Basic Persian by 1KuKS3Q0

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									Basic Persian


Lesson 1

câh                                                well

âb                                                 water

dârad                                              has

ân                                                 that


1. ân câh ast                                      that is a well

2. ân âb ast                                       that is water

3. câh âb darad                                    a well has water

4. âb âbi ast                                      water is blue

5. ân âb âbi ast                                   that water is blue

6. ân âbe câh ast                                  that is well water


jâ                                                 place

pâ                                                 foot

bu                                                 smell

dud                                                smoke

zud                                                early

âmad                                               he/she came


1. u jâ dârad                                      he/she has a place

2. u pâ dârad                                      he/she has foot

3. dud bu dârad                                    the smoke has smell

4. âb âbi ast                                      the water is blue

5. u zud âmad                                      he/she came early


Exercise 1.1


1. Learn the pronunciations of “a” and “â” by pronouncing them aloud.

2. Learn the meaning of the above Persian words and pronounce them aloud.

3. Copy the above example sentences five times.




Lesson 2

âsân                                               easy



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dars                                               lesson

mâ                                                 we

in                                                 this

bud                                                was

kâr                                                job/work

man                                                I

dâram                                              I have


1. in dars âsân ast                                this lesson is easy

2. ân dars âsân bud                                that lesson was easy

3. kâre mâ âsân ast                                our work/job is easy

4. ân âbe câh ast                                  that is well water

5. u pâ dârad                                      he/she has foot

6. man kâr dâram                                   I have work

7. darse man âsân ast                              my lesson is easy

8. in darse man ast                                this is my lesson

9. u zud âmad                                      he/she came early

10. ân câh âb dârad                                that well has water


Forming Interrogative Sentences

For forming an interrogative sentence add the word “âyâ” in the beginning of a declarative one. For a
positive answer to an interrogative sentence, use the word “bale” and for a negative answer use the
word “na”.

Excerice 2.1

Answer the Following Questions:



1. âyâ in dars âsân ast?                           bale, in dars âsân ast

2. âyâ kâre mâ âsân ast?                           bale, kâre mâ âsân ast

3. âyâ ân câh âb dârad?                            bale, ân câh âb dârad

4. âyâ u zud âmad?                                 bale, u zud âmad

5. âyâ âb âbi ast?                                 bale, âb âbi ast

6. âyâ ân âbe câh ast?                             bale, ân âbe câh ast

7. âyâ dud bu dârad?                               bale, dud bu dârad

8. âyâ u jâ dârad?                                 bale, u jâ dârad




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Exercise 2.2

Read the Following Words Loudly and Distinctly:
âsân - dars - mâ - in - bud - kâr - man - dâram




Lesson 3

asb                                               horse

guš                                               ear

dom                                               tail

sag                                               dog

dar                                               door/in

yek                                               one

do                                                two

dast                                              hand

lab                                               lip




1. in asb ast                                     this is a horse

2. ân asb do guš dârad                            that horse has two ears

3. in asb yek dom dârad                           this horse has a tail

4. asbe mân do guš dârad                          my horse has two ears

5. in dar ast                                     this is a door

6. u yek asb dârad                                he/she has a horse

7. ân asb ast                                     that is a horse

8. in asbe mân ast                                this is my horse

9. ân sag, yek dom dârad                          that dog has a tail

10. in sage u ast                                 this is his/her dig

11. in labe mân ast                               this is my lip

12. ân daste ust (ust = u ast)                    that is his/her hand

13. u do asb dârad                                he/she has two horses

14. man yek sag dâram                             I have a dog

15. man do pâ dâram                               I have two feet

16. asb dom dârad                                 a horse has a tail

17. asb lab dârad                                 a horse has lips

18. u do dast dârad                               he/she has two hânds

19. in sag do lab dârad                           this dog has two lips


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20. ân dar ast                                that is a door



Exercise 3.1



1. Remember the pronunciation of “o” in the word “do (two)”. Pronounce
this word several times.
2. Learn these combinations and make others similar to them: “abe câh”
“kâre mâ” “do guš”
3. Put the following declarative sentences into interrogative:
1. u yek sag dârad                            âyâ u yek sag dârad?

2. asb dom dârad                              âyâ asb dom dârad?

3. ân sag ast                                 âyâ ân sag ast?

4. in asbe ust                                âyâ in asbe ust?

5. ân sag do guš dârad                        âyâ ân sag do guš dârad?

6. in âbe câh ast                             âyâ in âbe câh ast?

7. ân câh âb dârad                            âyâ ân câh âb dârad?

8. ân daste ust                               âyâ ân daste ust?



Exercise 3.2

Put the following words in the right order:



1. dârad - yek - u - sag                      u yek sag dârad

2. dom - asb - ân - dârad                     ân asb dom dârad

3. man - sag - guš - dârad - do - e           sage man do guš dârad

4. asb - ast - ân                             ân asb ast

5. man - in - ast - sage                      sage man in ast

6. asb - u - do - dârad                       u do asb dârad

7. pâ - do - man - dâram                      man do pâ dâram

8. dârad - dom - asb                          asb dom dârad

9. asbe - do - pâ - u - dârad                 asbe u do pâ dârad

10. câh - âbe - ast - ân                      ân âbe câh ast




Lesson 4

mu                                            hair


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abru                                              eyebrow

damâq/bini                                        nose

sar                                               head

dahan/dahân                                       mouth

cašm                                              eye

kucak                                             little/small

bozorg                                            big/large

va/o                                              and




1. u do guše bozorg dârad                         he/she has two large ears

2. daste man kucak ast                            I have a small hand

3. sare man mu dârad                              I have hair on my head

4. u yek damâqe bozorg dârad                      he/she has a large nose

5. man do cašm dâram                              I have two eyes

6. u yek dahan dârad                              he/she has a mouth

7. man yek sar dâram                              I have a head

8. u do pâ dârad                                  he/she has two feet

9. man yek dahân va/dahâno do lab dâram
                                                  I have one mouth and two lips
(dahan + o = dahâno)

10. u do abru va/abruvo do cašm dârad (abru + o
                                                  he/she has two eyebrows and two eyes
= abruvo)

11. sare man va/mano sare u mu dârand             he/she and I have hair on our heads

12. sare u kucak va/kucako guše u bozorg ast      his/her head is small and his/her ears are large

13. u do dast va/dasto do pâ dârad                he/she has two hands and two feet

14. daste u kucak va/kucako daste man bozorg
                                                  his/her hands are small and mine are large
ast

15. sare šomâ bozorg ast                          your head is large



Exercise 4.1

Answer the following questions:
1. âyâ daste man kucak ast?

2. âyâ sare u bozorg ast?

3. âya asb dom dârad?

4. âyâ in sag do guš dârad?

5. âyâ in labe man ast?

6. âyâ in dar ast?

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7. âyâ in dars, âsân ast?

8. âyâ man zud âmadam?

9. âyâ kâre mâ âsân ast?

10. âyâ man do pâ dâram?


The plural of the majority of nouns is formed by adding "hâ" to the singular and sometimes by adding
"ân".


Exercise 4.2

Add “hâ” to the singular nouns below to make them plural:


câh                                                câhhâ

dars                                               darshâ

kâr                                                kârhâ

sag                                                saghâ

guš                                                gušhâ

lab                                                labhâ

dast                                               dasthâ

sar                                                sarhâ

abru                                               abruhâ

cašm                                               cašmhâ




Read and learn the following pronouns:
man                                                I

šomâ                                               you

to                                                 thou

u                                                  he/she

mâ                                                 we

išân                                               they




Lesson 5

ketâb                                              book

kelâs                                              class

dârid                                              you have




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medâd                                          pencil

be                                             to

âmadid                                         you came

xâne                                           house

raft                                           he/she went

se                                             three

âmadim                                         we came




1. šomâ do ketâb dârid                         you have two books

2. u yek qalam dârad                           he/she has one pen

3. kelâse ma bozorg ast                        our classroom is large

4. u se medâd dârad                            he/she has three pencils

5. ma be kelâs âmadim                          we came to class

6. u be xâne raft                              he/she went to the house

7. asbe u bozorg ast                           his/her horse is big

8. šomâ se medâd dârid                         you have three pencils

9. medâde man âbi ast                          my pencil is blue

10. u be kelâs raft                            he/she went to class

11. man do qalam dâram                         I have two pens

12. u yek damâq dârad                          he/she has one nose

13. ketâbe u âbi ast                           his/her book is blue

14. medâde man kucak ast                       my pencil is small

15. u yek sage bozorg dârad                    he/she has a big dog

16. u do medâde âbi dârad                      he/she has a blue pencil

17. man do cašmo do abru dâram                 I have two eyes and two eyebrows

18. u do dasto do pa dârad                     he/she has two hands and two feet

19. ketâbe u kucak ast                         his book is small

20. medâde man bozorg ast                      my pencil is big



Exercise 5.1

Answer the following questions:


1. âyâ šomâ yek qalam dârid?                   bale, šomâ yek qalam dârid

2. âyâ u do medâd dârad?                       bale, u do medâd dârad



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3. âyâ kelâse mâ bozorg ast?                          bale, kelâse mâ bozorg ast

4. âyâ man do dasto do pâ dâram?                      bale, man do dasto do pâ dâram

5. âyâ man do lab dâram?                              bale, man do lab dâram

6. âyâ šomâ zud be kelâs âmadid?                      bale, šomâ zud be kelâs âmadid

7. âya šomâ do dast dârid?                            bale, šomâ do dast dârid

8. âyâ šomâ do guš dârid?                             bale, šomâ do guš dârid

9. âyâ asb dom dârad?                                 bale, asb dom dârad

10. âyâ in daste man ast?                             bale, in daste man ast

11. âyâ ân ketâbe man ast?                            bale, ân ketâbe man ast

12. âyâ sag dom dârad?                                bale, sag dom dârad

13. âyâ šomâ do pâ dârid?                             bale, šomâ do pâ dârid

14. âyâ šomâ do cašm dârid?                           bale, šomâ do cašm dârid

15. âyâ daste u kucak ast?                            bale, daste u kucak ast

16. âyâ daste man bozorg ast?                         bale, daste man bozorg ast

17. âyâ medâde man âbi ast?                           bale, medâde man âbi ast

18. âyâ man do guš dâram?                             bale, man do guš dâram

19. âyâ man do dast dâram?                            bale, man do dast dâram

20. âyâ dars âsân ast?                                bale, dars âsân ast




Negative Form of the Verbs

The prefixes “na” or “ne” make the verbs negative:

Examples:
dâram — nadâram
raft — naraft
miravam — nemiravam

There is a special case for the word “ast” (is). To make it negative the prefix “ni” is added instead of
“na” at the beginning:

Example:
ast — nist




Exercise 5.2

Change the following positive sentences into negative:


1. in dars âsân ast                                   in dars âsân nist


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2. kâre mâ âsân ast                                 kâre mâ âsân nist

3. ân câh âb dârad                                  ân câh âb nadârad

4. u do asb dârad                                   u do asb nadârad

5. in asbe ust                                      in asbe u nist

6. man do ketâb dâram                               man do ketâb nadâram

7. u be kelâs raft                                  u be kelâs naraft

8. man se qalam dâram                               man se qalam nadâram

9. šomâ do ketâb dârid                              šomâ do ketâb nadârid

10. man do medâd dâram                              man do medâd nadâram

11. ân ketâbe ust                                   an ketâbe u nist

12. man be kelâs raftam                             man be kelâs naraftam




Numbers
1. yek                                              one

2. do                                               two

3. se                                               three

4. cahâr                                            four

5. panj                                             five

6. šeš                                              six

7. haft                                             seven

8. hašt                                             eight

9. noh                                              nine

10. dah                                             ten


Sentences
1. man dah ketâb dâram                              I have ten books

2. u hašt qalam dârad                               he has eight pens

3. âyâ šoma yek ketâb dârid?                        do you have a book?

4. man šeš ketâbe âbi dâram                         I have six blue books

5. u haft medâde âbi nadârad                        he/she does not have seven blue pencils

6. mâ cahâr sag nadârim                             we do not have four dogs


Combinations
do pâ - panj câh - noh dars - haft asb - cahâr ketâb - šeš medâd - se xâne - hašt sag




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Lesson 6

âvardam                                        I brought

âvard                                          he/she brought

âvardid                                        you brought

bordam                                         I took away

bord                                           he/she took away

bordid                                         you took away

didam                                          I saw

šomâ didid                                     you saw


1. man šomâ râ didam.                          I saw you.

2. man u râ nadidam.                           I did not see him/her.

3. šomâ u râ didid.                            you saw him/her.

4. u marâ did.                                 he/she saw me.

5. man ketâbhâ râ bordam.                      I took away the books.

6. âyâ u medâde šomâ râ bord?                  did he/she take away your pencil?

7. âyâ šomâ qalame urâ be xâne bordid?         did you take his/her pen home?

8. šomâ mâ râ nadidid                          you did not see us.

9. u ketâbhâ râ be xâne nabord.                he/she did not take the books home.

10. man cahâr medâde âbi be kelâs âvardam.     I brought four blue pencils to class.

11. âyâ šomâ qalame u râ âvardid?              didyou bring his/her pen?

12. âyâ u ketâbe šomâ râ be xâne bord?         did he/she take your book home?

13. âyâ u šomâ râ did?                         did he/she see you?

14. man dah ketâb dâram.                       I have ten books.

15. âyâ šomâ mâ râ didid?                      did you see us?

16. u be kelâs naraft.                         he did not go to class.

17. mâ zud be kelâs âmadim.                    we came to class early.

18. âyâ šomâ ketâbe u râ be kelâs âvardid?     did you bring his/hr book to class?

19. man medâde šomâ râ nadidam.                I did not see your pencil.

20. u yek xâne dârad.                          he/she has a house.



Verb Conjugation

Past tense of the verb:
                         Didan                                          To see

man didam                                      I saw


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to didi                                     you saw/thou sawest

u did                                       he/she saw

mâ didim                                    we saw

šomâ didid                                  you saw

išan didand                                 they saw


                      Âvardan                                        To bring

man âvardam                                 I brought

to âvardi                                   you brought/thou broughtest

u âvard                                     he/she brought

mâ âvardim                                  we brought

šomâ âvardid                                you brought

išân âvardand                               they brought


                      Bordan                                     To take away

man bordam                                  I took away

to bordi                                    you took away/thou tookest away

u bord                                      he/she took away

mâ bordim                                   we took away

šomâ bordid                                 you took away

išân bordand                                they took away


Execrcise 6.1

Answer the following questions with positive and negative sentences:


1. âyâ šomâ marâ ( = man râ) didid?         na, man šomâ râ nadidam.

2. âyâ u ketâb râ bord?                     bale, u ketâb râ bord.

3. âyâ medâde u dar kelâs bud?              na, medâde u dar kelâs nabud.

4. âyâ in qalame šomâ ast?                  bale, in qalame man ast.

5. âyâ u mâ râ did?                         na, u mâ râ nadid.

6. âyâ šomâ ketâbhâ râ bordid?              bale mâ ketâbhâ râ bordim.

7. âyâ u ketâbe šomâ râ be kelâs bord?      na, u ketâbe marâ be kelâs nabord.

8. âyâ u be kelâs raft?                     bale, u be kelâs raft.

9. âyâ šomâ medâde marâ didid?              na, man medâde šomâ râ nadidam.

10. âyâ u yek xâne dârad?                   bale, u yek xâne dârad.



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11. âyâ šomâ dah ketâb dârid?                     na, mâ dah ketâb nadârim.

12. âyâ u do ketâbe âbi dârad?                    bale, u do ketâbe âbi dârad.

13. âyâ šoma cahâr sag dârid?                     na, mâ cahâr sag nadârim.

14. âyâ šoma panj medâd darid?                    bale, mâ panj medâd dârim.

15. âyâ in dars âsân ast?                         na, in dars âsân nist.

16. âyâ medâde man âbi ast?                       bale, medâde man âbi ast.




Exercise 6.2

Put the following words in the right order:


1. medâde - do - âbi - u - dârad                  u do medâde âbi dârad.

2. bozorg - ast - mâ - kelâse                     kelâse mâ bozorg ast.

3. zud - be - man - âmadam - kelâs                man zud be kelâs âmadam.

4. pâ - do - šomâ - va - dârid - do - dast        šomâ do pâ va do dast dârid.

5. kucak - daste - ast - u                        daste u kucak ast.

6. guš - šomâ - dârid - do                        šomâ do guš dârid.

7. câh - âb - dârad - ân                          ân câh âb dârad.

8. šeš - âbi - ketâbe - dâram - man               man šeš ketâbe âbi dâram.

9. yek - sag - dârad - u                          u yek sag dârad.

10. ketâbhâ - bordam - râ - man                   man ketâbhâ râ bordam.

11. be - xâne - bordid - šomâ - u - râ - qalame   šomâ qalame u râ be xâne bordid.

12. man - âbi - cahâr - be - kelâs - medâde -
                                                  man cahâr medâde âbi be kelâs âvardam
âvardam

13. qalame - âvardid - šomâ - u - râ - âyâ        âyâ šomâ qalame u râ âvardid?

14. ketâbe - u - šomâ - râ - bord - be - xâne     u ketâbe šomâ râ be xâne bord.

15. u - râ - didid- šomâ - âyâ                    âyâ šomâ u râ didid?

16. u - xâne - yek - dârad                        u yek xâne dârad.

17. ketâbe - šomâ - râ - u - kelâs - be - bord    u ketâbe šomâ râ be kelâs bord.

18. qalam - dah - nadâram - man                   man dah qalam nadâram.

19. zud - xâne - be - šomâ - âmadid               be šomâ zud be xâne âmadid.

20. do - man - cašm - guš - o - dâram - do        man do gušo do cašm dâram




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Exercise 6.3

Read the following words aloud; then find their equivalents in English:
kucak - bozorg - damâq - dahân - abru - sar - mu - dom - lab - guš - asb - sag - didid - bordam - zud
- dud - âmad - âvard - did - bord - jâ - câh - âb- dârad - âbi - âsân - âvardid - didam - dars - ân - in -
bud




Lesson 7

xord                                                  he/she ate

dânešgâh                                              university

bâzâr                                                 bazaar

deraxt                                                tree

goft                                                  he/she told

sib                                                   apple

raftam                                                I went

az                                                    from

xarid                                                 he/she bought




1. u be bâzâr raft.                                   he went to the bazaar.

2. u az bâzâr sib xarid.                              he bought apples at the bazaar.

3. u sib râ xord.                                     he ate the apple.

