The purpose of today’s session is to:
 prepare you to become a qualified State level judge, and
 instil you with the knowledge and understanding of the
  rules to provide the athletes with fair and consistent
BA structure
Hints for judges
Awarding of points/Scoring blows
Drawing of bouts
Age divisions
Female boxing
Weight divisions
Judge analysis
Computer scoring
Handheld scoring
Set-up of computer scoring
Practical demonstrations
Process for advancement
         Boxing Australia structure
                         1 delegate per state & territory

                               5 elected directors


       R&J                          Rules                       Selectors
     Committee                    Committee                    Committee
Wayne Rose (Chair)
Max Sulejmani (Sec)
                       Medical                   Anti-doping
Ann Tindal
                      Committee                  Committee
Steve Warn
Tomis Papak
•   The expectations of the spectators, competitors and coaches are that the
    Referees and Judges are totally impartial. Factors that affect R&Js are the four
    ‘Fs”; that is they are fit, fair, firm and friendly. Judging is only science;
    refereeing is science as well as art.

                   Fit so you may easily move around the ring with
                         confidence and in touch with the athletes.


                      Mental                             Physical
                     Emotional                          Normal sight
                      Spirits                          Not colour blind
                      Morale                       Person with a disability
                                                    Fitness above average
                   Expectations cont’
Fair so that it is openly apparent there is no favouritism
                                    Fair minded
                               Interpretation of rules
                                 Enforcing of rules

Normally R&J are fair but may be affected by the following factors:


             Internal                                        External
                                                Reputation of boxer & country
                                                        Team officials
                  Expectations cont’
Firm so as coaches and boxers                     Friendly so our sport may flourish
can be confident in our actions                      and there is all round respect

         Firmness                                        Friendliness
  Firm application of rules                           Friendly in character
      Firm decisions                             Speak one of AIBA languages
        Firm action                            (English, French, Russian, Arabic)
       Firm minded                                          Sociable


                    Friendly            Firm

The following is a comparison of objectives to make you
better understand the role we play and why we have to
overcome distractions or disappointments following
unpopular decisions.

The objective of an athlete or coach is to:
win the bout [at all cost].

