I.A.L. D.P.
                              $500

                              $450                                             Mask
                                                                               Resist
Litho Cost of all DP Layers




                              $400
                                                                               Maintenance
                              $350
                                                                               Depreciation
                              $300                                                                  The reduced
                              $250                                                                  Cost of Masks
                              $200
                                                                                                    gives IAL DP a
                                                                                                    30% cost benefit
                              $150
                                                                                                    compared to
                              $100                                                                  Traditional DP
                              $50                                                                   (Independent of
                              $-                                                                    Mask Usage)
                                             Traditional DP                                IAL DP


                                                             Periodic Structures, Inc.
      October 23. 2009                             Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                    14
                    Total Litho Cost by Node:
             Assignment of Mask Levels
Node and Minimum CD                         45              32      22   16
Minimum Pitch                              130              90      64   45
EUVL Levels                                  0               0       2   11
193i-DP Levels or 193-IAL Levels             0              10       9    8
193i-SE Levels                               7              10      21   21
193d-SE Levels                              19              17       8    0
248-SE Levels                                7               0       4    4
I-line Levels                                7               7       6    6

Total number of Levels in
Node                                        40              44      50   50



                                  Periodic Structures, Inc.
 October 23. 2009       Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague             15
                                                                     Total projected Lithography Cost
                                                                                    D.P. IAL I.A.L. D.P.
                                                                Traditional per Wafer -vs.based DP Process
                                                                 Lithography Cost
                                                                   Cost of Lithography - Traditional DP Process

                                             $2,500
                                           $2,500
                                                                     Mask Cost 10,000 wafers per mask)
                                                                   Mask Cost (at (at 10,000 wafers per mask)

                                                                     Resist Cost
                                                                   Resist Cost
Cost of Lithography per Wafer
                       Cost of Lithography per Wafer




                                             $2,000
                                           $2,000
                                                                     Maintenance Cost
                                                                   Maintenance Cost

                                                                     Depreciation 70% of of catalog throughput)
                                                                   Depreciation (at (at 70% catalog throughput)
                                  Wafer Cost ($)




                                             $1,500
                                           $1,500
                                                                          Traditional Double Patterning
                                                                               I.A.L. Double Patterning
                                             $1,000
                                           $1,000



                                                         $500
                                                       $500



                                                        $- $-
                                                                           45 45             32 32                  22 22        16 16
                                                                                                Technology Node
                                                                                              Technology Node
                                                                                               Periodic Structures, Inc.
                                                       October 23. 2009              Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague           16
                                                                                          Total projected Lithography Cost
                      Lithography CostEUVL replaced based DP Process
                                        replacing all IAL
                Hypothetical of Lithography Wafer - IALbyEUV Layers with IAL
                        Cost Case of per - Traditional DP Process

                                                  $2,500
                                               $2,500
                                             $2,500
                                                                                           MaskMask (at 10,000 wafers mask) mask)
                                                                                                Cost 10,000 10,000 wafers per
                                                                                         Mask Cost (atCost (at wafers perper mask)
                       Cost of Lithography for the Node




                                                                                           Resist Cost
                                                                                                 Resist
                                                                                         Resist Cost Cost
Cost of Lithography per Wafer

                                                          Cost of Lithography for Node




                                                  $2,000
                                               $2,000
                                             $2,000
                                                                                           Maintenance Cost
                                                                                                Maintenance
                                                                                         Maintenance Cost Cost

                                                                                                Depreciation of of catalog throughput)
                                                                                           Depreciation 70% (at 70% of catalog throughput)
                                                                                         Depreciation (at (at 70% catalog throughput)
                                  Wafer Cost ($)




                                                  $1,500
                                               $1,500
                                             $1,500
                                                                                             Traditional Double Patterning
                                                                                                  I.A.L. Double Patterning
                                                  $1,000
                                               $1,000
                                             $1,000                                                    Only I.A.L. DP for Critical Layers