4. man dar dânešgâh šomâ râ nadidam.                  I did not see you at the university.

5. man az dânešgâh be xâne raftam.                    I went home from the university.

6. u mâ râ dar bâzâr did.                             he/she saw us at the bazaar.

7. ketâbe šomâ dar kelâs ast.                         your book is the classroom.

8. u sibe šomâ râ naxord.                             he/she did not eat your apple.

9. u be man goft.                                     he/she told me.

10. mâ be dânešgâh raftim.                            we went to the university.

11. man ketâbe šomâ râ âvardam.                       I brought your book.

12. u ketâbe šomâ râ be xâne bord.                    he/she took your book home.

13. âyâ šomâ medâde marâ be kelâs âvardid?            did you bring my pencil to class?

14. man išân râ dar dânešgâh nadidam.                 I did not see them at the university.

15. u marâ dar kelâs did.                             he/she saw me in class.

16. mâ šomâ râ nadidim.                               we did not see you.

17. âyâ šomâ sibe marâ xordid?                        did you eat my apple?

18. man ketâbe šomâ râ be dânešgâh nabordam.          I did not take your book to the university.



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19. âyâ in medâde šomâst?                    is this your pencil?

20. na, ân medâde man nist.                  no, that is not my pencil.

21. âyâ ân medâde šomâst?                    is that your pencil?

22. bale, an medâde man ast.                 yes, this is my pencil.

23. in deraxte sib ast.                      this is an apple tree.

24. in sib az ân deraxt ast.                 this apple is from that tree.

25. ma sib râ az bâzâr xaridim.              I bought the apple from the bazaar.

26. u ketâb râ az man xarid.                 he bought the book from me.

27. man be bâzâr naraftam.                   I did not go to the bazaar.

28. âyâ šomâ sibe u râ xordid?               did you eat his/her apple?

29. na, man sibe u râ naxordam.              no, I did not eat his apple.

30. bale, man sibe u râ xordam.              yes, I ate his apple.



Verb Conjugation

Past tense of the verb (in the negative form):
                     Naxordan                                        Not to eat

man naxordam                                 I did not eat

to naxordi                                   you did not eat/thou didest not eat

u naxord                                     he/she did not eat

mâ naxordim                                  we did not eat

šomâ naxordid                                you did not eat

išân naxordand                               they did not eat


                     Nagoftan                                 Not to say/Not to tell

man nagoftam                                 I did not say

to nagofti                                   you did not say/thou didest not say

u nagoft                                     he/she did not say

mâ nagoftim                                  we did not say

šomâ nagoftid                                you did not say

išân nagoftand                               they did not say


                     Naxaridan                                       Not to buy

man naxaridam                                I did not buy

to naxaridi                                  you did not buy/thou didest not buy

u naxarid                                    he/she did not buy

mâ naxaridim                                 we did not buy


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šomâ naxaridid                              you did not buy

išân naxaridand                             they did not buy



Exercise 7.1

Put the following verbs in negative form:


bordam                                      nabordam

didid                                       nadidid

raft                                        naraft

didam                                       nadidam

ast                                         nist

xordam                                      naxordam

dârad                                       nadârad

xord                                        naxord

xaridand                                    naxaridand

dârand                                      nadârand

bordid                                      nabordid

dâram                                       nadâram

didand                                      nadidand

bord                                        nabord

did                                         nadid

bordim                                      nabordim

xaridam                                     naxaridam




Exercise 7.2

Answer the following questions:


1. âyâ šomâ yek qalame âbi dârid?           bale, man yek qalame âbi dâram

2. âyâ u zud be xâne raft?                  na, u zud be xâne naraft

3. âyâ kelâse mâ dar dânešgah ast?          bale, kelâse mâ dar dânešgah ast

4. âyâ ketâbe šomâ dar kelâs bud?           na, ketâbe mâ dar kelâs nabud

5. âyâ u sib râ az bâzâr xarid?             bale, u sib râ az bâzâr xarid

6. âyâ u ketâbe šomâ râ be kelâs âvard?     na, u ketâbe mâ râ be kelâs nayâvard


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7. âyâ šomâ išân râ dar dânešgâh didid?        bale, mâ išân râ dar dânešgâh didim

8. âyâ šomâ medâde marâ be xâne bordid?        na, man medâde šomâ râ be xâne nabordam

9. âyâ ân ketâbe šomâst?                       bale, ân ketâbe mâst

10. âyâ in sib az ân deraxt ast?               na, in sib az ân deraxt nist

11. âyâ šomâ ketâbe marâ dar kelâs didid?      bale, man ketâbe šomâ râ dar kelâs didam

12. âyâ in dars âsân ast?                      na, in dars âsân nist

13. âyâ in qalame šomâst?                      bale, in qalame man ast

14. âyâ šomâ ketâbhâ râ be kelâs bordid?       na, mâ ketâbhâ râ be kelâs nabordim

15. âyâ šomâ yek xâne dârid?                   bale, mâ yek xâne dârim

16. âyâ šomâ yek sag dârid?                    na, man yek sag nadâram

17. âyâ šomâ ketâbe u râ be xâne bordid?       bale, mâ ketâbe u râ be xâne bordim

18. âyâ šomâ zud be xâne raftid?               na, mâ zud be xâne naraftim

19. âyâ man zud be kelâs âmadam?               bale, šomâ zud be kelâs âmadid

20. âyâ ketâbe šomâ âbist?                     na, ketâbe man âbi nist



Exercise 7.3

Put the following words in the right order:


1. zud - kelâs - be - man - raftam.            man zud be kelâs raftam.

2. sib - u - az - râ - xarid - bâzâr.          u sib râ az bâzâr xarid

3. dar - kelâse - mâ - dânešgâh - ast.         kelâse mâ dar dânešgâh ast

4. az - sibhâ - u - naxord - in.               u az in sibhâ naxord

5. ketâbe - man - šomâ - râ - âvardam -
                                               man ketâbe šomâ râ be dânešgâh âvardam
dânešgâh - be

6. deraxte - ân - ast - sib                    ân deraxte sib ast

7. dâram - yek - man - medâde - âbi.           man yek medâde âbi dâram

8. yek - sag - u - dârad.                      u yek sag dârad

9. do - šomâ - dârid - guš.                    šomâ do guš dârid

10. bozorg - ast - mâ - kelâse.                kelâse mâ bozorg ast

11. do - šomâ - pâ - va - dast - do - dârid.   šomâ do pâ va do dast dârid

12. dârad - âb - câh - ân.                     ân câh âb dârad

13. be - šomâ - xâne - âmadid.                 šomâ be xâne âmadid

14. cašm - do - man - do - va - dâram - guš.   man do cašmo do guš dâram

15. cahâr - u - ketâb - kelâs - be - âvard.    u cahâr ketâb be kelâs âvard




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Numbers
11 yâzdah                                         16 šânzdah

12 davâzdah                                       17 hafdah

13 sizdah                                         18 hajdah/hašdah/haž dah

14 cahârdah                                       19 nuzdah

15 pânzdah                                        20 bist




Lesson 8

Ranghâ = Colors


rang                                              color

sefid/sepid                                       white

sabz                                              green

syâh                                              black

zard                                              yellow

rowšan                                            light




1. Medâde man syâh ast.                           My pencil is black.


2. Ketâbe u zard ast.                             His/her book is yellow.


3. Muye u syâh ast.                               His/her hair is black.

4. Range in sib sabz ast.                         The color of this apple is green.

5. Range ân medâd zard ast.                       The color of that pencil is yellow.

6. Ketâbe u âbist.                                His/her book is blue.

7. Ân sag syâh ast.                               That dog is black.

8. Man yek medâde zard az bâzâr xaridam.          I bought a yellow pencil from the bazaar/market.

                                                  They bought six green books from the
9. Išân šeš ketâbe sabz az bâzâr xaridand.
                                                  bazaar/market.

10. U yek qalame âbiyo yek ketâbe zard az bâzâr   He/she bought a blue pen and a yellow book from
xarid.                                            the market.

11. U medâde syâh nadârad.                        He/she does not have a black pencil.

12. Išân cašmhâye syâh dârand.                    They have black eyes.

13. U yek medâde âbiyo do ketâbe zard be kelâs    He/she brought a blue pencil and two yellow
âvard.                                            books to class.


14. Âyâ in ketâbe zard dar kelâs bud?             Was this yellow book in the classroom.




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15. Medâde sabze u dar kelâs nabud.              His/her green pen was not in the classroom.




sir                                              dark


sorx/qermez                                      red


qahveyi                                          brown

xâkestari                                        grey

banafš                                           purple




1. Ân sib sorx ast.                              That apple is red.

2. In deraxt, sibe sorx dârad.                   This tree, has red apples.

3. Man az bâzâr cahâr medâde qermez xaridam.     I bought four red pencils from the market.

4. Range jâmeye/lebâse man qahveyist.            The color of my clothes is brown.

5. U do medâde banafš dârad.                     He/she has two purple pencils.

6. Išân qalame xâkestari nadârand.               They do not have grey pens.

7. Range jâmeye/lebâse mâ xâkestarist.           The color of my clothes is grey.

8. Âyâ šomâ qalame xâkestari dârid?              Do you have a grey pen?

9. Range lebâse u qermez nist.                   The color of his/her clothes is red.

10. Man yek qalame xâkestariyo do medâde
                                                 I have a grey pen and two purple pencils.
banafš dâram.



Exercise 8.1

1. Put the following words in the right order:



1. medâd - range - ân - ast - qahveyiye - sir.   range ân medâd qahveyiye sir ast.


2. qalam - range - in - rowšan - zarde - ast.    range in qalam zarde rowšan ast.

3. ân - range - sib - qermeze - ast - sir.       range ân sib qermeze sir ast.

4. šeš - sabz - ketâbe - dârand - išân.          išân šeš ketâbe sabz dârand.

5. sag - ast - ân - syâh.                        ân sag syâh ast.

6. yek - zard - xaridam - man - medâde.          man yek medâde zard xaridam.

7. ân - range - zard - medâd - ast.              range ân medâd zard ast.

8. sage - syah - dâram - man - yek.              man yek sage syâh dâram.


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9. syâh- išân - medâde - nadârand.              išân medâde syâh nadârand.

10. kelâs - medâde - sabze - u - dar - nabud.   medâde sabze u dar kelâs nabud.




2. Find the English equivalents of the following words:


1. rang                                         color


2. šânzdah                                      sixteen


3. syâh                                         black

4. sepid                                        white

5. deraxt                                       tree

6. sib                                          apple

7. jâme                                         clothes

8. bist                                         twenty

9. didam                                        I saw

10. bordid                                      you took away

11. hašt                                        eight


12. kelâs                                       class


13. sarhâ                                       heads

14. išân                                        they

15. kucak                                       little/small

16. abru                                        eyebrow

17. mu                                          hair

18. xordand                                     they ate

19. did                                         he/she saw

20. câh                                         a well




Lesson 9


ostâd                                           professor


pâk kardan                                      to clean


taxtepâkkon                                     duster/eraser


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sandali                                        chair

kelâs                                          class/classroom

taxteye syâh                                   blackboard

šâgerd                                         student

miz                                            table

daftar                                         notebook

kâqaz                                          paper




1. Dar in kelâs nuzdah šâgerd ast.             There are nineteen students in this class.


2. Dar in kelâs yek ostâd ast.                 There is one professor in this class.


3. šâgerdân ketâbo daftar dârand.              The students have books and notebooks.

4. Ostâd bâ taxtepâkkon taxteye syâh râ pâk    The professor cleaned the blackboard with a
kard.                                          duster.

5. Ân šâgerd do daftaro do medâd dârad.        That student has two notebooks and two pencils.

6. Range daftare man zardo range medâde man    The color of my notebook is yellow, and the color
qermez ast.                                    of my pencil is red.

7. Kâqaze daftare ân šâgerd sepid ast.         That student's notebook paper is white.

8. Ostâde mâ yek sandaliyo yek miz dârad.      Our professor has a chair and a table.

9. Kelâse mâ dar dânešgâh ast.                 Our classroom is in the university.

10. Dar in kelâs yek taxteye syâho, mizo yek   There is a blackboard, a table, and a chair in this
sandali ast.                                   classroom.




Exercise 9.1

Put the following words in the right order:



ostâd - kelâs - dar - ast.                     ostâd dar kelâs ast.


sandali - nadârand - šâgerdân.                 šâgerdân sandali nadârand.

medâde - nadâram - man - âbi.                  man medâde âbi nadâram.

man - qalame - range - ast - syâh.             range qalame man syâh ast.

šagerd - ân - daftar - dârad - do.             ân šâgerd do daftar dârad.

do - bozorg - ostâd - dârad - ketâbe.          ostâd do ketâbe bozorg dârad.



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nadârim - kâqaze - mâ - zard.                  mâ kâqaze zard nadârim.

kelâs - dar - taxtepâkkon - in - yek - ast.    yek taxtepâkkon dar in kelâs ast.

ostâd - dârad - sandaliyo - yek - miz - yek.   ostâd yek sandaliyo yek miz dârad.

ketâb - nadârad - ostâd - daftaro.             ostâd daftaro ketâb nadârad.



Answer the following questions:



1. Âyâ šomâ dar xâne panj sandali dârid?       Bale, mâ dar xâne panj sandali dârim.


2. Âyâ dar in kelâs bist šâgerd ast?           Na, dar in kelâs bist šâgerd nist.


3. Âyâ šomâ taxteye syâh râ pâk kardid?        Bale, man taxteye syâh râ pâk kardam.

4. Âyâ ostâd qalame âbi dârad?                 Na, ostâd qalame âbi nadârad.

5. Âyâ ostâd taxteye syâh râ pâk kard?         Bale, ostâd taxteye syâh râ pâk kard.

6. Âyâ range qalame man syâh ast?              Na, range qalame man syâh nist.

7. Âyâ range medâde šomâ zard ast?             Bale, range medâde mâ zard ast.

8. Âyâ šâgerdane in kelâs sandali dârand?      Na, šâgerdane in kelâs sandali nadârand.

9. Âyâ ostâd yek sandali dârad?                Bale, ostâd yek sandali dârad.

10. Âyâ šomâ zud be kelâs âmadid?              Na, man zud be kelâs nÂyâmadam.




Verb Conjugation

Present tense of the verbs:
                     Neveštan                                        To write

Man minevisam                                  I write

To minevisi                                    you write/thou writest

U minevisad                                    he/she writes

Mâ minevisim                                   we write

Šomâ minevisid                                 you write

Išân minevisand                                they write


                      Xaridan                                        To buy

Man mixaram                                    I buy

To mixari                                      you buy/thou buyest




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U mixarad                                        he/she buys

Mâ mixarim                                       we buy

Šomâ mixarid                                     you buy

Išân mixarand                                    they buy


                      Âvardan                                          To bring

Man miyâvaram                                    I bring

To miyâvari                                      you bring/thou bringest

U miyâvarad                                      he/she brings

Mâ miyâvarim                                     we bring

Šomâ miyâvarid                                   you bring

Išân miyâvarand                                  they bring



Present tense of the verbs:
                        Bordan                                       To take away

Man mibaram                                      I take away

To mibari                                        you take away/thou takest away

U mibarad                                        he/she takes away

Ma mibarim                                       we take away

Šomâ mibarid                                     you take away

Išân mibarand                                    they take away


Exercise 9.2

1. Write the present tense of the following verbs:
1. Xordan = to eat                               2. Raftan = to go

3. Istâdan = to stand                            4. Kardan = to do


2. Write the equivalent of the following words in English:
mixaram - miyâvardid - mibarim - minevisim - mibaram mixarid - miyâvarid - minevisand




Lesson 10

ruye                                             on

âheste                                           slowly

tond                                             fast


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zir                                           under

bâlaye                                        over/above

jelove/piše                                   in front of

kutâh                                         short

derâz                                         long



1. Ketâbe ostâd ruye miz ast.                 The professor's book is on the table.


2. Qalame šomâ zire sandalist.                Your pen is under the chair.


3. Medâde u derâz ast.                        His pencil is long.

4. Qalame šomâ kutâh ast.                     Your pen is short.

5. Man jelove mize ostâd istâdam.             I stood in front of the professor's table.

6. Pâye man zire miz ast.                     My foot is under the table.

7. U tond miravad.                            He goes fast.

8. Man tond be xâne raftam.                   I went home fast.

9. U âheste be kelâs âmad.                    He/she came home slowly.

10. Šomâ do medâde kutâh dârid.               You have two short pencils.


Exercise 10.1

1. Write the following sentences in Persian:


1. This pencil is long.                       In medâd derâz ast.


2. That pen is short.                         In qalam kutâh ast.

3. My book is on the table.                   Ketâbe man ruye miz ast.

4. You have two long pencils.                 To do medâde derâz dâri.

5. I stood in front of your table.            Man jelove mize šomâ istâdam.

6. She went to the class slowly.              U âheste be kelâs raft.

7. Your pen is under your table.              Qalame šomâ zire miz ast.

8. My hand is over the book.                  Daste man ruye ketâb ast.

9. Your book was under this table.            Ketâbe to zire in miz ast.

10. Have you a red pencil?                    Ayâ yek qalame sorx dârid?



2. Put the following words in the right order:


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1. sandaliye - syâh - ostâd - yek - dârad.          ostâd yek sandaliye syâh dârad.


2. yek - medâde - kutâh - dâram - man.              man yek medâde kutâh dâram.

3. qalame - ruye - syâh - ast - miz.                qalame syâh ruye miz ast.

4. sabz - medâde - zire - ast - sandali.            medâde sabz zire sandali ast.

5. šâgerd - yek - taxteye syâh - râ - pâk kard.     yek šâgerd taxteye syâh râ pâk kard.

6. u - marâ - daftare - âvard.                      u daftare marâ âvard.

7. medâd - in - ast - kutâh.                        in medâd kutâh ast.

8. ruye - taxtepâkkon - ast - sandali.              taxtepâkkon ruye sandali ast.

9. man - šomâ - râ - ketâbe - miz - ruye - didam.   man ketâbe šomâ râ ruye miz didam.

10. kelâs - šâgerdân - in - nadârand - daftar.      šâgerdâne in kelâs daftar nadârand.