Our objective as officials is to:
ensure we arrive at the correct decision within the
boundaries of the rules.
                         Boxers dress
 Clothing
• Light boots or shoes without spikes or heals, socks, shorts not to exceed knee
  length, and a red or blue vest matching their corner covering the chest and
• Where the vest and shorts are the same colour, the belt line must be clearly
• A soft knee brace is acceptable; no metal or hard plastic.
 Gum shields
• Shall be worn and shall be form fitted. Where the gum shield is knocked out
  the referee shall take the boxer to their corner, have it washed and refitted.
  While this is being done the seconds are not to talk to the boxer. If the gum
  shield falls out a third time for any reason the boxer shall be warned and
  further warned if it happens again.
• Red coloured gum shields are forbidden
 Cup/ breast protectors
• A cup protector shall be worn by male boxers, a jock strap may be worn in
  addition. Females shall wear a breast protector.
                  Boxers dress cont’
 Head guards
• Boxers shall wear conforming head guards approved by AIBA, BAI or the
  state. Head guards should be of the same colour as their corner; in
  international bouts it is mandatory. National champs only AIBA approved
  head guards shall be used (Adidas, Everlast, Top Ten or Green Hill are
• The head guard will be fitted once in the ring and removed at the bout
  conclusion and before the decision.
 Prohibited objects
• No other objects may be worn during the bout. No type of body piercing and
  no body accessories shall be worn during the bout.
• The use of rubbing liniment or products likely to be harmful or objectionable
  to an opponent, on the face, arms or any part of the body is forbidden.
  However, grease or vaseline rubbed into the forehead and eyebrows before a
  contest is allowable to prevent injury.
 Dress infractions
• A referee shall exclude from competition a boxer that does not wear a head
  guard, a cup-protector, a breast protector (females), and gumshield. Where a
  boxer’s glove or dress becomes undone during boxing the referee shall stop
  the contest and have it attended to.
• Competitors shall wear red or blue gloves as per the respective
  boxer’s corner and which are approved by AIBA, BAI or the
  state. At national champs only Adidas, Everlast or Top Ten are
  approved. Boxers are not allowed to wear their own gloves.
• The gloves shall weigh 10oz of which the leather portion shall
  not weigh more than half of the total weight and the padding not
  less than half the total weight. The regular hitting surface must
  be marked on the gloves with a clearly discernible colour. The
  padding of the gloves shall not be displaced or broken. Only
  clean and serviceable gloves shall be used.
• All gloves and bandages shall be fitted under the supervision of
  two knowledgeable officials appointed for that purpose.
• A bandage between 2.5m and 4.5m and 5.7cm wide on
  each hand will be used. No other kind of bandage may be
• The use of any kind of tapes, rubber or adhesive plaster, as
  bandages, is strictly forbidden. However, a single strip of
  adhesive 3” (7.6cm) long and between 1” (2.5cm) and 2”
  (5cm) wide, may be used at the upper wrist to secure the
• At national champs only AIBA bandages will be used.
• Bandages shall be checked by the referee at the end of the
                           The judge
 Attire:
   Judges shall officiate in white clothing and black bow-tie.
   Participation:
   5 judges will officiate at championship and selection events.
   In other events 3 judges must be used.
   A referee will not judge.
   Duties:
   The Judges’ primary duty is to independently and without bias judge the bout
    according to the rules.
   Shall use the computer scoring system for judging, or if unavailable a
    Handheld boxing points calculator or similar; 20:19 scoring is forbidden.
   May not speak to anyone during a bout or give any sign to a contestant or
   At end of a round, may bring to the referee’s attention anything the referee
    may not have noticed (eg loose ropes, noisy cornermen).
   May not leave seat until the decision is announced.
                Referees and Judges
 This rule deals with the generics of the role.
 Only AIBA officials shall officiate during Olympic, Worlds, AIBA Challenge
  matches, Oceania, and other internationals. Referees shall not judge.
 5 judges shall be seated at ringside and separate from the public. If 5 is
  unavailable 3 may be used but not in major AIBA tournaments.
 Only officials qualified and approved shall be used.
 Officials acting as referees or judges shall not act as a manager, trainer or
  second during the same tournament.
 An official may be suspended if they fail to enforce the rules or their marking
  or scoring is considered unsatisfactory.
 If the referee is incapacitated during the contest the timekeeper shall ring the
  bell to stop the bout and the next available referee will resume the bout.
 The use of the computer scoring is compulsory for all AIBA tournaments.
 The 20-point scoring system is forbidden. Judges must score with the
  computer scoring, the Handheld boxing points calculator or similar.
                        Ring positions

      Announcer     Y
Computer operator        1                              2
      Jury Chair    T
        Recorder    A
                    B                                   4
                    E   Stairs

                                 Docs     3
                            Hints for judges
•   Direct your gaze on a point midway between the two boxers; this will enable you to see and
    note the actions of each boxer. Avoid any inclination to watch a particular boxer, who by
    reason of their style or personality may attract more attention than their opponent.
•   Never rely on past performance, reputations or titles earned by a particular athlete.
•   A boxer who swings his/her blows is liable to contact the target area with the inside of the
    glove. Considerable proportions of swinging blows do not contact with the knuckle part of the
    closed glove, and are therefore foul blows, for which the judge must not award points.
•   A guide as to the correctness of a swinging blow is whether a boxer turns the glove when
    delivering the blow. Unless this occurs the blow will almost certainly be struck with the inside
    of the glove.
•   Infighting may be described as the exchange of several blows when the boxers are close
    together. The advantage is usually with the boxer whom has the inside position because she/he
    can strike straight speedy blows whilst their arms protect them.
•   Don’t give credit for blows delivered whilst the boxer is infringing the rules.
•   Don’t be influenced by the reputation of the boxer; the best champion is liable to be beaten.
    Award your points for the boxing you see, not for what a boxer can do, or has done on other
•   Don’t be influenced by the crowd or by the corners.
•   Don’t engage in conversation or other distractions during the contest, but give your undivided
    attention to the competing boxers, however, be prepared to advise the referee if she/he seeks
    your advice.
             Awarding of points
                       Scoring Blow
A scoring blow is one, which without being blocked or
  guarded, lands with the knuckle part of the closed glove of
  either hand on any part of the front or sides of the head or
  body above the belt, without infringing the rules.