                                                           $500 $500
                                                             $500



                                                                 $- $- $-
                                                                                              45 45 45             32 32 32               22 22 22     16 1616
                                                                                                                        Technology Node
                                                                                                                      Technology Node
                                                                                                                    Technology Node
                                                                                                                     Periodic Structures, Inc.
                                                          October 23. 2009                                 Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague             17
 Additional Benefits Possible with I.A.L.
   (System Architecture Dependent)
Reduced Capital Cost benefits all Lot Sizes
In the case of a reduced Exposure Field
(Not all applications require large Exposure Fields)
     Further Mask Cost Reduction
           Minimizing write/inspection costs
           Particularly benefitting small lot sizes,
           which are highly sensitive to Mask Cost
     Reduced Systems Cost
      (Stepper architecture allows systems simplifications)
     Additional efficiency particularly for small devices
      (somewhat counterintuitive)
                                   Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009         Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   18
          vs. Mask Patterned Area
Mask Cost Mask Cost vs Field Size
             $60,000


             $50,000


             $40,000
 Mask Cost




             $30,000


             $20,000


             $10,000


                 $0
                       0   200             400             600          800   1,000
                                   Patterned Area (mm2)
                                      Periodic Structures, Inc.
 October 23. 2009           Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                 19
          Cost of Lithography Comparison –
                  Cost of Lithography Step Comparison
                 (Traditional Scanner vs. I.A.L.
         Traditional Scanner vs. I.A.L. Stepper)Stepper
                       $10,000                                                                          80%

                                                                                                        70%




                                                                                                              Lithography Cost Reduction (%)
   Cost per Lithography Step




                               $1,000                                                                   60%

                                                                                                        50%
             (USD)




                                $100                                                                    40%

                                                                                                        30%

                                 $10                                                                    20%
                                            I.A.L. Stepper 10x20
                                                                                                        10%
                                            Traditional Scanner 30x20

                                  $1        Cost Reduction (Stepper vs.                                  0%
                                        1   Scanner)
                                                   10                100                    1,000   10,000
                                                   Mask Utilization (Wafers per Mask)
                                                          Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009                                Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague                                 20
                   I.A.L. Limitations
High Regularity requires Design Restrictions
   I.A.L. Restrictions are similar to
    Sidewall Image Transfer (S.I.T.) Restrictions
         Yet, S.I.T. is considered as one viable option
         for extending resolution.
         Designs compatible with S.I.T. are expected
         to be compatible with I.A.L..
   Adopting such restrictions early and transitioning to
    regularity in one single step promises
    significant cost benefits.

                                Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009      Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   21
In Summary – Cost Benefits of I.A.L.:
Direct:
Significant reduction of Mask Cost
   Comparable layers (vs. traditional DP)
Containment of Litho Cost Increases
   If applied to all Critical Levels in the process flow
Additional Benefits are possible:
   Reduced Die Size, Small Lot-size,
    (leading to smaller Exposure Fields)
   Enhanced Maskless Lithography Economics
          Reduced Image (Pixel) Density for Block Mask
          Enables competitive MLL Throughput (prototyping)
                               Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009     Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   22
In Summary – Cost Benefits of I.A.L.:
       Indirect:
   I.A.L. can become a Technology Enabler for
   a market segment currently underserved:
       Opening Access to Leading Edge Geometries
        for low/medium mask usage applications
        (ASIC/ASSP) by:
              Reduced Mask Costs (and Capital Cost)
              Simplified DR complexity
              Reduced time to Design Completion
              Reduced risk to first time success

                                 Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009       Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   23
                   Acknowledgements
    Al Bergendahl, Bergendahl Enterprises
    Marc Levenson
    Mark Pinto, Applied Materials
    Hans Stork, Applied Materials
    Bill Tobey, ACT Consulting



                               Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009     Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   24
                     Thank you!




                             Periodic Structures, Inc.
October 23. 2009   Lithography Extensions Conference, Prague   25

								
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