3. Write the equivalents of the following words in English:
1. dârim                                            11. bozorg


2. jâ                                               12. sabze


3. dud                                              13. qahveyiye sir

4. âsân                                             14. daftar

5. dars                                             15. banafš

6. kâr                                              16. kâqaz

7. sag                                              17. šâgerdân

8. lab                                              18. bist

9. dast                                             19. nist

10. damâq                                           20. mu


4. Make a sentence for each of the following words:
1. jâme


2. deraxt


3. dânešgâh

4. dom

5. guš

6. bâzâr

7. zard




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8. miz

9. asb

10. kâr


5. Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ ketâbe šomâ ruye mize ostâd ast?


2. Âyâ šomâ šâgerde in kelâs hastid?


3. Âyâ šomâ qalame syah dârid?

4. Âyâ šomâ az xâne be dânešgâh âmadid?

5. Cand ketâb ruye mize šomâ st?

6. šomâ cand daftar dârid?

7. Âyâ in medâd zard ast?

8. Âyâ šomâ zud be kelâs âmadid?

9. Âyâ range jâmeye šomâ xâkestarist?

10. Cand šâgerd dar in kelâs ast?




Lesson 11

1. dišab                                           last night


2. emšab                                           tonight


3. šab                                             night

4. diruz                                           yesterday

5. emruz                                           today

6. ruz                                             day

7. ce?                                             what?

8. daqiqe                                          minute

9. sâat                                            hour/o’clock



1. Emšab sâate hašt dar xâne hastam.               I am home at 8 o’clock tonight.

                                                   I left the university for home at 4 o’clock last
2. Dišab sâate cahâr az dânešgâh be xâne raftam.
                                                   night.

3. Diruz sâate cahâr dar xâne budam.               I was home at 4 o’clock yesterday.

4. Âyâ šabhâ zud be xâne miravid?                  Do you go home early every night?

5. Âyâ šomâ dišab dar xâne budid?                  Were you at home last night?

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6. Âyâ šomâ diruz sâate hašt be dânešgâh       Did you come to the university at 8 o’clock last
âmadid?                                        night?

7. Man emruz be dânešgâh naraftam.             I did not go to the university today.

                                               How many hours do you work at the university
8. Ruzhâ cand sâat dar dânešgâh kâr mikonid?
                                               every day?

9. Man dišab zud be xane raftam.               I went home early last night.

10. Man emruz zud be dânešgâh âmadam.          I came to the university early today.

11. Dar yek ruz hašt sâat kâr mikonid.         You work 8 hours in a day.

12. Šâgerdân ruye kâqaze sepid minevisand.     The students write on white paper.


13. Man az bâzâr kâqazo daftar xaridam va be   I bought a paper and a notebook from the market
dânešgâh bordam.                               and took to the university.


14. Âyâ šomâ ketâbe marâ be xâne bordid?       Did you take my book home?

15. Ostâde mâ emruz sâate hašt be dânešgâh
                                               Our professor came to the university at 8 o’clock.
âmad.

16. Ce sâatist?                                What time is it?

17. sâat daho dah daqiqe ast.                  It is ten minutes past ten.

18. sâat noho bist daqiqe ast.                 It is twenty minutes past nine.

19. sâat hašto pânzdah daqiqe ast.             It is fifteen minutes past eight.


Numbers
21 bisto yek                                   30 si


22 bisto do                                    40 cehel


23 bisto se                                    50 panjâh

24 bisto cahâr                                 60 šast

25 bisto panj                                  70 haftâd

26 bisto šeš                                   80 haštâd

27 bisto haft                                  90 navad

28 bisto hašt                                  100 sad

29 bisto noh                                   1000 hezâr

30 si




Exercise 11.1

1. Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ šomâ emruz be bâzâr raftid?



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2. Âyâ šomâ diruz be dânešgâh amadid?

3. Âyâ šomâ diruz az bâzâr sib xaridid?

4. Âyâ šomâ emruz az dânešgâh be xâne miravid?

5. Âyâ ketâbe šomâ dar kelâs bud?

6. Âyâ šomâ dar xâne deraxte sib dârid?

7. Âyâ medâde man ruye miz ast?

8. Âyâ šomâ ostâd râ dar dânešgâh didid?

9. Âyâ šomâ marâ diruz dar ke1âs nadidid?

10. Âyâ šomâ medâde marâ be xâne bordid?

11. Âyâ in dars âsân ast?

12. Âyâ šomâ medâde syâh dârid?

13. Âyâ medâde qermeze šomâ dar xâne ast?

14. Âyâ emruz zud be kelâs âmadid?

15. Âyâ muye man syâh ast?


2. Put the following words in the right order:
1. kâqaze - išân - nadârand - sepid

2. mize - ostâd - ruye - ketâb - panj - ast

3. az - xâne - u - dânešgâh - be - raft

4. miz - taxtepâkkon - ast ruye

5. šomâ - syâh - qalame - range - ast

6. sandali - nadârand - šâgerdân

7. ostâd - sandali - yek - miz - yek - dârad - va

8. man - zud - kelâs - be - âmadam - emruz

9. ostâd - râ - dar - diruz - nadidam - kelâs

10. âbi - ruye - miz - medâde - ast


3. Use each of the following words in simple sentences:
                                                                                               10.
1.             2.       3.         4.           5.        6.        7.      8.     9.
                                                                                               cehelo
minevisam      šab      bastani    ce           daqiqe    sepid     kutâh   rang   xâkestari
                                                                                               haft


4. Put the following verbs into negative:


1. bordam                                                nabordam

2. didid                                                 nadidid

3. raftam                                                naraftam

4. xordi                                                 naxordi


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5. goft                                           nagoft

6. xarid                                          naxarid

7. mixaram                                        nemixaram

8. mibaram                                        nemibaram

9. miyâvaram                                      nemiyâvaram

10. minevisand                                    neminevisand




Lesson 12

bâ                                                with


injâ                                              here


ânjâ                                              there

yek rob’                                          a quarter

nimsâat                                           half hour

gozašte                                           past

sâniye                                            second

ham                                               too/also

hamân                                             same



1. Šâgerdân sâate hašto nim be dânešgâh           The students come to the university at eight
miyâyand.                                         thirty.

                                                  The professor arrives at the university at the
2. Ostâd ham hamân sâat be dânešgâh miyâyad.
                                                  same time.

                                                  The professor and the students are in class for
3. Ostâdo šâgerdân yek sâat dar kelâs hastand.
                                                  one hour.

4. Ostâd ruye taxteye syâh minevisad.             The professor writes on the blackboard.

5. Šâgerdân bâ medâd ruye kâqaz minevisand.       The students write on paper with pencil.

6. Sâate davâzdah az dânešgâh be xâne miravim.    I go home at twelve o’clock from the university.

7. Emruz yek rob’ be šeš be xâneye šomâ
                                                  I come to your home at quarter to six today.
miyâyam.

                                                  I go to the university from home at half past
8. Sâate hašto nim az xâne be dânešgâh miravim.
                                                  eight.

9. Ketâbe šomâ injâ nist.                         Your book is not here.


10. Medâde šomâ diruz ânjâ bud.                   Your pencil was there yesterday.


11. Yek rob’ az hašt gozašte ast.                 It is a quarter past eight.

12. Dah daqiqe az dah gozašte ast.                It is ten minutes past ten.


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13. Bist daqiqe az dah gosašte ast.          It is twenty minutes past ten.

14. Yek sâat šast daqiqe ast.                An hour is sixty minutes long.

15. Yek daqiqe šast sâniye ast.              A minute is sixty seconds long.

16. Yek ruz bisto cahâr sâat ast.            A day is twenty four hours long.

17. Šomâ be dânešgâh beravid, man ham
                                             Go to the university, I will also go.
miyâyam.

18. Šâgerdân sâate hašt âmadand, ostâd ham   The students came at eight, the professor came
hamân sâat âmad.                             at the same time.



Exercise 12.1

Answer the following questions:


1. Ce sâatist?                               Sâat hafto nim ast.

2. Cand sâat dar ruz kâr mikonid?            Hašt sâat dar ruz kâr mikonam.

3. Âyâ nimsâat si daqiqe ast?                Bale, nimsâat si daqiqe ast.

4. Âyâ yek rob’ pânzdah daqiqe ast?          Bale, yek rob’ pânzdah daqiqe ast.

5. Âyâ šomâ sâate hašto nim be dânešgâh      Na, man sâate hašto nim be dânešgâh
miravid?                                     nemiravam.

6. Cand sâat dar hafte kâr mikonid?          Cehel sâat dar hafte kâr mikonam.

7. Âyâ emšab sâate hašt dar xâne hastid?     Bale, emšab sâate hašt dar xâne hastam.

8. Âyâ šomâ diruz be dânešgâh âmadid?        Na, man diruz be dânešgâh nayâmadam.

9. Âyâ ostâde mâ dar kelâs ast?              Bale, ostâde mâ dar kelâs ast.

10. Âyâ šâgerdân be kelâs raftand?           Na, šâgerdân be kelâs naraftand.




Verb Conjugation

Present tense of the verb "to be":
                      Budan                                          To be

Man hastam                                   I am

To hasti                                     You are/thou art

U hast                                       He/she is

Ma hastim                                    We are

Šomâ hastid                                  You are

Išân hastand                                 They are




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Negative:
Man nistam                               I am not

To nisti                                 You are not/thou are not

U nist                                   He/she is not

Mâ nistim                                We are not

Šomâ nistid                              You are not

Išân nistand                             They are not


Past tense:
Man budam                                I was

To budi                                  you were/thou wert

U bud                                    He/she was

Mâ budim                                 We were

Šomâ budid                               You were

Išân budand                              They were


Present tense of the verb "to come":
                 Âmadan                                        To come

Man miyâyam                              I come

To miyâyi                                thou comest

U miyâyad                                he/she comes

Ma miyâyim                               we come

Šomâ miyâyid                             you come

Išân miyâyand                            they come


Past tense:
Man âmadam                               I came

To âmadi                                 You came/thou comest

U âmad                                   He/she came

Mâ âmadim                                We came

Šomâ âmadid                              You came

Išân âmadand                             They came


Negative:
Man nayâmadam                            I did not come

To nayâmadi                              You did not come/thou didest not come

U nayâmad                                He/she did not come



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Mâ nayâmadim                                       We did not come

Šomâ nayâmadid                                     You did not come

Išân nayâmadand                                    They did not come



Present tense of the verb "to go":
                     Raftan                                             To go

Man miravam                                        I go

To miravi                                          You go/thou goest

U miravid                                          he/she goes

Mâ miravim                                         we go

Šomâ miravid                                       you go

Išân miravand                                      they go


Past tense:
Man raftam                                         I went

To rafti                                           You went/thou went

U raft                                             He/she went

Mâ raftim                                          We went

Šomâ raftid                                        You went

Išân raftand                                       They went


Exercise 11.2

Conjugate the present and past tense of the following verbs:
âvardan - bordan - didan - xordan - xaridan - goftan - neveštan


Exercise 11.3

Put the following verbs into the negative:
bord - didam - xordam - xaridand - goftim - neveštand - rafti - hastim - budam - âmadand - miravam
- raft - hast - didand - xordim - xarid - goftand - neveštand - bordim - âvardand - âvard - xordi -
xaridam - did - didam - neveštim - âvardim




Lesson 13

Šanbe                                              Saturday

Yekšanbe                                           Sunday

Došanbe                                            Monday

Sešanbe                                            Tuesday


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Cahâršanbe                                         Wednesday

Panjšanbe                                          Thursday

Âdine/Jom'e                                        Friday

mâh                                                moon/month

sâl                                                year


1. Yek hafte haft ruz ast.                         1. A week is seven days long.

2. Yek mâh si ruz ast.                             2. A month is thirty days long.

                                                   3. A year is three hundred and sixty five days
3. Yek sâl sisado šasto panj ruz ast.
                                                   long.

                                                   4. A year is twelve months or fifty two weeks
4. Yek sâl davâzdah mâh yâ panjâho do hafte ast.
                                                   long.

5. Jom’ehâ mâ be dânešgâh nemiyâyim.               5. We do not go to the university on Fridays.

                                                   6. Professors do not go to the university on
6. Jom’ehâ ostâdân be dânešgâh nemiyâyand.
                                                   Fridays.

7. Ruze šanbe šâgerdân be dânešgâh miyâyand.       7. Students go to the university on Saturdays.

8. Emruz Yekšanbe ast.                             8. Today is Sunday.

9. Diruz šanbe bud.                                9. Yesterday was Saturday.

10. Man ruzhâye Jom’e dar xâne hastam.             10. I am home on Fridays.

11. Man ruzhâye šanbe dar danešgâh hastam.         11. I am at the university on Saturdays.

12. Man ruzhâye Došanbe va Cahâršanbe be           12. I go to the university on Mondays and
dânešgah miyâyam.                                  Wednesdays.


Exercise 13.1

Put the following words in the right order:


1. šâgerdân - dar - sâat - yek - kelâs - hastand   šâgerdân sâate yek dar kelâs hastand.

2. kâqaz - šâgerdân - medâd - ruye - minevisand
                                                   šâgerdân bâ medâd ruye kâqaz minevisand.
- bâ

3. šomâ - injâ - ketâbe - nist                     ketâbe šomâ injâ nist.

4. šast - yek - sâat - ast - daqiqe                yek sâat šast daqiqe ast.

5. dânešgâh - miravim - be - šanbehâ - mâ          ma šanbehâ be danešgah miravim.

6. bud - diruz - Cahâršanbe                        diruz Cahâršanbe bud.

7. dar - ruzhâye - Panjšanbe - nistam - dânešgâh   ruzhaye Panjšanbe dar dânešgâh nistam.

8. sâat - yekruz - ast - davâzdah                  yek ruz bisto cahâr sâat ast.

9. sâl - yek - mâh - davâzdah - ast                yek sâl davâzdah mâh ast.

10. šâgerdân - medâd - bâ - kâqaz - ruye -
                                                   šâgerdân bâ medâd ruye kâqaz minevisand.
minevisand




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Exercise 13.2

Answer the following questions:
1. Emruz cand šanbe ast?

2. Diruz cand šanbe bud?

3. Hafte cand ruz ast?

4. Yek ruz cand sâat ast?

5. Yek sâat cand daqiqe ast?

6. Yek daqiqe cand sâniye ast?

7. Âyâ šomâ ruzhaye Došanbe be dânešgâh miravid?

8. Âyâ šomâ ruzhâye Jom’e dar xâne hastid?

9. Yek sâl cand ruz ast?

10. Yek sâl cand hafte ast?


Exercise 13.3

Find the negative form of the following sentences:
1. Emruz sâate hašt az xâne be bâzâr raftam.

2. Az bâzâr kâqazo medâdo qalam xaridam.

3. Sâate noh az bâzâr be xâne âmadam.

4. Dar xâne darse kelâs râ bâ medâd neveštam.

5. Sâate daho nim az xâne be dânešgâh raftam.

6. Sâate yâzdah ostâde mâ âmad.

7. Šâgerdân va ostâd be kelâs raftand.

8. Dar kelâs ostâd dars râ ruye taxteye syâh nevešt.

9. Mâ ham dars râ bâ medâd ruye kâqaz neveštim.


ADJECTIVES


positive degree:                                   bozorg, kutâh, zibâ, bad

comparative degree:                                bozorgtar, kutâhtar, zibâtar, badtar

superlative degree:                                bozorgtarin, kutâhtarin, zibâtarin, badtarin




Lesson 14

zohr/nimruz                                        noon

kond                                               slow

dorost                                             just/right/exact

kuk kardan                                         to wind up


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sobh/bâmdâd                                          morning

qorub                                                evening

xarâb                                                out of order

xub                                                  well/good

xâbidan                                              to sleep


1. Dorost zohr ast.                                  It is exactly noon.

2. Dorost sâat dah ast.                              It is exactly ten o’clock.

3. Sâate šomâ dah daqiqe tond ast.                   You clock/watch is ten minutes fast.

4. Sâate man dar bisto cahar sâat panj daqiqe        My clock/watch runs five minutes slow during
kond kar mikonad.                                    twenty four hours

5. Man zohr sâatam râ kuk kardam.                    I wound up my clock/watch at noon.

6. Man diruz sâatam râ kuk kardam.                   I wound up my clock/watch yesterday.

7. Man šabhâ sâate dah mixâbam.                      I sleep at ten o’clock every night.


8. Dar yek ruz hašt sâat kâr mikonam.                I work eight hours per day.


9. Yek sâat šast daqiqevo yek daqiqe šast sâniye     An hour is sixty minutes, and a minute is sixty
ast.                                                 seconds.

10. In sâat kond kâr mikonad.                        This clock/watch runs slow.

11. Sâate šomâ dar bisto cahâr sâat yek rob’ tond    You clock/watch runs fifteen minutes too fast
kâr mikonad.                                         during twenty four hours.

12. Sobhhâ be dânešgâh miyâyamo zohrhâ be            I go to the university in the morning and I come
xâne miravam.                                        home every noon.

13. In sâat xarâb asto kâr nemikonad.                This clock is out of order and does not work.

14. In sâat xarâb ast va dar bisto cahâr sâat panj   This clock is out of order and runs five hours slow
sâat kond kâr mikonad.                               during twenty four hours.

15. Âyâ šomâ šabhâ sâate hašt mixâbid?               Do you sleep at eight o’clock every night?


16. Sâate šomâ xub kâr mikonad.                      Your clock/watch works well.


17. Sâate man diruz bad kâr mikard.                  My clock worked poorly yesterday.

18. Sâate man dorost asto bâ sâate dânešgâh          My clock/watch is right and is the same as the
yeki st.                                             university's.

19. Sâate šomâ dorost nist.                          You clock/watch is not right.

20. Sâate man kucak ast.                             My clock/watch is small.



Exercise 14.1

Answer the following questions:



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1. Cand sâat dar ruz kâr mikonid?           Man hašt sâat dar ruz kâr mikonam.

2. Âyâ šomâ šabhâ sâate noh mixâbid?        Na, man šabhâ sâate dah mixâbam.

3. Âyâ šomâ ruzhâ mixâbid?                  Na, man ruzhâ nemixâbam.

4. Ce sâati mixâbid?                        Sâate dah mixâbam.

5. Âyâ sâate šomâ dorost kâr mikonad?       Bale, sâate man dorost kâr mikonad.

6. Âyâ sâate šomâ kond kâr mikonad?         Na, sâate mâ kond kâr nemikonad.

7. Âyâ sâate šomâ tond kâr mikonad?         Na, sâate man dorost kâr mikonad.

8. Ce sâati ast?                            Sâat panj ast.

9. Âyâ sobhhâ be dânešgâh miyayid?          Bale, sobhhâ sâate hašt be dânešgâh miravam.

10. Âyâ zohrhâ be xane miravid?             Bale, dorost zohr be xane miravam.