A non-scoring blow is one which infringes the rules, or is
  struck with the side or back or inside of the glove, or with
  the open glove, or any part other than the knuckle part of
  the closed glove; or which lands on the arms; or which
  merely connects, without the weight of the body or
o   Hitting below the belt, holding, tripping, kicking, and butting with foot or knee.
o   Hits or blows with head, shoulder, forearm, elbow, throttling of the opponent, pressing with arm or
    elbow in opponent’s face, pressing the head of the opponent back over the ropes.
o   Hitting with open glove, the inside of the glove, wrist or side of the hand.
o   Hits landing on the back of the opponent, and especially any blow on the back of the neck or head and
    kidney punch.
o   Pivot blows.
o   Attack whilst holding the ropes or making any unfair use of the ropes.
o   Lying on, wrestling and throwing in the clinch.
o   An attack on an opponent who is down or who is in the act of rising.
o   Holding.
o   Holding and hitting or pulling and hitting.
o   Holding, or locking of the opponent’s arm or head, or pushing an arm underneath the arm of an
o   Ducking below the belt of the opponent in a manner dangerous to an opponent.
o   Completely passive defence by double cover and intentionally falling or turning the back to avoid a
o   Useless, aggressive, or offensive utterances during a round.
o   Not stepping back when ordered to break.
o   Attempting to strike an opponent immediately after the referee has ordered “break” and before stepping
o   Assaulting or behaving in an aggressive manner towards a referee at any time.
o   Spitting out the gumshield.
o   Keeping the advanced hand straight in order to obstruct the opponent’s vision.

   If a referee has any reason to believe a foul has been committed which is unseen, the ref may consult the
           Cautions and warnings
•   A caution is advice or admonishment for less serious infringements. 3
    cautions for the same type of foul shall require a warning to be given. A
    warning is given where a boxer breaks the rules but does not warrant

•   A minor infringement that is not advantageous to the offender does not
    merit a warning. A caution therefore should be sufficient. Warnings are for
    dangerous infringements, harm fouls or persistent offences.

•   Cautions and warnings must be given clearly in such a way that the boxer
    understands the offence and that you are "speaking" to him/her with your
    signal. Demonstrate by imitating the nature of the infringements.