11. Yek sâat cand daqiqe ast?               Yek sâat šast daqiqe ast.

12. Yek rob’e sâat cand daqiqe ast?         Yek rob’e sâat pânzdah daqiqe ast.

13. Nimsâat cand dadiqe ast?                Nimsâat si dadiqe ast.

14. Yek sâl cand ruz ast?                   Yek sâl sisado šasto panj ruz ast

15. Yek ruz cand sâat ast?                  Yek ruz bisto cahâr sâat ast.




Exercise 14.2

Compare and categorize the following adjectives:
xošgel/zibâ                                 pretty

bozorg                                      large/big

arzân                                       cheap

zešt                                        ugly

gerân                                       expensive

dur                                         far



Exercise 14.3

Put the following sentences into Persian:


1. Did you see us in the market?            Âyâ mâ râ dar bâzâr didid?

2. I have a red pen and two blue pencils.   Man yek qalame sorxo do medâde âbi dâram.

3. I am at home today.                      Man emruz dar xâne hastam.

4. I did not see him yesterday.             Man u râ diruz nadidam.

5. The students are in the class.           Šâgerdân dar kelâs hastand.


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6. Our professor came to the class at half past
                                                   Ostâde mâ sâate hašto nim be kelâs âmad.
eight.

7. I went home at a quarter past four yesterday.   Man diruz sâate cahâro rob' be xâne raftam.


8. It is ten minutes past six.                     Sâat šešo dah daqiqe ast.


9. We do not come to the university on Fridays.    Mâ ruzhâye Âdine be dânešgâh nemiyâyim.

10. There are sixty seconds in one hour.           Yek sâat šast daqiqe ast.




Exercise 14.4

Learn the following combinations that denote possessive case:
ketâbam                                            my book

ketâbat                                            your book/thy book

ketâbaš                                            his/her book

ketâbaman                                          our book

ketâbatân                                          your book

ketâbašân                                          their book


Exercise 14.5

Write the possessive cases of these nouns:


medâd                                              medâdam (my pencil)

sar                                                sarat (your head)

dast                                               dastaš (his/her hand)

dars                                               darsamân (our lesson)

dar                                                daratân (your door)

sag                                                sagašân (their dog)

kâqaz                                              kâqazam (my paper)




Lesson 15

Fasl                                               season

bahâr                                              spring

zemestân                                           winter

tâbestân                                           summer



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pâyiz                                               autumn/fall

emsâl                                               this year

pârsâl                                              last year

baxš kardan                                         to divide

šodan                                               to become


1. Yek mâh si ruz ast.                              A month is thirty days long.

2. Yek sâl davâzdah mâh ast.                        A year is twelve months long.

3. Panjâho do hafte yek sâl mišavad.                A year is fifty two weeks long.

4. Emsâl tabestân dar Tehrân nabudam.               I was not in Tehran this summer.

5. Tâbestâne pârsâl dar Tehrân budam.               I was in Tehran this past summer.

6. Sisado šasto panj ruz ham yek sâl ast.           Three hundred sixty five days makes up a year.

7. Yek sâl râ be davâzdah mâh baxš kardeand.        A year is divided into twelve months.

8. Har fasl se mâh ast.                             A season is three months long.

9. Bahâr, tâbestân, pâyiz, zemestân, cahâr fasle    Spring, summer, autumn, and winter are the four
sâl hastand.                                        seasons of the year.

10. Pârsâ1, tâbestân az Tehrân be Espahân
                                                    I went from Tehran to Ispahan last summer.
raftam.


Exercise 15.1

Make a sentence for each of the following words:
1. šanbe 2. hafte 4. ruz 5. daqiqe 7. emsâl 8. fasl 10. diruz 3. bahâr 6. mâh 9. mišavad


Exercise 15.2

Answer the following questions:
1. Yek sâl cand fasl ast?

2. Yek ruz cand sâat ast?

3. Yek hafte cand ruz ast?

4. Sal râ be cand fasl baxš kardeand?

5. Har fasl cand mâh ast?

6. Har sal cand hafte ast?

7. Yek sâl cand ruz ast?

8. Emruz cand šanbe ast?

9. Diruz cand šanbe bud?

10. In fasl ce faslist (= fasli ast)?


Exercise 15.3



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Put the following words in the right order:
1. dar - Tehrân - nabudam - pârsâl

2. emsâl - az Tehrân - tâbestân - miravam - be Espahân

3. cahâr - yek - fasl - sâl - ast

4. dar - xâne - sâat - hastam - yek

5. sâat - dišab - xâbidam - noh

6. in âsântar - diruz - dars - az - ast - dars

7. yek - se - mâh - fasl - ast

8. diruz - ketâb - dah - bâzâr - az - xaridam

9. in - hafte - dânešgâh - sobhhâ - dar - dâram - kâr

10. man - sâat - sobhhâ - hašt - xâne - dar - nistam




Lesson 16

                    Mâhhâye sâl                                      The months of the year

Farvardin                                              Mehr

Ordibehešt                                             Âbân

Xordâd                                                 Âzar

Tir                                                    Dey

Amordâd                                                Bahman

Šahrivar                                               Espand


                       Nowruz                                           Iranian new year


garm                                                   warm

sard                                                   cold

havâ                                                   air/weather




1. Farvardin, Ordibehešt, Xordâd, se mâhe bahâr        Farvardin, Ordibehešt, and Xordâd are the 3
hastand.                                               months of spring.

2. Tir, Amordâd, Šahrivar, se mâhe Tâbestân            Tir, Amordâd, and Šahrivar, are the 3 months of
hastand.                                               summer.

3. Dey, Bahman, Espand, se mâhe zemestân               Dey, Bahman, and Espand, are the 3 months of
hastand.                                               winter

                                                       Mehr, Âbân, and Âzar, are the 3 months of
4. Mehr, Âbân, Âzar, se mâhe pâyiz hastand.
                                                       autumn.

5. Nowruz, naxostin ruze Farvardin ast.                Nowruz, is the first day of Farvardin.

6. Bisto yekome mâhe Mârc ham naxostin ruze            The twenty first of March is also the first day of
Farvardin ast.                                         Farvardin.

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7. Zemestânhâ havâ sard ast.                     The weather is cold in the winter.

8. Tâbestânhâ havâ garm ast.                     The weather is warm in the summer.

                                                 The weather of Tehran is warm in the month of
9. Dar mâhe Amordâd havâye Tehrân, garm ast.
                                                 Amordâd.

                                                 The weather of Tehran is cold in the month of
10. Dar mâhe Bahman havâye Tehrân, sard ast.
                                                 Bahman.

11. Yek sâl be cahâr fasl baxš mišavad.          A year is divided into four seasons.

12. Har fasl se mâh ast.                         Every season is three months long.

                                                 The first six months of the year are thirty one
13. Šeš mâhe naxoste sâl siyo yek ruz hastand.
                                                 days long.

                                                 The second six months of the year are thirty days
14.Šeš mâhe dovome sâl si ruz ast.
                                                 long.

15. Har yek az mâhhâye bahâr siyo yek ruz ast.   Each of the spring months is thirty one days long.

16. Har yek az mâhhâye tâbestân siyo yek ruz     Each of the summer months is thirty one days
ast.                                             long.

17. Har yek az mâhhaye pâyiz si ruz ast.         Each of the autumn months is thirty days long.

18. Har yek az mâhhâye zemestân si ruz ast.      Each of the winter months is thirty days long.

19. Dar fasle bahâro pâyiz, havâye Tehrân, xub   Tehran's weather is good during the spring and
ast.                                             autumn seasons.

20. Dar fasle tâbestâno zemestan, havâye         Tehran's weather is not good during the summer
Tehrân, xub nist.                                and winter seasons.


Exercise 16.1

Put the following sentences into negative:
1. Emruz havâ sard ast.

2. Diruz havâ garm bud.

3. Emsâl tâbestân havâ garm bud.

4. Pârsâl zemestân havâ sard bud.

5. Dar tâbestân havâye Tehran garm ast.

6. Dar zemestân havâye Tehrân sard ast.

7. Zemestânhâ man dar Tehrân hastam.

8. Emsâl tâbestân az Tehrân be Espahân raftam.

9. Diruz havâye xubi bud.

10. Emruz sâate šeš havâ sard bud.



Exercise 16.2

Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ emruz sard ast?



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2. Âyâ diruz garm bud?

3. Âyâ dar Amordâdmâh havâye Tehrân garm ast?

4. Âyâ dar Bahmanmâh havâye Tehrân sard ast?

5. Âyâ tâbestânhâ dar Tehrân hastid?

6. Âyâ nowruz naxostin ruze sâl ast?

7. Âyâ bisto yekome mâhe Mârc ruze naxoste Farvardin ast?

8. Farvardinmâh cand ruz ast?

9. Tirmâh cand ruz ast?

10. Deymâh cand ruz ast?


Exercise 16.3

Make sentences out of the following words:
1. havâ - dar - garm - tâbestân - ast.

2. ast - havâ - sard - zemestânhâ.

3. naxostin - Farvardin - ruz - Nowruz - ast.

4. fasl - har - mâh - se - ast.

5. mâh - ruz - si - ast - yek.

6. sal - fasl - yek - ast - cahâr.

7. sâl - yek - hafte - panjaho do - ast.

8. naxoste - Šanbe - hafte - ruze - ast.

9. Tehrân - zemestânhâ - man - hastam - dar.

10. mâhe - naxoste - bahâr - Farvardin - aste.


Exercise 16.4

Write a sentence for each of the following words:
1. sard 2. naxost 3. sâat 4. zohr 5. garm 6. mâh 7. emsâl 8. havâ 9. sâl 10. emruz




Lesson 17

xoršid                                             sun

setâre                                             star

abr                                                cloud

aftab                                              sunlight

tâbidan                                            to shine

zamin                                              earth

mahtab/mâhtâb                                      moonlight


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abri                                                cloudy

âftâbi                                              sunny

âsmân                                               sky


1. Xoršid be zamin mitâbad.                         The sun shines on the earth.

2. Xoršid az zamin dur ast.                         The sun is far from the earth.

3. Âftab zamin râ garm mikonad.                     The sun warms the earth.

4. Âftab mâ râ garm mikonad.                        The sun warms us up.

5. Mahtâb garm nist, va zamin râ garm               Moonlight is not warm, and does not warm the
nemikonad.                                          earth.

6. Xoršid bozorg asto setâregân kucak hastand.      The sun is large and the stars are small.

7. Xoršido mâho setâregân dar âsmân hastand.        The sun, the moon, and the stars are in the sky.

8. Šabhâ mâ xoršid râ nemibinim.                    We do not see the sun at night.

9. Ruzhâ mâ setâregân râ nemibinim.                 We do not see the stars during the day.

10. Šabhâ setâregân râ dar âsmân mibinim.           We see the stars in the sky at night.

11. Emruz havâ abrist, va xoršid râ nemibinim.      It is cloudy today, and we do not see the sun.

12. Diruz havâ âftabiyo garm bud.                   Yesterday the weather was sunny and warm.

13. Zemestânhâ âftâb ziyâd garm nist.               The sunlight is not very warm in the winter.

14. Ruzhâye zemestâno šabhâye tâbestân kutâh
                                                    Winter days and summer nights are short.
hastand.

15. Šabhaye zemestâno ruzhâye tâbestân boland
                                                    Winter nights and summer days are long.
hastand.



Exercise 17.1

Put into Persian:


1. The sun is bigger than the earth.                Xoršid bozorgtar az zamin ast.

2. It was sunny yesterday.                          Diruz âftâbi bud.

3. It is cloudy today and the sun does not shine.   Emruz abristo xoršid nemitâbad.

4. The sky is blue.                                 Âsmân âbist.

5. It is cold in winter.                            Zemestân sard ast.

6. It was warm last summer.                         Tâbestâne piš garm bud.

7. Autumn is a beautiful season.                    Pâyiz fasle zibâyist.

8. There are four seasons in a year.                Sâl cahâr fast ast.

9. It is not cloudy tonight.                        Emšab abri nist.

10. Saturday is the first day of the week.          Šanbe ruze naxoste hafte ast.




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Exercise 17.2



1. Name the days of the week.
2. Name the months of the year.
3. Count from twenty to a hundred.
4. Name the seasons of the year.

Exercise 17.3

Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ šabhâ xoršid râ mibunid?

2. Âyâ šomâ bozorgtar az man hastid?

3. Âyâ ruzhâ setâregân râ mibinid?

4. Âyâ dišab havâ abri bud?

5. Âyâ emruz hava âftâbiyast?

6. Âyâ xoršid bozorgtar az zamin ast?

7. Abr ce rang ast?

8. Âyâ ruzhâ mâh ra mibinid?

9. Âyâ zamin, kucaktar az xoršid ast?

10. Âyâ Nowruz, naxoste sâl ast?


Exercise 17.4

Make a sentence for each of the following words:
1. setâre 2. naxost 3. Amordâd 4. abr 5. durtar 6. bahâr 7. cehel 8. pârsâl 9. xâbid 10. Došanbe




Lesson 18

barf                                                snow


tagarg                                              hail


bâd                                                 wind

gâhi                                                sometimes

sâf                                                 cloudless/clear

vazidan                                             to blow

meh                                                 fog



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bârân                                             rain

baridan                                           to rain

besyâr/xeyli                                      very/very much



1. Dar mâhe Amordâd havâye Tehrân besyâr          Tehran's weather is very warm in the month of
garm ast.                                         Amordâd.

2. Dar Bahmanmâh havâye Tehrân besyâr sard        Tehran's weather is very cold in the month of
ast.                                              Bahman.

3. Bârân dar bahâro pâyiz, va barf dar zemestân   It rains in spring and autumn, and it snows in
mibarad.                                          winter.

4. Bâd dar bahâro pâyiz va gâhi ham dar           Wind blows in spring and autumn and sometimes
zemestân mivazad.                                 in winter.

5. Emruz havâ kami abri ast.                      The weather is a little cloudy today.

6. Tabestâne Tehrân besyâr garm, va zemstâne      Tehran's summer is very warm, and its winter is
ân, besyâr sard ast.                              very cold.


7. Emruz havâye Tehrân abri bud, bâd âmad,        Tehran's weather today was cloudy, the wind blew
abrhâ râ bord, havâ sâf šod.                      the clouds away and it became clear.

8. Pârsâl bârân zyâd nayâmad; vali emsâl ham      Last year it did not rain very much; but this year
barfo ham barâne zyâdi âmad.                      it rained and snowed a lot.

                                                  Last year one morning it turned foggy, but it
9. Pârsâl yek ruz sobh meh âmad, vali zud raft.
                                                  quickly cleared up.

                                                  Last year, winter the weather did not turn too
10. Pârsâl, zemestân havâ besyâr sard našod.
                                                  cold.



Exercise 18.1

Answer these questions:
1. Amordâdmâh dar kodam fasl ast?

2. Ordibeheštmâh dar kodâm fasl ast?

3. Kodâm fasl garmtar ast?

4. Sardtarin fasl kodâm ast?

5. Dar ce fasli bâran zyâd mibârad?

6. Dar ce fasli bâd zyâd mibârad?

7. Kodâm fasl havâ zyâd sard mišavad?

8. Kodâm fasl havâ zyâd garm mišavad?

9. Ayâ dar bahâr bârân zyâdtar mibârad yâ dar pâyiz?

10. Ayâ barf dar zemestân mibârad?


Exercise 18.2



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Compare the following adjectives:

1. garm 2. sard 3. zyâd 4. arzân 5. gerân 6. boland 7. kutâh 8. zibâ 9. bad 10. bozorg



Exercise 18.3

Learn the following ordinal numbers:
yekom/naxost/avval                                  first

doyom/dovom                                         second

seyom/sevom                                         third

caharom                                             fourth

panjom                                              fifth

šešom                                               sixth

haftom                                              seventh

haštom                                              eighth

nohom                                               ninth

dahom                                               tenth

yâzdahom                                            eleventh

davâzdahom                                          twelveth

sizdahom                                            thirteenth

cahardahom                                          fourteenth

panzdahom                                           fifteenth

šânzdahom                                           sixteenth

hafdahom                                            seventeenth

hajdahom/hašdahom/haž dahom                         eighteenth

nuzdahom                                            nineteenth

bistom                                              twentieth

bisto yekom                                         twenty first

bisto dovom                                         twenty second

siyo dovom                                          thirty second

cehelo sevom                                        forty third

panjaho cahârom                                     fifty fourth

šasto panjom                                        sixty fifth

haftâdo šešom                                       seventy sixth

haštâdo haftam                                      eighty seventh

navado haštom                                       ninety eighth

sadom                                               hundredth


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hezârom                                             thousandth



Exercise 18.4

Write five simple sentences about winter.

Exercise 18.5

Make sentences out of the following words:

1. ruz - Farvardin - naxoste - Nowruz - ast

2. havâ - tâbestânhâ - besyâr - mišavad - garm

3. âftâb - mikonad - garm - mâ - râ

4. mahtâb - nist - garm - va - nemikonad - garm - mâ - râ

5. setâregân - râ - dar - šabhâ - mibinim - âsmân


6. nemibinim - setâregân - râ - ruzhâ


7. havâ - âftâbi - diruz - bud

8. mitâbad - be - xoršid - zamin

9. dovome - bahâr - Ordibehešt - mâh - ast


10. mâh - Xordâd - bahâr - sevome - ast




Lesson 19

mâdar                                               mother

barâdar                                             brother

doxtar                                              girl/daughter

pedar                                               father

zan                                                 wife/woman

pesar                                               boy/son

xâhar                                               sister

mard                                                man

šowhar                                              husband


Pedaram šasto se sâl dârad va dar dânešgâh dars     My father is sixty three years old and teaches at
midahad.                                            the university.

Mâdaram panjâhsâle asto dar xâne kâr mikonad.       My mother is fifty three years old and works at


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                                                  home.

Har ruz sobh pedaram be dânešgâh miravad, va      Every morning my father goes to the university
dar ânjâ dars midahad ammâ mâdaram dar xâne       and teaches there, but my mother is at home
asto kârhâye xâne râ mikonad.                     taking care of the house work.

Man se xâharo do barâdar dâram.                   I have three sisters and two brothers.

Xaharâne man har se az man kucaktarand.           My sisters are all younger than me.

Yeki az xâharâne man šowhar dârad.                One of my sisters has a husband.

Do xâhare digare man dar xâneye pedaro            My two other sisters live at home with my
mâdaram hastand.                                  parents.

Barâdarâne man har do az man bozorgtar            My brothers are all older than me and live in their
hastand va dar xâneye xodašân hastand.            own homes.

Man har ruz be dânešgâh miravamo dar ânjâ dars
                                                  I go to the university every day and study there.
mixânam.

Ruzhâye Jom’e ostâdân be dânešgâh nemiyâyand,     On Fridays the professors do not go to the
man ham be ânjâ nemiravam.                        university and I do not go there either.

Dar dânešgâhe mâ zanâno mardân, doxtarâno         In our university women and men, girls and boys
pesarân bâ ham dars mixânand.                     all study together.


Exercise 19.1

Give negative and positive answers to the following questions:
1. Âyâ šomâ har ruz be dânešgâh miravid?

2. Âyâ pedare šomâ dar dânešgâh dars midahad?

3. Âyâ šomâ barâdar dârid?

4. Âyâ šomâ xâhar dârid?

5. Âyâ barâdare šomâ az šomâ bozorgtar ast?

6. Âyâ xâhare šomâ az šomâ kucaktar ast?

7. Âyâ xâhare šomâ dar xâneye pedaratân ast?

8. Âyâ barâdare bozorge šomâ kâr mikonad?

9. Âyâ xâhare kucake šomâ dar xâne ast?

10. Âyâ xâhare bozorge šomâ šowhar dârad?



Exercise 19.2

Make sentences out of the following words:
1. man - pedare - dar - xâne - nist - ruzhâ

2. dar - mâdaram - xâne - mikonad - kâr

3. mâdar - besyâr - bozorgtar - va - pedaram - az - man - hastand

4. az - xâharâne - yeki - šowhar - man - dârad



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5. yeki - xâharân - kâr - man - az - xâne - râ - mikonad - e



Exercise 19.3

Learn the following pronouns:
pedaram = my father                                 pedaramân = our father

pedarat = your father                               pedaratân = your father


pedaraš = his/her father                            pedarašân = their father




xodam = myself                                      xodamân = ourselves

xodat = yourself                                    xodatân = yourselves

xodaš = himself/herself                             xodašân = themselves



ketâbe xodam = my own book                          ketâbe xodamân = our own book


ketâbe xodat = your own book                        ketâbe xodatân = your own book

ketâbe xodaš = his/her own book                     ketâbe xodašân = their own book


Exercise 19.4

Correct these sentences:
1. išân az xâne be bâzâr raft.

2. man emruz sobh dar xâne hast.

3. u diruz be dânešgâh miravad.

4. pedare man az man kucaktar ast.

5. man az mâdaram bozorgtar hastam.




Lesson 20

šâm = supper                       xorâk/qazâ = food                 nân = bread

nâhâr = lunch                      šir = milk                        panir = cheese

sobhâne/câšt = breakfast           bidâr šodan = to wake             šostan = to wash


Sobhhâ sâate šeš az xâb bidâr mišavam.              I wake up at six o'clock every morning.

Dasto suratam râ mišuyam.                           I wash may hands and face.



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Nâno paniro šir mixoram, va be dânešgâh          I eat bread with cheese and milk and head to the
miravam.                                         university.

Sâate hašto nim dar kelâs hastam.                I am in the classroom at eight thirty.

Ostâd be kelâs miyâyad va dars midahad.          The professor arrives at class and teaches.

Sobhhâ se sâat dars mixânam.                     I study for three hours every morning.

Sâate yâzdaho nim az dânešgâh be xâne
                                                 I leave the university for home at eleven thirty.
miravam.

Dorost sâate davâzdah nâhâr mixoram.             I eat lunch exactly at twelve o'clock.

Sâate dovo nim dobâre be dânešgâh miravam.       I again go to the university at two thirty.

Do sâat digar dars mixânam.                      I study another two hours.

Pas az ân be xâne miravam.                       After that I go home.

Dar xâne ham kami dars mixânamo kami kâr
                                                 At home I study and work a little.
mikonam.

Sâate hašt šâm mixoramo sâate dah mixâbam.       I eat supper at eight and sleep at ten.



Exercise 20.1

Answer the following questions:
Sobhhâ ce sâati az xâb bidâr mišavid?

Âyâ šabhâ zud mixâbid?

Âyâ dar zemestân dasto suratetân râ bâ âbe sard mišuyid?

Âyâ dar tâbestân dasto suratetân râ bâ âbe garm mišuyid?

Ce sâati sobhâne mixorid?

Ce sâati nâhâr mixorid?

Ce saati šâm mixorid?

Šir ce rang ast?

Dar zemestân xorâke sard behtar ast yâ xorâke garm?

Šabi cand sâat mixâbid?


Exercise 20.2

Make a sentence with each of the following words:
1. pedaratân                   2. xodaš                         3. pedaram

4. gâhi                        5. ammâ                          6. setâregân

7. pas az ân                   8. dobâre                        9. mixâbam


Exercise 20.3

Correct these sentences:
1. U xodašân be man goft.

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2. Yeki az xaharâne man šowhar dârand.

3. Mahtâb mâ râ garm mikonad.

4. Nowruz, ruze naxoste Ordibehešt ast.

5. Havâ besyâr sard bud, tagarg mivazido bâd mibârid.

6. Dišab havâ sâf budo setâregân râ nemididim.

7. Emruz dorost sâate davâzdah šâm xordam.

8. Šomâ ketâbe xodetân râ be xâne bordand.

9. Zemestân havâye Tehrân besyâr garm ast.

10. Tâbestânhâ dar Tehrân barf mibârad.




Lesson 21

otâqe nešiman                                     livingroom

otâqe xâb                                         bedroom

otâqe nâhârxori                                   dining room

nowkar                                            man-servant

otâqe pazirâyi                                    guestroom

âšpazxâne                                         kitchen

âšpaz                                             cook

rušuyi                                            lavatory

kolfat                                            maid-servant

mehmân                                            guest


Xâneye mâ panj otâq dârad, se otâqe ân bozorgo    Our house has five rooms, three of its rooms are
do otâqe an kucak ast.                            large and two are small.

Yeki az otâqhâye bozorg, otâqe nešiman ast ke     One of its large rooms is the living room where
mâ dar ân minešinim.                              we sit.

Yeki az otâqhâye kucak barâye xâb ast ke mâ dar   One of the small rooms is the bedroom where we
an mixâbim.                                       sleep.

Dar otâqe nâhârxori xorâk mixorim.                We eat food in the dining room

Dar otâqe pazirâyi az mehmân pazirâyi mikonim.    We entertain a guest in the guestroom.

Yeki az otâqhâye kucak barâye nowkaro kolfate     One of the small rooms is for the maid and the
mâst.                                             sevant.

Kolfato nowkare mâ zano šowhar hastand.           Our maid and servant are husband and wife.

                                                  We do not have a cook and must cook our own
Mâ âšpaz nadârim va xodemân âšpazi mikonim.
                                                  food.

Sobhhâ ke az xâb bidâr mišavim har yek az mâ      Every morning when we get up each one of us
be rušuyi miravad va dast o surate xod râ         goes to the bathroom and washes his face and
mišuyad.                                          hands.



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Sâate hafte sobh barâye xordane sobhâne be          At seven o'clock we go to the dining room to have
otâqe nâhârxori miravim.                            breakfast.

Barâye xordane nâhâr va šâm hameye mâ
                                                    We wash our hands before lunch and dinner, then
dasthâye xodemân râ mišuyim, pas az ân be
                                                    we go into the dining room to have our meals.
otâqe nâhârxori barâye xordane xorâk miravim.

Pas az xordane nâhâr dobâre har yek be sare kâre
                                                    After having lunch we return to our work.
xod miravim.

Šabhâ do sâat pas az xordane šâm hameye mâ
                                                    Every night we go to bed two hours after dinner.
mixâbim.



Exercise 21.1

Write five simple sentences about your family.

Exercise 21.2

Use each of the following words in simple sentences:
1. bozorgtar                     2. haryek                        3. hame

4. šostam                        5. mard                          6. bidâr šodam

7. âšpazxâne                     8. otâqe nowkar                  9. pazirâyi kardam

10. sobhâne


Exercise 21.3

Answer these questions:
1. Sobhhâ ce sâati az xâb bidâr mišavid?

2. Šabhâ ce sâati mixâbid?

3. Nâhâr râ ce sâati mixorid?

4. Ce sâati šâm mixorid?

5. Sobhhâ ce sâati sare kâr miravid?

6. Âyâ šomâ âšpaz dârid, yâ xodatân âšpazi mikonid?

7. Xâneye šomâ cand otâq dârad?

8. Šabi cand sâat mixâbid?

9. Âyâ šomâ šabhâ dir mixâbid?

10. Zemestân râ bištar dust dârid yâ tâbestân râ?




Lesson 22

mândan                                              to remain

hendese                                             geometry

zabân                                               language


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pâkize                                              clean

târix                                               history

Pârsi                                               Persian

poxtan                                              to cook

joqrâfi                                             geography

âmâreš/hesâb                                        arithmetic

komak kardan                                        to help


Pariyo Kuroš dar dabestân dars mixânand.            Pari and Kurosh study at the elementary school.

                                                    Pari is Kurosh's sister, and Kurosh is Pari's
Pari xâhare Kuroš ast va Kuroš barâdare Pari ast.
                                                    brother.

Pari kelâse dovomo Kuroš cahârom ast.               Pari is in second, and Kurosh is in fourth grade.

Sobhhâ bâham az xâne be dabestân miravand.          Every morning they go to school together.

Kuroš do sâl bozorgtar az Pari ast.                 Kurosh is two years older than Pari.

Dar dabestân har do zabâne Pârsi, âmâreš,           At school they both study Persian, arithmetic,
hendese, târix, va joqrâfi mixânand.                geometry, history, and geography.

Šabhâ Kuroš dar xâne be Pari komak mikonad.         Every night Kurosh helps Pari at home.

                                                    Their father goes to work every day at eight
Pedarašân ruzhâ sâate hašt be sare kâr miravado
                                                    o'clock, and every night he goes comes home at
šabhâ sâate haft be xâne miyâyad.
                                                    seven o'clock.

Mâdarašân dar xâne mimânado xâne râ pâkize          Their mother stays at home, cleans the house,
mikonado barâye išân xorâk mipazad.                 and cooks meals for them.

Pariyo Kuroš pas az in ke kâre xod râ tamâm
                                                    Pari and Kurosh go to the kitchen after finishing
kardand be ašpazxâne miravando be mâdarašân
                                                    their work and help out their mother.
komak mikonand.


Exercise 22.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ Pari xâhare Kuroš ast?

2. Âyâ Kuroš barâdare Pari ast?

3. Pari dar ce kelâsi ast?

4. Kuroš dar ce kelâsi ast?

5. Kuroš cand sâl bozorgtar an Pari ast?

6. Dar dabestân ce mixânand?

7. Âyâ šabhâ Kuroš be Pari komak mikonad?

8. Pedarašân ce sâati be sare kar miravad?

9. Ce sâati pedarašân be xâne bar migardad?

10. Madarašân dar xâne ce mikonad?




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Exercise 22.2

Write the infinitive of five different verbs.

Exercise 22.3

Conjugate the present tense of the verb “budan”.

Exercise 22.4

Conjugate the past tense of the verb “xordan”.

Exercise 22.5

Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Man u râ didam.

2. Ostâd dar kelâs dars midahad.

3. Sâate hašto nim šâgerdân dar kelâs budand.

4. Mâdaram diruz be bâzâr raft.

5. Pedare šomâ dišab be xâneye mâ âmad.


Numbers


100 sad                                         600 šešsad

200 devist                                      700 haftsad

300 sisad                                       800 haštsad

400 cahârsad                                    900 nohsad

500 pânsad                                      1000 hezâr




Lesson 23

xošhâl šodan                                    to become happy

bidâr kardan                                    to waken

piyâde                                          on foot

kif                                             school bag

bâz mišavad                                     opens

hanuz                                           yet

xarideid                                        you have bought

xâstan                                          to want

rasidan                                         to reach

hardo                                           both



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Pariyo Kuroš dišab be pedarašân goftand:           Pari and Kurosh told their father last night: “Our
“Dabestâne mâ, ruze Cahâršanbe bâz mišavado        school will open on Wednesday and you have not
hanuz šomâ barâye mâ ketâb, daftar, medâdo         yet bought us any books, notebooks, pencils and
kâqaz naxarideid”.                                 papers.”

Pedarašân goft: “Fardâ ke Došanbe ast hame bâ      Their father said: “Tomorrow is Monday and we
ham be bâzâr xâhim raft”.                          will all go to the market together”.

Bacehâ besyâr xošhâl šodando be otâqe xâbe xod     The children became happy and went to their
raftand.                                           rooms.

Fardâ sobhe zud har do az xâb bidâr šodando        The next day they woke up early and awakened
pedaro mâdar râ bidâr kardand.                     their mother and father.

Pas az xordane sobhâne piyâde be bâzâr raftand.    After having breakfast they left for the market.

Dar xiyâbânhâ daste Pari dar daste mâdar, va       In the streets Pari's hand was in her mother's and
daste Kuroš dar daste pedar bud.                   Kurosh's was in his father's.

Pas az nim sâat be bâzâr rasidand.                 They reached the market after half hour.

Pedar barâye har do ketâb, daftar, qalam,          Their father bought books, notebooks, pens,
medâdo kâqaz xarid.                                pencils, and papers for both of them.

Pari goft: “Pedar jân, man yek kif mixâham”.       Pari said: “Dear father, I want a school bag”.

Pedar barâye Pari yek kife qahveiyo barâye Kuroš   Their father bought a brown school bag for Pari
yek kife siyâh xarid.                              and a black one for Kurosh.

Išân ketâb, daftar, qalam, medâdo kâqaze xod râ    They put their books, notebooks, pens, pencils,
dar kifhâyašân gozâštando be xâne âmadand.         and papers in their bags and came home.



Exercise 23.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Ce ruzi Pariyo Kuroš bâ pedarašân be bâzâr raftand?

2. Âyâ šomâ bâzâre Tehrân râ dideid?

3. Âyâ Pariyo Kuroš piyâde be bâzâr raftand?

4. Pas az cand sâat be bâzâr rasidand?

5. Âyâ dar xiyâbânhâ daste Pari dar daste mâdaraš bud?

6. Âyâ pedar barâye har do ketâb, daftar, medâdo qalam xarid?

7. Pari be pedar ce goft?

8. Âyâ kife Pari qahvei bud?

9. Âyâ kife Kuroš siyâh bud?

8. Âyâ Pariyo Kuroš ketâbo daftare xod râ dar kife xod gozâštand?


Exercise 23.2

Write the equivalent of the following words in English:
1. havâ                              2. barâye                      3. bace

4. zud                               5. dir                         6. xiyâbân


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7. otâqe pazirâyi               8. rasidan                        9. piyâde


10. âmâreš                      11. hendese                       12. mixâham


13. devist                      14. komak mikonad                 15. mândan

16. dust dâštan                 17. bištar                        18. Pârsi

19. poxtan                      20. târix


Conjugation of Verbs

Perfect tense:
                     Xordan                                           To eat

man xordeam                                    I have eaten

to xordei                                      you have eaten

u xorde ast                                    he/she has eaten

mâ xordeim                                     we have eaten

šomâ xordeid                                   you have eaten

išân xordeand                                  they have eaten



Perfect tense:
                     Rasidan                                         To reach

man rasideam                                   I have reached

to rasidei                                     you have/thou hast reached

u raside ast                                   he/she has reached

mâ rasideim                                    we have reached

šomâ rasideid                                  you have reached

išân rasideand                                 they have reached


Pefect tense:
                      Raftan                                           To go

man rafteam                                    I have gone


to raftei                                      you have/thou hast gone


u rafte ast                                    he/she has gone

mâ rafteim                                     we have gone

šoma rafteid                                   you have gone

išân rafteand                                  they have gone



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Future tense:
                     Amadan                                     To come

man xâham âmad                               I shall come


to xâhi âmad                                 you will come


u xâhad âmad                                 he/she will come

mâ xâhim šniad                               we shall come

šomâ xâhid âmad                              you will come

išân xâhand âmad                             they will come




Future tense:
                      Didan                                     To see

man xâham did                                I shall see

to xâhi did                                  you will see

u xâhad did                                  he/she will see

mâ xâhim did                                 we will see

šomâ xâhid did                               you will see

išân xâhand did                              they will see


Future tense:
                     Xaridan                                    To buy

man xâham xarid                              I shall buy

to xâhi xarid                                you will buy

u xâhad xarid                                he/she will buy

mâ xâhim xarid                               we shall buy

šomâ xâhid xarid                             you will buy

išân xâhand xarid                            they will buy




Lesson 24

dust                                         friend

giše                                         stamp window


hangâm                                       when




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nâme                                             letter

postxâne                                         post office

sâlem                                            safe/healthy

posti                                            postman

tambr                                            stamp

fahmidan                                         to realize

sandoqe post                                     mailbox

andâxtan                                         to drop/to throw

pâkat                                            envelope

šahr                                             city


Yeki az dustâne man, yek mâh ast ke be Landan    One of my friends has gone to London for a
rafte ast.                                       month.

Diruz sâate nohe sobh posti nâmeyi az Landan     The postman brought me a letter from London at
barâye man âvard.                                nine o'clock yesterday morning.

In nâme râ duste man ferestâde bud.              My friend had sent me the letter.

Nâme râ xândam.                                  I read the letter.

Hangâmi ke fahmidam u sâlem be šahre Landan      I was happy when I realized he had safely
raside ast, xošhâl šodam.                        reached the city of London.

Dišab pâsoxe nâmeye u râ neveštamo emruz         Last night I wrote an answer to his letter, and
sobh ân râ be postxâne bordam.                   took it to the post office this morning.

Az yeki az gišehâ tambr xaridamo be pâkat
                                                 I bought a stamp from a window, pasted it to an
casbândam, va nâme râ dar sandoqe post
                                                 envelope, and dropped the letter in a mailbox.
andâxtam.

Az postxâne be xâneye barâdaram raftam.          I went to my brother's place after the post office.

Barâdaram goft: “Sâate hašte sobh be xâneye      “I called your home at eight o'clock this morning,
šomâ telefon kardam, šomâ dar xâne nabudid.”     and you were not home”, my brother said.

Goftam: “dorost ast, man be postxâne rafte       “That is correct, I had gone to the post office”, I
budam.”                                          said.


Exercise 24.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ šomâ šahre Landan râ dideid?