•   To issue a "warning" the referee will stop the bout by giving the command
    "stop". Send the victim boxer to the neutral corner, give warning (indicate
    this with the thumb), clearly showing infringement to boxer, then indicate
    to each judge in order from No 1 to No 5 with the demonstrating thumb.
    He will demonstrate again to the boxer the infringement and indicate with
    thumb that warning has been given, and then order BOX.
     Cautions and warnings cont’
• At the "third" warning, the referee must disqualify the offender. Do NOT
  take a disqualified boxer to his/her corner and enter into any discussion with
  the boxer or the seconds to justify your decision.
• Judges’ responsibility
 Where a judge agrees with a warning the judge will press the ‘warning’
  button, whereas if a judge does not agree with the warning he/she simply
  does nor press any buttons. Where a judge is unsighted they shall agree with
  the referee.
 Where a judge sees a foul where the referee was possibly obstructed or
  failed to respond, the judge may penalise the boxer by pressing the
  ‘warning’ button. This will be indicated by a ‘J’ on the bout printout and
  will increase the judge’s individual score by 2 blows.
• Boxer down from a foul
 Where a boxer has been knocked down from a foul his/her opponent shall be
  warned, and the victim boxer shall receive two (2) points or the equivalent to
  two (2) scoring blows if three of the five judges agree with the referee.
  Where the judge does not see the alleged foul blow the judge shall agree
  with the referee.
• Win on points.
• Win by retirement.
• Win by RSC:
 Outclassed (OC).
 Compulsory count limit (CCL).
 Injury
• Win by disqualification.
• Win by knockout.
• Win by RSCH (referee stops contest – head injury).
• Walkover.
• No contest.
• Draw.
                              The timekeeper
 The primary duty of the timekeeper is to regulate the number, duration and intervals between the
 The intervals between rounds are one full minute (60 seconds) in duration.
 Five seconds before the start of each round, the timekeeper shall signal “seconds out” by use of a
  whistle, similar device or by informing the announcer to announce “seconds out”.
 The timekeeper shall commence and end each round by striking the gong, bell, buzzer or horn, etc.
 The Timekeeper shall announce the number of each round prior to the start of the round.
 The timekeeper shall regulate all periods of time and counts by a watch or clock.
 Stops of the contest for warnings, cautions, bringing the dress or equipment into order, or for any
  other reason are NOT included in the two minutes, whereas a count IS included in the two minutes.
  A full one-minute rest shall be given between rounds. No additional round(s) may be given.
 In the event of a knockdown, the timekeeper shall:
 immediately start the count by raising his/her hand
 regulate the passing seconds with movement of the hand in a visual position for the referee’s
 begin the count from “one” to ten with intervals of one second; and
 resume the clock; as any count is part of the duration of the round.
 If, at the end of the round, a boxer is ‘down’ and the referee is in the course of counting, the gong or
  bell will not be sounded until the referee has given the command ‘box’ indicating the continuation
  of the round.
                         Drawing of bouts
 Purpose
•   The draw will take place following the weigh-in and 3 hrs before the first bout of the
    first session. To reduce the number of boxers in the first series down to 2, 4, 8, etc
    boxers in the second series.
•   To determine the order of competition.
    Where there is 5 boxers there will            Where there is 8 boxers there will
    be 1 bout, 3 byes as such:                    be 4 bouts, 0 byes as such:
                   3                          Bout 1   2
                Bout 2                                        Bout 5
                                              Bout 2   4
                           Bout 4                                       Bout 7
                                             Bout 3    6
                Bout 3                                 7      Bout 6
Bout 1   2                                   Bout 4    8
                                      Age limits
 The boxer’s age is determined by using their age of birth.
 At non-championship bouts boxers under 17 years are not permitted to compete against a boxer
  who is 2 calendar years or more older.
 Where a boxer under 17 years competes against a boxer aged over 17 years the under 17 rules
  apply. Accordingly, where boundaries are crossed the lower age group always applies.
 Australian states vary in their age restrictions for boxers to compete. Currently, many states
  within Australia allow boxers to compete from age 10 years. Due to Government restrictions,
  boxers in some states can only start competition from age 12 or 14 years.
 Divisions within Australia
          U11 – 10 years
          U13 – 11 or 12 years.
          U15 – 13 or 14 years
          Junior – 15 or 16 years.
          Youth – 17 or 18 years.
          Elite – 17 years and 34 years.
          Masters – 35 years and over (unlimited)
 Australian championship ages at the first weigh-in
          Junior – 15 years and 16 years (includes female).
          Youth – 17 years and 18 years (includes female).
          Elite Male and Female – 17 years and 34 years.
 Under 15 yrs:
      Boys and girls – 3 x 1 ½ min rounds.
      Novice – 3 x 1 min rounds.
 Junior:
      Boys and girls – 3 x 2 min rounds.
      Novice – 3 x 1 ½ min rounds.
 Youth:
      Male – 4 x 2 min rounds.
      Female – 3 x 2 min rounds.
      Novice – 3 x 2 min rounds.
 Elite:
      Male – 3 x 3 min rounds.
      Female – 4 x 2 min rounds.
      Novice – 3 x 2 min rounds.
 Masters:
      Male and female – 3 x 2 min rounds.
 Stopping the contest for warnings, cautions, fixing the dress, fixing equipment, or for
  any other reason (other than a count), is not included in the duration of the round.
 A full one-minute rest period shall be given between rounds.
                         Computer scoring
•   In 1990, AIBA made computerised scoring mandatory for all international tournaments,
    and BA rules require computerised scoring also for all national competitions in Australia.
•   The main purpose of computerised scoring is to ensure fair, objective and purely technical
    decisions for the boxers. Other advantages are: Judges are relieved of the tedious
    calculations to determine points and can concentrate on recognising and recording scoring
    blows only. Trace recording of all judges actions at every second of the bout are made,
    and faster, more accurate flow of information and less delay between bouts occurs.
•   All Judges’ reactions are immediately displayed on the screen that is situated in front of
    the jury. In this manner the jury is able to monitor the effectiveness of each Judge. All
    data that is collected during the bout is synchronised with the bout clock. This means that
    each press of a button by a Judge is immediately time stamped and registered. As we do
    not use a bout clock linked to the computer, our situation is that the computer internally
    registers this information that can then be extracted.
•   Judges new to computer scoring generally tend to under-press or over-press significantly.
    It is important to learn to relax and not be trigger-happy, since you cannot “undo” a press
    of the button. There is plenty of time for you to determine if a punch is valid, and ensure
    that you press the button for the correct corner (red or blue) promptly but without rushing.
         Computer scoring cont’
                            Scoring pad
•   Concept
•   On/off button
•   Scoring buttons
•   Warning buttons
•   Visual display
•   Visual display button
•   Power input
         Computer scoring cont’