2. Postxâneye Tehrân dar ce xiyâbâni ast?

3. Âyâ šomâ postxâneye Tehrân râ dideid?

4. Tambre post râ az kojâ mixarid?

5. Âyâ šomâ dusti dar šahre Landan dârid?

6. Hangâmi ke tambr râ be pâkat casbândid, pâkat râ kojâ miyandâzid?




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7. Sobhhâ ce sâati az xâne birun miravid?

8. Âyâ šomâ sobhhâ dir be xâne bar migardid?

9. Âyâ šomâ be dustâne xod ke dar Irân nistand nâme minevisid?

10. Âyâ šomâ pâsoxe nâmehâ râ zud minevisid?



Exercise 24.2

Conjugate the future tense of the verb: To Go = “Raftan”

Exercise 24.3

Conjugate the perfect tense of the verb: To See = “Didan”

Exercise 24.4

Put the following verbs into negative:


man budeam                        man xâham goft                      man miravam

to budei                          to xâhi goft                        to miravi

u bude ast                        u xâhad goft                        u miravad

mâ budeim                         mâ xâhim goft                       mâ miravim

šomâ budeid                       šomâ xâhid goft                     šomâ miravid

išân budeand                      išân xâhand goft                    išân miravand




Lesson 25

havâpeymâ                                            airplane

nešastan                                             to sit/to land

forudgâh                                             airport

dast dâdan                                           to shake hands

tâksi                                                taxi

mosâfer                                              passenger

âqâ                                                  sir/Mr.

digari                                               the other

didani                                               worth seeing

miyân                                                among

gomrok                                               customs

Âmrikâyi                                             American

miyâmad                                              was coming

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xodrow                                             automobile


Âqâye Edvârd Jânson va âqâye Yegâne bâ ham
                                                   Mr. Edward Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh are friends.
dust hastand.

Âqâye Yegâne be mâ goft: “Emruz sobh sâate         Mr. Yeganeh told us: “This morning at seven
haft bâ yek tâksi az šahr be forudgâhe Mehrâbâd    o'clock I took a taxi from the city to the Mehrabad
raftam.                                            airport.

Âqâye Edvârd Jânson, yeki az dustâne man, az       One of my friends, Mr. Edward Johnson, was
Nyu York be Tehrân miyâmad.                        arriving in Tehran from New York.

Yek rob’ be hašt, yek havâpeymâye Âmrikâyi be      At quarter to eight, an American airplane landed,
zamin nešast, duste man dar in havâpeymâ bud.      and my friend was on board.

Dare havâpeymâ bâz šod. Mosâferân hame be          The airplane door opened. All passengers went
gomrok raftand.                                    through customs.

Pas az nim sâat birun âmadand.                     They came out after a half hour.

Duste man ham birun âmad, bâ u dast dâdamo         My friend came out as well, I shook his hand and
hâle u râ porsidam.                                greeted him.

Barâdare man ham be forudgâh âmade bud tâ
                                                   My brother had also come to the airport to see my
duste marâ bebinad. Bâ xordove u be šahr
                                                   friend. We left for the city in his car.
âmadim.

Âqâye Jânson yek hafte dar Tehrân mimânado dar     Mr. Johnson will stay in Tehran for a week, as a
xâneye mâ mehmân ast.                              guest in our home.

Mâ az u pazirâyi xâhim kard.                       We will entertain him.

Dar in hafte be jâhâye didaniye šahre Tehrân       This week we will visit the interesting sights of the
xâhim raft.                                        city of Tehran.

Pas az yek hafte u be šahrhâye digare Irân xâhad
                                                   After a week he will visit other cities around Iran.”
raft.”


Exercise 25.1

Answer these questions:
1. Âqâye Jânson az kodâm šahr be Tehrân âmad?

2. Âqâye Jânson bâ otomobil be Tehrân âmad?

3. Âyâ âqâye Jânson bâ havâpeymâye Âmrikâyi be Tehrân âmad?

4. Ce sâati havâpeymâ be zamin nešast?

5. Mosaferân az havâpeymâ be kojâ raftand?

6. Âqâye Jânson dar Tehrân mehmâne kist?

7. Âqâye Jânson ce moddat dar Tehrân xâhad mand?

8. U pas az yek hafte be kojâ xâhad raft?

9. Âyâ Âqâye Jânson be jâhâye didaniye šahre Tehrân xâhad raft?

10. Âqâye Jânson bâ xodrove ke be šahr âmad?



Exercise 25.2


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Conjugate the perfect tense of the verbs:
“Dâdan” = To Give, “Gereftan” = To Take

Exercise 25.3

Translate the following sentences into Persian:
1. What day is it today?

2. Today is Tuesday.

3. What day was yesterday?

4. Yesterday was Monday.

5. What day will tomorrow be?

6. Tomorrow will be Wednesday.

7. It was cold yesterday.

8. It was warm in summertime.

9. It is cold in winter.

10. It was cloudy last night.




Lesson 26

be suye                                         towards

zang zadan                                      to ring

sedâ zadan                                      to call

rušuyi                                          lavatory

avaz kardan                                     to change

taxte xâb                                       bed

jâmedân                                         suitcase

andar/andarun šodan                             to enter

râhnamâyi kardan                                to guide

xošâmad goftan                                  to welcome

nešân                                           to show

anjâm dâdan                                     to finish

eškâf                                           closet

hammâm                                          bathroom


Xâneye Âqâye Yegâne dar xiyâbâne Taxte Jamšid   Mr. Yeganeh's house is on Takht-e Jamshid
ast.                                            Avenue.

                                                His brother's automobile stopped in front of the
Xodrove barâdaraš jelove xâne istâd.
                                                house.


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Âqâye Jânson, Âqâye Yegânevo barâdarâš az
                                                    Mr. Johnson, Mr. Yeganeh, and his brother got out
xodrow piyâde šodand va be suye dare xâne
                                                    of the automobile and went towards the door.
raftand.

Âqâye Yegâne zang râ zad.                           Mr. Yeganeh rang the bell.

Nowkaraš dar râ bâz kard.                           His servant opened the door.

                                                    Mr. Yeganeh and his brother gestured Mr.
Âqâye Yegânevo barâdaraš be Âqâye Jânson
                                                    Johnson politely and he was the first to enter the
taârof kardand va u naxost andarune xâne šod.
                                                    house.

Âqâye Yegâne u râ be otâqi râhnamâyi kard va u      Mr. Yeganeh directed him to a room which he
andarune ân otâq šod.                               entered.

Xânome Yegâne ham be in otâq âmad, be Âqâye         Mrs. Yeganeh also entered the room, welcomed
Jânson xošâmad gofto taxte xâb, eškâf,              Mr. Johnson, and showed him the bed, the closet,
hammâmo rušuyi râ be u nešân dâd.                   the bathroom.

Nowkar ham jâmedanhâye Âqâye Jânson râ âvard        The servant brought Mr. Johnson's suitcases and
va dar otâq gozâšt.                                 placed them in the room.

Hame birun raftand tâ Âqâye Jânson dasto surate     Everyone left so that Mr. Johnson could wash up
xod râ bešuyado jâmeye xod râ avaz konad.           and change his clothes.

Pas az yek sâat Âqâye Jânson kârhâye xod râ         After an hour Mr. Johnson was finshed, and called
anjâm dâdo duste xod Âqaye Yegâne râ sedâ zad.      his friend Mr. Yeganeh. They both went to the
Har do be otâqe pazirâyi raftando ânjâ nešastand.   livingroom and sat there.


Exercise 26.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Xâneye Âqâye Yegâne kojâst? ( kojâ ast?)

2. Ke zange xâne râ zad?

3. Ke dar râ bâz kard?

4. Ke be Âqâye Jânson taârof kard?

5. Ke naxost andarune xâne šod?

6. Ke Âqâye Jânson râ be otâq râhnamâyi kard?

7. Xânome Yegâne be Âqâye Jânson ce goft va be u ce nešân dâd?

8. Ke jâmedânhâye Âqâye Jânson râ âvard?

9. Nowkar jâmedânhâ râ kojâ gozâšt?

10. Pas az ce moddati Âqâye Jânson kârhâye xod râ anjâm dâd?

11. Âqâye Jânson ke râ sedâ zad?

12. Âqâye Jânsono Âqâye Yegâne be kojâ raftando ce kardand?



Exercise 26.2

Make a sentence with each of the following words:
1. xâne

2. xiyâbân


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3. barâdaram

4. zang

5. bâz

6. andarun

7. eškâf

8. xodaš


Exercise 26.3

Correct the following sentences:
1. Man Âqâye Yegâne râ dar xiyâban did.

2. Âqâye Jânson mehmânhâye Âqâye.

3. Havâpeymâ sâate hašt be zamin nešastand.

4. U daste xod râ dar kelâs nadidand.

5. Sâate nohe šab posti nâmeyi barâye man âvardi.

6. Barâdaram nâme râ dar sandoqe post andâxtam.

7. Yeki az dustâne man yek mâh ast ke be Landan râfteand.

8. Xâharam dusti dar šahre Tehrân dârid.

9. Pedaram sobhhâ sâate hašt az xâne birun miravad.

10. Mâ kami zabâne Pârsi midânam.



Exercise 26.4

Learn the different parts of the following verbs:
          Infinitive                Present tense            Past tense           Past participle

kardan                      kon                     kard                  karde

budan                       bâš                     bud                   bude

âmadan                      ây                      âmad                  âmade

âvardan                     âvar                    âvard                 âvarde

bordan                      bar                     bord                  borde

didan                       bin                     did                   dide

xordan                      xor                     xord                  xorde

raftan                      row                     raft                  rafte

xaridan                     xar                     xarid                 xaride

neveštan                    nevis                   nevešt                nevešte

šodan                       šow                     šod                   šode

tâbidan                     tâb                     tâbid                 tâbide


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vazidan                  vaz                     vazid                     vazide

dâdan                    deh                     dâd                       dâde

xândan                   xân                     xând                      xânde




Lesson 27

aknun/inak                                       now

nešasteand                                       they are sitting

ehterâm                                          respect/honor

boland šodand                                    they raise up

cây                                              tea

na’lbaki                                         saucer

gap mizadand                                     they were talking

pišband                                          apron

qand                                             sugar

piš/jelow                                        in front of/before

surat                                            face

širini                                           sweets

fenjân                                           cup

mizbân                                           host

hangâm                                           when

šâne kard                                        he/she combed

kenâr                                            beside

mixordand                                        they were eating


Âqâye Jânsono Âqâye Yegâne aknun dar otâqe       Mr. Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh are now seated in
pazirâyi nešasteando bâham gap mizanand.         the livingroom and talking.

Xânome Yegâne dar in hangâm dar âšpazxâne
                                                 Mrs. Yeganeh was in the kitchen at this time.
bud.

Az âšpazxâne birun âmad, pišbande xod râ baz
                                                 She came out of the kitchen, took off her apron,
kard, dasto surate xod râ šost, jâmeye xâne râ
                                                 washed up, changed her clothes, combed her hair
avaz kard, sare xod râ šâne kardo be otâqe
                                                 and entered the livingroom.
pazirâyi raft.

Âqaye Jânsono Âqâye Yegâne be ehterâme u az      Mr. Johnson and Mr. Yeganeh rose up from their
jâye xod boland šodand.                          seats as a sign of respect for her.

Hangâmi ke Xânome Yegâne nešast, išân ham        They sat down again when Mrs. Yeganeh took her
dobâre nešastand.                                seat.

Nowkare xâne câyo širini âvardo piše Âqâye       The servant brought some tea and sweets and
Jânson bord.                                     offered them to Mr. Johnson.

Âqâye Johnson yek fenjân cây bardâšto do tekke   Mr. Johnson picked up a cup of tea and dropped


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qand dar ân andâxt.                                 two pieces of sugar in it.

Pas az ân yek širini ham bardâšto kenâre na’lbaki   Then he picked up a sweet and placed it on the
gozâšt.                                             saucer.

Âqâvo xânome Yegâne ham câyo širiniye xod râ        Mr. and Mrs. Yeganeh took their tea and sweets
bardâštand va nowkar az otâq birun raft.            and the servant left the room.

Mehmâno do mizbân cây mixordando gap                The guest and the two hosts drank tea and
mizadand.                                           talked.


Exercise 27.1

Without referring to the translation tell what you read in your own words.


Exercise 27.2

Answer the following questions with complete sentences:
1. Âqâye Jânson va Âqâye Yegâne aknun dar kojâ nešasteand?

2. Âqâye Jânsono Âqâye Yegâne ce mikonand?

3. Âya Xânome Yegâne jâmevo kafšhâvo jurâbhâye xod râ avaz kard?

4. Hangâmi ke âqâye Jânsono Âqâye Yegâne, Xânome Yegâne râ didand ce kardand?

5. Hangâmi ke Xânome Yegâne nešast išân ce kardand?

6. Nowkare xâne ce âvard?

7. Nowkare xâne câyo širini râ piše ke bord?

8. Âqâye Jânson ce bar dâšt?

9. Âqâye Jânson dar fenjâne cây ce andâxt?

10. Âqâye Jânson širini râ kojâ gozâšt?


Exercise 27.3

Put all the verbs in the sentences into present tense.

Exercise 27.4

Translate the following sentences into English:
1. In doxtare man ast.

2. Doxtare man yâzdah sâle ast.

3. Pesare šomâ cand sâle ast?

4. Emruz havâ besyâr sard ast.

5. Âyâ šomâ dar Tehrân zendegi mikonid?

6. Yeki az barâdarâne man dar Espahân zendegi mikonad.

7. Dišab dir be xâne raftam.



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8. Nowruz, ruze naxoste sâle Iraniyân ast.

9. Havâye in otâq garm ast, yeki az panjarehâ râ bâz konid.

10. Yeki az dustânam be dânešgâhhâye Englestân rafte ast.




Lesson 28

gerd âmadand                                       they gathered

deh                                                village

dehnešin                                           villager

dowr                                               around

pir                                                old

da’vat kard                                        he/she invited

gardeš kardan                                      to take a walk/browse/wander

mânand                                             like

nâpâk                                              dirty

keštzâr                                            field

jow                                                barley

kâšte budand                                       they had sown

guspand                                            sheep

boz                                                goat

xorus                                              cock

negahdâri kardan                                   to take care

jânvar                                             animal

sudmand                                            useful

nâm                                                name

porsid                                             he/she asked

âmâde kardan                                       to prepare

tang                                               narrow

gandom                                             wheat

gâv                                                cow

xar                                                donkey

morq                                               hen

zirâ                                               because




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Âqâye Yegâne bâ pesare bozorgo Xânomaš va
                                                    Mr. Yeganeh, his eldest son, his wife, and Mr.
Âqâye Jânson ruze Âdine bâ xodrow az Tehrân
                                                    Johnson, left Tehran by car on Friday.
birun raftand.


Pas az do sâat be yek deh rasidand.                 They reached a village after two hours.

Dehnešinân ke didand xodrow andarune deh šode       The villagers gathered around the automobile
ast, dowre ân gerd âmadand.                         after they saw it enter the village.

Yeki az išân ke pirmardi bud, išân râ be xâneye     One of them, an old man, invited them to his
xod da’vat kard.                                    home.

Išân ham xodrow râ dar kenâri gozâštando be         They left the automobile in a corner and went to
xâneye pirmard raftand.                             the old man's house.

Âqâye Yegâne nâme pirmard râ porsid, pir-mard       Mr. Yeganeh asked the old man for his name, the
goft: “Nâme man Kuroš ast”.                         old man replied: “My name is Kurosh”.

Pas az rasidan be xâne zane Kuroš išân râ be        After reaching the house, Kurosh's wife directed
otâqi râhnamâyi kardo pas az nim sâat cây âmâde     them to a room and after a half hour prepared tea
kardo barâye išân âvard.                            and brought it inside.

                                                    They browsed around village after drinking their
Išân pas az xordane cây dar deh gardeš kardand.
                                                    teas.

Âqâye Jânson goft: “Xânehâye deh mânande            Mr. Johnson said: “The village houses are not as
xânehâye šahr bozorgo zibâ nistand va kuce ham      large and beautiful as the one's in the city, and
tango nâpâk ast”.                                   the alley is narrow and dirty”.

Pas az dah daqiqe az deh birun raftando be          After ten minutes they left the village and reached
keštzâr rasidand.                                   a field.

                                                    Most of the field was planted with barley and
Bištare zaminhâ râ gandomo jow kâšte budand.
                                                    wheat.

Dehnešinân az gâv, guspand, boz, xar, asb,          The villagers take care of cows, sheep, goats,
morqo xorus negahdâri mikonand, zirâ in             donkeys, horses, hens and cocks, because these
janvarân sudmand hastand.                           are useful animals.



Exercise 28.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Âqâye Yegâne bâ ke az Tehrân birun raft?

2. Ce ruzi Âqâye Yegâne az Tehrân birun raft?

3. Pas az cand sâat be deh rasidand?

4. Ce kasâni dowre mâšin gerd âmadand?

5. Ke išân râ be xâneye xod da’vat kard?

6. Âyâ išân be xâneye an pirmard raftand?

7. Nâme ân pirmard ce bud?

8. Zane Kuroš ce kard?

9. Išân pas az xordane cây ce kardand?

10. Âqâye Jânson dar bâreye xânehâye deh ce goft?



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11. Âqâye Jânson dar bâreye kucehâye deh ce goft?

12. Âqâye Yegânevo digarân az deh ke birun raftand be kojâ rasidand?

13. Dar zaminhâ bištar ce kâšte budand?

14. Jânvarâni râ ke dar deh budand nâm bebarid?

15. Âyâ gâvo guspand sudmand hastand?


Exercise 28.2

Make a sentence for each of the following words:
1. deh                           5. rasidan                         9. sudmand

2. pir                           6. râhnamâyi kardan                10. bozorgtar

3. da’vat                        7. šahr

4. nâm                           8. daqiqe


Exercise 28.3

Explain what you read in your own words without refering to the previous
pages.

Exercise 28.4

Put the sentences you created in Exercise 28.2 into negative.

Exercise 28.5

Name five villages around Tehran.


Lesson 29

asr                                                 evening

hamrâhân                                            companions

xoš gozaštan                                        to have a good time

âsude                                               comfortable

bâyad                                               must

mixâham                                             I want

safar                                               trip/voyage

xâvar                                               east

jonubi                                              southern

bâxtar                                              west

markazi                                             central

taqriban                                            nearly


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nâcâram                                             I’m obliged

gunâgun                                             different

ya’ni                                               it means

dur                                                 far

xânevâde                                            family

šomâl                                               north

baxš                                                part

sepas                                               afterwards

bedrud goftan                                       to say goodby


Asre Âdine Âqâye Yegânevo hamrâhân az gardeš        Mr. Yeganeh and companions returned home fine
bar gaštand va sâlem be xâne rasidand.              on Friday evening.