•   Individual score
•   Individual accepted score
•   Combined accepted score
•   Warnings
•   Judge’s warning
•   Draw
•   If computer malfunctions
•   Judges assessment
              Computer scoring cont’
 If the computer scoring system becomes defective during a bout the Jury shall cease the
bout for one minute.
•Scores retained
•If, during the one-minute period the system cannot be repaired and the scores at the time of
the stoppage are retained, proceed as follows:
•The judges shall use hand held scoring devices (includes clicker devices) and record the
bout for the duration and record the score onto scoring paper.
•At the end of the contest the jury shall collect the scoring papers from the judges.
•Add the judges’ individual scores from the computer to the scores from the scoring papers,
delete the high and low scores from the red and blue corner to arrive at the winner.
•Scores not retained
•If during the one minute period the system cannot be repaired and the scores at the time of
the stoppage are not retained, proceed as follows:
•If the incident occurs in the 1st, 2nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3rd round, and there are
at least three more bouts scheduled in that session, the bout shall be rescheduled as the final
bout of the session.
•If the incident occurs in the 1st, 2nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3rd round, and there are
less than three more bouts scheduled in that session, the bout shall be rescheduled to the start
of the next session; but if there are no further sessions scheduled for the event then the
judges will be asked to decide the winner.
If the incident occurs after the end of the 2nd, or in case of a 4 round bout the 3rd round, the
judges will be asked to decide the winner.
    Handheld boxing points calculator
• Concept
 Handheld calculators are not connected to a
  computer, but use the same concept as a
  simple press of a red or blue button each
  time a scoring blow has been delivered. This
  enables the judge to fully concentrate on the
  bout and to simply react to a scoring punch.
•   On button
•   Boxing mode
•   Start scoring                                             Display

•   Scoring buttons
                                                  Round   7      8      9     /
•   Warning buttons                               Box
                                                          4      5      6     X

•   Round button                                  %       1      2      3     -
•   Stop scoring                                  On      0             Sum   +

•   Display scores
    Handheld boxing points calculator
                                   Location:                                Bout No:         Weight Div:
                                   Date:                         Referee:                    Judge:

                                                   RED                                            BLUE

• Scorecard                        Boxer’s name:                                         Boxer’s name:

•   Warnings                       Club/State:                                           Club/State:

•   Judge’s warnings               Warnings & counts         Points           Round      Points        Warning & counts

•   Knockdowns                                      W                           1

•   Procedure at end of bout                         X                          2                  J-OG
•   Points equal at end of bout       KDH                                       3

•   If handheld malfunctions                                                    4

                                                    Total                                         Total

                                       Most leading off             In case of tied score
                                       or better style                   Better defence                  Other

                                                    RED                WINNER                     BLUE
                                           H   B
                                                                 RSC RSC Out-            RSC Comp
                                  Points Knockout Disq Retired                RSC Injury             Walkover No Contest
                                                                 Head  class             Count Limit
                                    1 2 3 4        Rounds                           ……………………..Signature of Judge
Judge’s analysis
    Computer set-up

B                                    4
E    Stairs

              Docs     5
Practical demonstrations of
      computer set-up
      Process for advancement
• Modules
  – Successfully perform as a gloving steward
  – Successfully perform as a timekeeper
  – Successfully set up the computer scoring
  – Demonstrate understanding of a draw
  – Demonstrate understanding of the judges’

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