Hame barâye xordane cây be otâqe pazirâyi
                                                    They all went to the livingroom for tea.
raftand.

Âqâye Jânson be xânevâdeye Yegâne goft: “Man        Mr Johnson said to the Yeganeh family: “I am
dar xâneye šomâ besyâr âsude hastamo dar injâ       very comfortable at your home and am having a
be man xoš migozarad.                               good time.

Vali man bâyad šahrhâye digare Irân râ ham
                                                    But I have to visit other cities around Iran.
bebinam.

Naxost be šomâle Irân mixâham beravam va
                                                    First I want to go north of Iran and visit
Âzarbâyjân, Gilâno Mânzandarân râ bâ Gorgân
                                                    Azerbaijan, Gilan, Mazandaran, and Gorgan.
bebinam.

Sepas mixâham safari be xâvare Irân ya’ni           Then I want to take a trip to Khorasan in eastern
xorâsân beravam.                                    Iran.

Pas az ân be baxšhâye jonubiye Irân mânande
                                                    Then I will visit the southern regions like Kerman,
Kermân, Ba1ucestân, Pârso Xuzestân xâham raft
                                                    Baluchistan, Pars and Khuzistan, and also take a
va safari ham be bâxtare Irân xâham kard tâ
                                                    trip to see Kurdistan in western Iran.
Kordestân râ bebinam.

Sepas šahrhâye markazi, mânande Qom, Kâšân,         Then I will see the cities in the central region, like
Espahâno Arâk râ xâham did, tâ taqriban hameye      Qom, Kashan, Espahan and Arak, so that I would
Irân râ dide bâšam.                                 have visited the entire Iran.

Man gomân dâram yek ketâbe joqrâfi be zabâne
                                                    I have in mind to write a geographical book on
Englisi dar bâreye Irân benevisamo barâye
                                                    Iran, and in order to do that I am obliged to visit
neveštane in ketâb nâcâram baxšhâye gunâgune
                                                    the different parts of the country.
Irân râ bebinam.

Fardâ sobh bâ šomâ bedrud xâham goft va bâ          Tomorrow morning I will say goodby to you all,
pâreyi dustâne Englisiye xod in safare duro derâz   and leave on this long trip with several of my
râ âqâz xâham kard.                                 English friends.



Exercise 29.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Key âqaye Yegâne va hamrâhânaš az safar bar gaštand?

2. Vaqti be xâne rasidand be kodâm otâq raftand?

3. Âyâ Âqâye Jânson dar xâneye Âqâye Yegâne âsude bud va be u xoš migozašt?

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4. Âyâ âqâye Jânson mixâst šahrhâye digare Iran râ bebinad?

5. Âyâ Âqâye Jânson mixâst naxost be šomâe Irân beravad?

6. Âyâ Âzarbâyjân dar šomâe Irân ast?

7. Âyâ Pârs dar jonube Irân ast?

8. Yeki az šahrhâye bâxtare Irân râ nâm bebarid?

9. Âyâ Âqâye Jânson mixâst yek ketâbe joqrâfi dar bâreye Irân benevisad?

10. Âyâ Âqâye Jânson mixâst baxšhâye gunâgune Irân râ bebinad?


Exercise 29.2

Fill in the missing words:
1. Cand ruz ast havâye Tehrân sard .......... ?

2. Diruz hâlam xub .......... va natavânestam be kelâs ..........

3. Emruz be bâzâr .......... va yek .......... kafš ..........

4. Dehnešinân dar .......... zendegi ..........

5. Diruz sâate šešo nim be xâneye šomâ .......... ammâ šoma ..........

6. Dišab .......... abri ..........

7. Espahân yeki az šahrhâye .......... Irân ..........

8. Tâbestânhâ havâye Tehrân ..........

9. Yek hafte .......... ruz ..........

10. Yek sâl .......... ruz ast.



Exercise 29.3

Write the plural form of the following sentences:
1. Man be Espahân raftam.

2. Âyâ barâdare šomâ dar Tehrân ast?

3. Ketâbe man ruye mize šomâ nabud?

4. Kuceye deh tang ast?

5. Man daste xod râ šostam.

6. U pas az xordane nâhâr az xâne birun raft.

7. Pâye man yax karde ast.

8. Šahrnešin dar šahr zendegi mikonad.

9. Sandaliye man qahveyi ast.

10. Daro panjareye in otâq bâz asto havâye otâq sard šode ast.




Lesson 30

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naxostin                                             first

molâyem                                              mild

golâbi                                               pears

beh                                                  quinces

anâr                                                 pomegranate

gowje                                                plum

holu                                                 peaches

pušândan                                             to cover

tondar                                               thunder

šokufe kardan                                        to blossom

rudxâne                                              river

bâq                                                  garden

kešâvarz                                             farmer

zardâlu                                              apricot

gilâs                                                cherry

mive                                                 fruit

âlbâlu                                               black cherry

portoqâl                                             orange

nârangi                                              tangerine

limu                                                 lemon

barq                                                 lightening

daraxšidan                                           to shine

por                                                  full

farâvardehâ                                          crops

sedâ                                                 sound/noise


Bahâr naxostin fasle sâl ast.                        Spring is the first season of the year.

Havâye in fasl molâyem ast.                          The weather is mild during this season.

Na ziyâd sardo na ziyâd garm ast.                    It is not too cold and not too warm.

Deraxtâne mive mânande sib, beh, anâr, holu,         Fruit trees like apples, quinces, pomegranates,
gilâs, âlbâlu, gowje, zardâlu, portoqâl, nârangiyo   peaches, cherries, black cherries, plums, apricots,
limu šokufe mikonand.                                oranges, tangerines, and lemons blossom.

Šokufehâ, mivehâye tâbestâniyo pâyizi mišavand.      Blossoms turn into summer and autumn fruits.

Dar in fasl barfhâye kuh âb mišavad.                 In this season snow on the mountains melt.

Âbe in barfhâ rudxânehâ râ por mikonad.              Water from the snow fills the rivers.

Kešâvarzân âbe in rudxânehâ râ be zaminhâye
                                                     Farmers take the water from these rivers to their
kešto bâqhâ mibarand va farâvardehâye xod râ
                                                     fields and gardens and water their crops.
âb midahand.

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Gâhi abre siyâhi âsmân râ mipušânad, barq                Sometimes a dark cloud covers the sky, lightning
mizanad, sedâye tondar be guš mirasado pas az            strikes, and the sound of thunder is heard; then
ân bârâne tondi mibârad, sepas havâ sâf                  there is a shower and finally it clears and the sun
mišavado xoršid dobâre midaraxšad.                       shines again.



Exercise 30.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Âyâ bahâr naxostin fasle sal ast?

2. Havâye in fasl cegune ast?

3. Âyâ havâye in fasl ziyâd garm ast?

4. Havâye ce fasli ziyâd garm ast?

5. Havâye ce fasli ziyâd sard ast?

6. Deraxtâne mive dar ce fasli šokufe mikonand?

7. Âyâ deraxtâne portoqâl, narangiyo limu ham dar bahâr šokufe mikonand?

8. Rudxânehâ dar ce fasli por âb hastand?

9. Kešâvarzan âbe rudxânehâ râ ce mikonand?

10. Sedâye tondar dar ce fasli bištar be guš mirasad?



Exercise 30.2

Learn the following ordinal numbers:
naxostin - dovomin - sevomin - cahâromin - panjomin - šešomin - haftomin - haštomin - nohomin -
dahomin


Exercise 30.3

Write five simple sentences about summer.

Exercise 30.4

Fill in the missing words:
1. Xordâd mâhe .......... bahâr ast.

2. Šahrivar mâhe .......... tâbestân ast.

3. Mehr mâhe .......... pâyiz ast.

4. Dey mâhe .......... zemestân ast.

5. U .......... be xâneye man âmado mâ montazer .......... budim.

6. Zemestân fasle .......... asto .......... ziyâd mibârad.

7. Xoršid be zamin .......... va zamin râ .......... mikonad.

8. Setâregân .......... šabhâ dar .......... mibinam.



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9. Mahtâb .......... nisto mâ râ garm .......... .

10. Zamin .......... az xoršid ast.

11. Zemestân .......... fasl ast.

12 .......... garmtarin fasl ast.

13. Mâ .......... xoršid râ nemibinim.

14. Ruzhâ mâ setâregân râ ..........

15. Ruzhâye zemestâno šabhâye tâbestân .......... ast.

16. Yek sâat šast ..........o yek daqiqe .......... ast.

17. Yek šabâne .......... ruz sâat ast.

18. Man bâ gac .......... taxte syah neveštam va bâ .......... pâk kardam.

19. Yek sâl .......... ruz ast.

20. .......... ruze naxoste sâl ast.



Exercise 30.5

Translate the following sentences into Persian:
1. My pencil is longer than yours.

2. This room is the largest.

3. This boy is the tallest student in the school.

4. Shahreza is the widest street in Tehran.

5. My hand is bigger than yours.

6. I’m the shortest girl in the class.

7. Mount Damavand is higher than Alvand.

8. Please close this window, I feel a little cold.

9. The people mostly catch cold in winter.

10. This shoe is tight for me.




Lesson 31

šoxm zadan                                                 to plough

xuše                                                       ear of corn

kam kam                                                    by and by

rasidan                                                    to ripen

sabz šodan                                                 to peep out

dâs                                                        sickle

âbyâri kardan                                              to irrigate



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derow kardan                                     to cut

xarman kardan                                    to heap up (corn)

bâd dâdan                                        to air

kubidan                                          to thresh

dâne                                             seed

kâh                                              straw

âsyâb                                            mill

âsyâbân                                          miller

ârd kardan                                       to grind into flour

jodâ kardan                                      to separate

nânvâyi                                          bakery

xamir kardan                                     to make dough

nânvâ                                            baker

dokân                                            shop


Kešâvarzân dar pâyiz zamine kešt râ šoxm mizanando gandom mikârand.

Gandom kam kam sabz mišavad.

Barfe zemestâno bârâne pâyizo bahâr ân râ âbyâri mikonad.

Gandom boland mišavad, xuše mikonado dar tâbestan mirasad.

Kešâvarz bâ dâs gandom râ derow mikonad, va gandome derow šode râ xarman mikonad, tâ xub xošk
šavad.

Sepas ân râ mikubad, bâd midahado dânehâ râ az kâhhâ jodâ mikonad.

Sepas gandomhâ râ pâk mikonado be âsyâb mibarad.

Âsyâbân gandom râ ârd mikonando, ârd râ be nânvâyi mibarad.

Xamirgir ân râ xamir mikonado mipazad.

Mâ be dokâne nânvâyi miravim, pul midahimo nân mixarim, nân râ be xâne miyâvarimo bâ xorâkhâye
gunâgun mixorim.


Exercise 31.1

Explain in your own words what you read.


Exercise 31.2

Answer the following questions:
1. Kešâvarz ce hangâm zamin ra šoxm mizanad?

2. Pas az šoxm zadan ce mikonad?

3. Âyâ barfe zemestân barâye gandome xuše šode sudmand ast?

4. Âyâ kešâvarz dar zemestân gandom râ âbyâri mikonad?

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5. Gandom key boland mišavad?

6. Gandom key xuše mikonad?

7. Âyâ gandom dar tâbestân mirasad?

8. Bâ ce ciz kešâvarz gandom râ derow mikonad?

9. Dâne râ az kâh cegune jodâ mikonad?

10. Âsyâbân kist?

11. Âyâ âsyâbân gandom râ ârd mikonad?

12. Ârd râ be kojâ mibarad?

13. Xamirgir kist?

14. Nân râ ce mikonad?

15. Mâ nân râ az kojâ mixarim?


Exercise 31.3

Write a sentence for each of the following words:
1. pul                               2. xorâk                  3. kâh

4. xuše                              5. mive                   6. nânvâyi

7. âsyâb                             8. bârân                  9. kam kam

10. xaridan


Exercise 31.4

Put the following words in the right order:
1. dar - Tehrân - šomâl - dânešgâh - ast

2. az - dur - dânešgâh - xâneye - ast - man

3. dišab - xâbidân - bâd - man

4. dišab - xâne - âmadam - dir - be

5. diruz - havâ - sard - šod - asr

6. ast - mz - do - ke - garm - šode ast

7. man - barâdar - pariruz - raft - Espahân - be

8. do - digar - mali - Englestân - be - miravam

9. xâheš - an - panjare - - mikonam - bebandid

10. ostâd - dir - be - mâ - kelâs - âmad


Exercise 31.5

Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Kafšhâye man kohne šodeand, mixâham yek joft kafše now bexaram.

2. Pâye man bozorgo in kafš barâye pâye man tang ast.


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3. Agar be bâzâr raftid dah varaqe kâqaz barâye man bexarid.

4. Pesare šomâ dah ruz ast ke be dabestân nemiyâyad.

5. Yeki az dustâne xod râ pârsâl dar Âmrikâ didam.




Lesson 32

âxar                                                 end

miyâne                                               middle

garmâ                                                heat

daraje                                               degree

tan                                                  body

angur                                                grapes

estaxr                                               pool

daryâ                                                sea

šen                                                  sand

foruxte mišavand                                     they are sold

ta’til                                               holiday

xonak                                                cool

otobus                                               bus

tâlebi                                               persian melon

garmak                                               a kind of melon

kenâr                                                side

šenâ kardan                                          to swim

hendevâne                                            water melon




Tâbestân, dovomin fasle sâl ast.                     Summer is the second season of the year.

                                                     Little by little it starts getting warmer at the end
Az âxare bahâr havâ kam kam garm mišavado
                                                     of summer, and the weather is very warm in the
miyâneye tâbestan havâ besyâr garm ast.
                                                     middle of summer.

Garmâye Tehrân gâhi be cehel darajeye sântigrâd      The temperature in Tehran can sometimes reach
mirasad.                                             forty degrees Celsius.

Dar tâbestân dabestânhâ, dabirestânhâvo              The elementary schools, secondary schools, and
dânešgâhhâye Irân ta’til mišavand.                   universities of Iran close down.

Bištare šâgerdâno ostâdân az Tehrân be šahrhâye      Most students and professors leave Tehran for
digar yâ be jâhâye xonak miravand.                   other cities or cooler places.

Âdinehâvo ruzhâye digar ke ta’til ast mardome
                                                     Fridays and holidays people of Tehran leave for
Tehrân bâ xodrow yâ otobus be kenâre daryâ
                                                     the seaside by car or bus.
miravand.

Dar âb šenâ mikonand, ruye šenhâ mixâbando           They swim in the water, lie on the sand, and get


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tanhâyašân râ âftab midahand.                       some sun.

Dar šahre Tehrân ham estaxrhâyi barâye šenâ         There have been pools built in the city of Tehran
sâxteand va har kas mitavand bâ pule kami az in     for swimming and anyone can use these pools for
extaxrhâ bahremand šavad.                           very little money.

Dar in fasl tâlebi, garmak, hendevâne, gilâs,       In this season there are melons, watermelons,
gowje, zardâluvo angurhâye gunâgun mirasando        cherries, plums, apricots, and various grapes sold
dar bâzâr foruxte mišavand.                         in the market.

Mardom dar fasle tâbestân ziyad mive mixorand.      Everyone eats a lot of fruits in the summertime.

Âxare Šahrivarmâh havâ kam kam ru be xonaki         At the end of the month of Shahrivar the weather
miravado pâyize zibâ âqâz mišavad.                  slowly cools off and the beautiful autumn begins.


Exercise 32.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Kodâm fasl garmtarin fasle sâl ast?

2. Kodâm fasl sardtarin fasle sâl ast?

3. Âyâ dar bahâr havâ molâyem ast?

4. Garmâye Tehrân dar tâbestân be cand daraje mirasad?

5. Barâye ce dabestânhâ va dabirestânhâ dar tâbestân ta’til mišavand?

6. Âyâ šomâ dar tâbestân dar Tehrân mimânid?

7. Mardome Tehrân tâbestânhâ be kojâ miravand?

8. Âyâ šomâ bâ otobus mosâferat kardeid?

9. Âyâ šomâ xub šenâ mikonid?

10. Âyâ šomâ daryâye Mâzandarân ra dideid?

11. Zardâlu ce rang ast?

12. Ce miveyi râ bištar az hame dust dârid?

13. Pâyiz zibâtar ast yâ tâbestân?

14. Tâbestân râ bištar dust dârid yâ zemestân râ?

15. Key havâ ru be xonaki miravad?



Exercise 32.2

Name the months of the year.

Exercise 32.3

Translate the following sentences into English:
1. Man emruz xasteam va nemitavânam dars bexânam.

2. Darshâye Pârsi kam kam došvâr mišavand.

3. Emruz sardtar az diruz ast.

4. Xâheš mikonam yek varaqe kâqaz be man bedahid.


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5. Diruz hâlam xub nabud va be kelâse Pârsi nayâmadam.


Exercise 32.4

Fill in the missing words:
1. Ostâd bâ .......... ruye taxteye syâh nevešt.

2. Man bâ .......... taxteye syâh râ pak kardam.

3. Pedaram si sâl az man .......... ast.

4. Man yeke pas az nimruz .......... mixoram.

5. .......... dar deh zendegi mikonad.

6. Havâye bahâr va pâyiz .......... ast.

7. Daryâaye Mâzandarân dar .......... Irân ast.

8. Tehrân pâyetaxt .......... ast.

9. Mâ mitavânim kam .......... Pârsi bexânim.

10. Sobhhâ zud az xâb.......... .




Lesson 33

kešvar                                             country

mellat                                             nation

xoški                                              land

baxš                                               part

din                                                religion

Kalimi                                             Jewish

Budâyi                                             Buddhist

Ž âponi                                            Japanese

Mosalmân                                           Moslem

kore                                               globe

Englisi                                            English

Rusi                                               Russian

Frânsavi                                           French

Âlmâni                                             German

Âmrikayi                                           American

Torkiye                                            Turkey

Cini                                               Chinese

Masihi                                             Christian

Brahman                                            Brahman



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Zartošti                                            Zoroastrian


Xoškihâye koreye zamin râ be panj baxš              The land masses of the globe have been divided
kardeand.                                           into five continents.

Nâme in panj baxš az in qarâr ast: 1. Asyâ 2.       The names of these five divisions are: 1. Asia 2.
Orupâ 3. Âfriqâ 4. Âmrikâye Šomâli va Âmrikâye      Europe 3. Africa 4. North America and South
Jonubi. 5. Ostrâlyâ.                                America 5. Oceania.

Har yek az in baxšhâ be kešvarhâye gunâgun          Every one of these divisions has been divided into
baxš šodeando dar har kešvari, mellati ke dârâye    different countries, and in each country lives a
zabâno dine jodâ ast zendegi mikonad.               nation with its separate language and religion.

Irâni dar Irân zendegi mikonado zabânaš Pârsi       An Iranian lives in Iran and his language is
ast.                                                Persian.

Englisi dar Englestân zendegi mikonado zabânaš      An Englishman lives in England and his language
Englisi ast.                                        in English.

Frânsavi dar Frânse zendegi mikonado zabânaš        A Frenchman lives in France and his language is
Frânsavi ast.                                       French.

Rusi dar Rusiye zendegi mikonado zabânaš Rusi       A Russian lives in Russia and his language is
ast.                                                Russian.

Âlmâni dar Âlmân zendegi mikonado zabânaš           A German lives in Germany and his language is
Âlmâni ast.                                         German.

Âmrikâyi dar Âmrikâ zendegi mikonado zabšnaš        An American lives in America and his language is
Englisi ast.                                        English.

Tork dar Torkiye zendegi mikonado zabânaš Torki
                                                    A Turk lives in Turkey and his language is Turkish.
ast.

                                                    A Chinese lives in China and his language is
Cini dar Cin zendegi mikonado zabânaš Cini ast.
                                                    Chinese.

Ž âponi dar Ž âpon zendegi mikonado zabânaš         A Japanese lives in Japan and his language is
Ž âponi ast.                                        Japanese.

Mardome jahân dinhâye gunâgun dârand, be in         People of the world belong to different religions,
šarh: Masihi, Zartošti, Brahman, Budâyi, Kalimiyo   as listed here: Christianity, Zoroastrianism,
Mosalmân.                                           Brahman, Buddhism, Jewish and Muslim.



Exercise 33.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Šomâ ahle kodâm kešvar hastid?

2. Zabâne šomâ cist?

3. Ce dini dârid?

4. Âyâ šomâ zabâne Englisi midânid?

5. Âyâ šomâ zabâne fârsi râ mitavânid bexanid?

6. Âlmâni kojâ zendegi mikonad?

7. Englisi kojâ zendegi mikonad?

8. Zabâne mardome Cin cist?

9. Zabâne mardome Âmrikâ cist?


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10. Mardome Irân ce dinhâyi dârand?


Exercise 33.2

Write five simple sentences about the climate of Iran.

Exercise 33.3

Translate the following sentences into Persian:
1. He is an Iranian, but he lives in U.S.A.

2. I learned Persian in Iran.

3. Is this the road to Isfahan?

4. His servant brought a letter for me yesterday.

5. We have studied thirty-three parts of this text.



Conjugation of Verbs

Subjunctive mood of the verb: Xordan (To eat)
                      Present                                               Perfect

agar bexoram                                          agar xorde bâšam

agar bexori                                           agar xorde bâši

agar bexorad                                          agar xorde bâšad

agar bexorim                                          agar xorde bâšim

agar bexorid                                          agar xorde bâšid

agar bexorand                                         agar xorde bâšand


Negative
agar naxoram                                          agar naxorde bâšam

agar naxori                                           agar naxorde bâši

agar naxorad                                          agar naxorde bâšad

agar naxorim                                          agar naxorde bâšim

agar naxorid                                          agar naxorde bâšid

agar naxorand                                         agar naxorde bâšand




Lesson 34

kamâbiš                                               nearly

anjir                                                 fig

farâvân                                               abundant


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barg                                             leaf

mirizad                                          falls down

micinand                                         they pluck

pâreyi                                           a number

âdame barfi                                      snowman

boxâri                                           stove

anbâr                                            storage

sabok                                            light

pašm                                             wool

pašmi                                            woollen

mipušand                                         they wear

ravâ                                             usually

bâzi                                             play

dorost mikonand                                  they make

pâyân yâft                                       it is finished


Pâyiz fasle zibâyi ast.                          Autumn is a beautiful season.

Dar in fasl kamâbiš hameye mivehâ mirasand.      In this season nearly all fruits ripen.

Mivehâye pâyizi mânande anâr, anjir, sib,        Autumn fruits like pomegranates, figs, apples,
portoqâl, nârangiyo limu farâvân ast.            oranges, tangerines, and lemons are abundant.

Barghâye deraxtân kam kam zard mišavando
                                                 The leaves slowly turn yellow and fall down.
mirizand.

Kešâvarzan mivehâ râ az deraxtâne bâqhâye xod    Farmers pluck the fruits off the trees in their
micinando dar anbâr negah midârand tâ az sarmâ   gardens and keep them in storage so that they do
xarâb našavand.                                  not spoil.

Mardom jâmehâye pašmiye zemestâni mipušand.      People wear woollen winter clothes.

Mâhe âxare pâyiz havâ sardtar mišavado sepas     It gets colder the last month of autumn and then
zemestâne sard miyâyad.                          the cold winter arrives.

Dar zemestân barf bâridan ravâ asto hame jâ râ   It usually snows in the wintertime and white
sepid mikonad.                                   covers everywhere.

Bacehâ barfbâzi râ dust dârando az barf, âdame   Children love to play with snow, and make
barfi dorost mikonand.                           snowmen.

Šabhâye zemestân mardom kamtar dar               People are seldom seen in the streets on winter
xiyâbânhâye šahr dide mišavand.                  nights.

Naxoste šab be xânehâye xod miravando kenâre     At the beginning of the night they go to their
boxâri minešinand.                               homes and sit by the heater.

Pâreyi niz be sinemâ yâ teâtr miravand.          A number go to the movies or the theater.

                                                 The weather is not cold during the month of
Mâhe Espand havâ ziyâd sard nist.
                                                 Espand.

Espand ke pâyân yâft havâ molâyem mišavado bâ    By the end of Espand the weather is milder, and


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âmadane bahâr deraxtân dobâre sabz mišâvand.             with the arrival of spring the trees turn green
                                                         again.


Exercise 34.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Havâye pâyiz behtar ast yâ havâye bahâr?

2. Nâme cahâr miveye pâyizi râ beguyid?

3. Barge deraxtân key mirizand?

4. Kešavarzân mivehâyi râ ke cidand kojâ migozârand?

5. Cerâ mivehâ râ pâyiz micinand?

6. Jâmehâye tâbestâni ce rang ast?

7. Ce hangâm jâmeye pašmi mipušim?

8. Ayâ havâye zemestân sardtar ast yâ havâye pâyiz?

9. Dar ce fasli bištar bâd miyâyad?

10. Ayâ šomâ zemestân râ dust dârid?


Exercise 34.2

Explain your daily program in Persian.

Exercise 34.3

Write the future tense of the verb “goftan”.


Conjugation of Verbs

Passive Voice - Indicative mood
               Present                               Perfect                           Imperfect

xaste mišavam                         xaste šodeam                         xaste mišodam

xaste mišavi                          xaste šodei                          xaste mišodi

xaste mišavad                         xaste šode ast                       xaste mišod

xaste mišavim                         xaste šodeim                         xaste mišodim

xaste mišavid                         xaste šodeid                         xaste mišodid

xaste mišavand                        xaste šodeand                        xaste mišodand


           Pluperfect                               Preterite                             Future

xaste šode budam                      xaste šodam                          xaste xâham šod

xaste šode budi                       xaste šodi                           xaste xâhi šod

xaste šode bud                        xaste šod                            xaste xâhad šod



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xaste šode budim                  xaste šodim                         xaste xâhim šod

xaste šode budid                  xaste šodid                         xaste xâhid šod

xaste šode budand                 xaste šodand                        xaste xâhand šod




Lesson 35

vâpasin                                           the last

sepâs                                             thank

xodâ                                              god

bahre bebarim                                     to make use of/take advantage of

dânešmand                                         authority/learned

pâyân dâdim                                       we finished

harf/gap zadan                                    to speak

širin                                             sweet/nice

šâerân                                            poets

rešte                                             branch

dâstân                                            fable

xândani                                           worth reading

âšnâ šodan                                        to become familiar with

âqâz kardan                                       to begin

be âsâni                                          easily

mitavânim                                         we can

nevešte šode ast                                  has been written

andiše                                            thoughts

farjâm                                            result/fruit

dâneš                                             science


In dars vâpasin darse ketâbe naxost ast.          This is the last lesson of the basic text.

Sepâs xodâ râ ke in ketâb râ pâyân dâdimo aknun
                                                  Thank God that we finished this textbook and can
mitavânim kami Pârsi râ bexânimo benevisimo
                                                  now somewhat read, write, and speak in Persian.
harf bezanim.

Pârsi zabâne širini asto, har kas mitavânad be    Persian is a nice language, and anyone can easily
âsâni ân râ yâd begirad.                          learn it.

Agar yeki do sâle digar in zabân râ bexânim,      If we continue studying this language for another
mitavânim az ketâbhâyi ke be zabâne Pârsi         two years, we would be able to take advantage of
nevešte šodeand bahre bebarim.                    the books written in the Persian language.

Šâerâne Irâni še’rhâye ziyâdi be zabâne Pârsi     Iranian poets have written many poems in
gofteand; dânešmandâne Irâni ketâbhâye ziyâdi     Persian; learned Iranians have written various
dar reštehâye gunâgune dâneš be in zabân          scientific books in this language; Persian stories
nevešteand; dâstânhâye Pârsi širino xândani       are nice and worth reading.


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hastand.

Agar in zabân râ dorost yâd begirim, mitavânim         If we learn this language properly, we could read
hameye in ketâbhâ râ bexânimo bâ andišeye              all these books and become familiar with Iranian
Irâniyân âsnâ šavim.                                   thoughts.

Omidvârim betavânim cizi râ ke âqâz kardeim be         I hope we can finish what we have begun, so that
anjâm rasânim tâ kušeše mâ bi farjâm namânad.          our efforts would not be fruitless.



Exercise 35.1

Answer the following questions:
1. Cand mâh Pârsi xândeid?

2. Pârsi zabâne kodâm mellat ast?

3. Âyâ šomâ mitavânid Pârsi râ tond benivisid?

4. Âyâ šomâ mitavanid Pârsi harf bezanid?

5. Âyâ še’re Pârsi râ mitavânid bexânid?

6. Zabâne Englisi râ zudtar yâd gereftid yâ Pârsi?

7. Âyâ zabâne âlmâni az zabâne farsi došvârtar ast?

8. Âyâ šomâ Frânsavi hastid?

9. Došvârtarin zabân kodam ast?

10. Ce zabâni az hame âsântar ast?


Exercise 35.2

Put the following words in the right order:
1. došvâri - ziyâd - Pârsi - zabân - nist

2. Englisi - zabân - došvârtar - az - Pârsi - zabân - ast

3. u - Englisi - ast - pedar

4. zabân - man - Frânsavi - nemidânam - xub

5. xâharam - Pârsi - zabân - râ - behtar - man - az - harf - mizanad

6. Cini - zabâne - došvâri - besyâr - ast

7. hend - mardom - be - zabânhâye - harf - gunâgun - mizanand

8. mardom - hame - Englisi - Âmrikâ - harf - mizanand

9. zabâne - Pârsi - ast - širin

10. Rusi - zabâne - besyâr - došvâri - ast


Exercise 35.3

Write five simple sentences about the class room.

Exercise 35.4



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Explain the difficulties you had in learning Persian.


PERSIAN VERBS

Persian verbs like the verbs of English and German languages have three Principal Parts:


I) Present root
II) Past root
III) Past participle
All different tenses of the verbs are derived from the above three parts; and the auxiliary verbs used
in conjugating the different tenses are:

šodan, budan, xâstan.

Let us take the verb “xordan” (to eat) as an example and show its different tenses.


I) Present root: xor
II) Past root: xord
III) Past participle: xordei


I) Verbs Formed from the Present Root: xor

1. Subjunctive Mood

Let me eat
I may eat
If I eat

agar bexoram = ( be + xor + im )

agar bexori = ( be + xor + i )

agar bexorad = ( be + xor + ad )

agar bexorim = ( be + xor + im )

agar bexorid = ( be + xor + id )

agar bexorand = ( be + xor + and )




2. Indicative Mood

I eat
I am eating
I shall eat

mixoram = ( mi + xor + am )

mixori = ( mi + xor + i )


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moxorad = ( mi + xor + ad )

mixorim = ( mi + xor + im )

mixorid = ( mi + xor + id )

mixorand = = ( mi + xor + and )




Imperative Singular: xor/bexor
Imperative Plural: xorid/bexorid
Present participle: xorân




II) Verbs Formed from the Past Root: xord

3. Indicative mood: Preterite

I ate


xordam = ( xord + am )


xordi = ( xord + i )

xord

xordim = ( xord + im )

xordid = ( xord + id )

xordand = ( xord + and )




4. Indicative mood: Imperfect

I was eating/I used to eat

mixordam = ( mi + xord + am )

moxordi = ( mi + xord + i )

mixord = ( mi + xord )

mixordim = ( mi + xord + im )

mixordid = ( mi + xord + id )

mixordand = ( mi + xord + and )



5. Indicative Mood: Future

I shall eat


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xâham xord = ( xâh + am + xord )

xâhi xord = ( xâh + i + xord )

xâhad xord = ( xâh + ad + xord )

xâhim xord = ( xâh + im + xord )

xâhid xord = ( xâh + id + xord )

xâhand xord = ( xâh + and + xord )




Infinitive mood: xordan
Infinitive mood shortened form: xord
Gerundive (adjective): xordani




III) Verbs Fomed from the Past Participle: xorde

6. Indicatice mood: Present

I have eaten


xordeam = ( xorde + am )


xordei = ( xorde + i )

xorde ast = ( xorde + ast )

xordeim = ( xorde + im )

xordeid = ( xorde + id )

xordeand = ( xorde + and )



7. Indicatice mood: Pluperfect (Past Perfect)

I had eaten


xorde budam = ( xorde + bud + am )


xorde budi = ( xorde + bud + i )

xorde bud = ( xorde + bud)

xorde budim = ( xorde + bud + im )

xorde budid = ( xorde + bud + id )

xorde budand = ( xorde + bud + and )




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8. Subjunctive mood: Perfect

I may have eaten


xorde bâšam = ( xorde + bâš + am )


xorde bâši = ( xorde + bâš + i )

xorde bâš = ( xorde + bâš)

xorde bâšim = ( xorde + bâš + im )

xorde bâšid = ( xorde + bâš + id )

xorde bâšand = ( xorde + bâš + and )



Passive Voice

Infinitive: xorde šodan ( to be eaten )

9. Indicative mood: Present


xorde mišavam = ( xorde + mi + šav + am )


xorde mišavi = ( xorde + mi + šav + i )

xorde mišavad = ( xorde + mi + šav + ad )

xorde mišavim = ( xorde + mi + šav + im )

xorde mišavid = ( xorde + mi + šav + id )

xorde mišavand = ( xorde + mi + šav + and )



10. Indicative mood: Perfect

I have been eaten


xorde šodeam = ( xorde + šode + am )


xorde šodei = ( xorde + šode + i )

xorde šode ast = ( xorde + šode + ast )

xorde šodeim = ( xorde + šode + im )

xorde šodeid = ( xorde + šode + id )

xorde šodeand = ( xorde + šode + and )




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11. Indicative mood: Imperfect

I would be eaten


xorde mišodam = ( xorde + mi + šod + am )


xorde mišodi = ( xorde + mi + šod + i )

xorde mišod = ( xorde + mi + šod )

xorde mišodim = ( xorde + mi + šod + im )

xorde mišodid = ( xorde + mi + šod + id )

xorde mišodand = ( xorde + mi + šod + and )



12. Indicative mood: Pluperfect (Past Perfect)

I had been eaten


xorde šode budam = ( xorde + šode + bud + am )


xorde šode budi = ( xorde + šode + bud + i )

xorde šode bud = ( xorde + šode + bud )

xorde šode budim = ( xorde + šode + bud + im )

xorde šode budid = ( xorde + šode + bud + id )

xorde šode budand = ( xorde + šode + bud + and )



13. Indicative mood: Preterite (Past Participle)

I was eaten


xorde šodam = ( xorde + šod + am )


xorde šodi = ( xorde + šod + i )

xorde šod = ( xorde + šod )

xorde šodim = ( xorde + šod + im )

xorde šodid = ( xorde + šod + id )

xorde šodand = ( xorde + šod + and )




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14. Indicative mood: Future

I will be eaten


xorde xâham šod = ( xorde + šod + am )


xorde xâhi šod = ( xorde + šod + i )

xorde xâhad šod = ( xorde + šod )

xorde xâhim šod = ( xorde + šod + im )

xorde xâhid šod = ( xorde + šod + id )

xorde xâhand šod = ( xorde + šod + and )



15. Subjunctive mood: Present

I may be eaten


xorde šavam = ( xorde + šav + am )


xorde šavi = ( xorde + šav + i )

xorde šavad = ( xorde + šav + ad )

xorde šavim = ( xorde + šav + im )

xorde šavid = ( xorde + šav + id )

xorde šavand = ( xorde + šav + and )



16. Subjunctive mood: Perfect

I may have been eaten


xorde šode bâšam = ( xorde + šode + bâš + am )


xorde šode bâši = ( xorde + šode + bâš + i )

xorde šode bâšad = ( xorde + šode + bâš + ad )

xorde šode bâšim = ( xorde + šode + bâš + im )

xorde šode bâšid = ( xorde + šode + bâš + id )

xorde šode bâšand = ( xorde + šode + bâš + and )




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Active Voice

Negative

17. Indicative mood


Present                                          nemixoram

Perfect                                          naxordeam

Imprefect                                    nemixordam

Pluperfect                                  naxorde budam

Preterite                                        naxordam

Future                                       naxâham xord



Subjunctive mood

Present                                          naxoram

Perfect                                     naxorde bâšam



Passive Voice

18. Indicative mood


Present                                    xorde nemišavam

Perfect                                     xorde našodeam

Imprefect                                  xorde nemišodam

Pluperfect                                xorde našode budam

Preterite                                   xorde našodam

Future                                    xorde naxâham šod



19. Subjunctive mood

Present                                     xorde našavam

Perfect                                   xorde našode bâšam



http://www.iranianlanguages.com/persian1.php?1




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