VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 4 POSTED ON: 6/23/2012
9 October 2000 MEMORANDUM To: Students in Petroleum Engineering 311 (Reservoir Petrophysics) From: Dr. Thomas A. Blasingame, Assoc. Professor/Assistant Department Head Petroleum Engineering Subject: Study Materials for Examination 1 — PETE 311 (Reservoir Petrophysics) Sections 503/504: Exam 1 — 7:00 p.m. Wed 11 October 2000—RICH 114 Sections 501/502: Exam 1 — 8:30 p.m. Wed 11 October 2000—RICH 101 I have attached the following for your consideration: Examination Rules — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) Learning Objectives — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) Attachments: Study Materials for Exam 1 — PETE 311 (Reservoir Petrophysics) — Examination Rules — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) — Learning Objectives — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) Petroleum Engineering 311 Reservoir Petrophysics Examination Rules — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) 9 October 2000 Protocol: 1. The problems in this exam are to be worked completely and independently. 2. The exam is "open notes," but you may only use the following resources: Your own calculator, pencil, straight-edge, etc. Your own copy of the course texts. Your own course notes (handouts, notes, etc.) Your own homework assignments. 3. You are specifically forbidden to work together in any capacity. 4. Any and all questions should be directed to the instructor. General Rules: 1. You must show all work for credit. Unsupported work will not be given credit—specifically—you are to show ALL graphical analyses, calculations, as well as all details in a particular problem—especially the details in any derivation problems. 2. Be as neat and organized as possible—if your work can not be followed, then it can not be graded. 3. Carefully organize and attach all of your work (even work on scratch paper) when you reassemble the exam to turn in. You are to only write on the front portion of any particular page, and you must number all pages in some logical order. Rules for Analysis Problems: 1. Graphical Analysis: a. Clearly identify the plot scaling and axes. b. Clearly label all pertinent features on a particular plot. c. Clearly label the trendline you identify (if such an exercise is required), and clearly label the slope, intercept, etc. If an equation (or data model) is used, then this should also be shown on the plot. 2. (if applicable) Compare the results of your various analyses, making sure to note that some techniques should yield similar results. 3. You are responsible for using the appropriate analysis relations (equa- tions). If you use the wrong relation(s) for analysis, no credit will be given for your work. Rules for Theory/Development/Application Problems: 1. Identify all pertinent relations and assumptions before you begin your solution and create an outline of the proposed solution. 2. Proceed carefully in a logical and consistent manner through the solution— solutions with "magic steps" will be given no credit. SHOW ALL WORK! Honesty Statement: Aggie Code of Honor: Aggies do not lie, cheat, or steal, nor do they tolerate those who do. I have neither given nor received help on this exam. ________________________________ (your signature) Petroleum Engineering 311 Reservoir Petrophysics Learning Objectives — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) 9 October 2000 Learning Objectives: PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) Introduction to Porosity: Be able to recognize and classify rock types as clastics (sandstones) and carbonates (limestones, chalks, and dolstones) and be familiar with the characteristics of porosity that these rocks exhibit. Be able to distinguish between effective and total porosity and be familiar with the meanings of primary (or depositional) porosity and secondary (or post-depositional) porosity. Be familiar with the factors which affect porosity. In particular, Grain size distribution. Shape and arrangement of grains particles. Sorting, texture, and composition of grain particles. The effect of cementation, vugs, and fractures on porosity. Laboratory Measurement of Porosity: Be able to derive the Boyle's law relations for computing porosity using data from a helium porosimeter. Also be able to compute the pore and matrix volumes of a core using a helium porosimeter. Be able to compute the core bulk volume using the external dimensions of the core. From these results, you should be able to compute the ef- fective porosity of the core. Be able to determine the pore volume of a core using the weight of the saturated core and the density of the saturated fluid. Be able to determine the bulk volume (then porosity) of a core using the Modified Barnes method (Archimedes principle). Subsurface Measurement of Porosity: Be able to derive and apply the porosity relations for the density and sonic logs. Be familiar with the table of travel times (tm) and matrix densities (m) for sandstone, limestone, dolomite, anhydrite, salt, and water. Be able to determine the porosity of a particular interval as follows: By calculation using the density and sonic log. By reading the neutron log (also be familiar with the effect of saturation on the density and neutron log responses.) Compressibility of Porous Rocks: KNOW (memorize) the generalized definition of compressibility. Be able to express the force and pressure balances for the pore space, rock matrix, and overburden. Be familiar with the 3 types of compressibilities considered in subsur- face reservoirs. Know ranges of values for each and what each term is used for in reservoir studies. Be able to compute pore volume compressibility from lab data. Be familiar with the correlations that can be used to estimate pore volume compressibility—also be able to comment on the accuracy of these correlations. 2 Petroleum Engineering 311 Reservoir Petrophysics Learning Objectives — PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) 9 October 2000 Learning Objectives: PETE 311 Examination 1 (Fall 2000) (continued) Introduction to Permeability: Be able to derive the following steady-state liquid flow relations from the appropriate Darcy velocity relation: Horizontal linear flow relation. Inclined linear flow relation. Vertical linear flow relation. Horizontal, radial flow relation. Be able to derive the following steady-state gas flow relations from the appropriate Darcy velocity relation: Horizontal linear flow relation. Horizontal, radial flow relation. In particular, you should be able to derive the low-pressure "pressure- squared" (p2) and general "pseudopressure" (pp(p)), relations for both linear and radial horizontal flow configurations. Be able to derive the appropriate conversion factors for the flow equa- tions in field units. Be able to derive and apply the steady-state average permeability relations for layers in parallel and in series, for the linear and radial flow geometries. Be able to derive and apply permeability relations for flow in fractures and channels. Laboratory Measurement of Permeability: Be able to describe the phenomena of "gas slippage" as well as the Klinkenberg approach for "correcting" for gas slippage. The objective is to be able to determine the permeability to liquid of a core using Darcy's Law and the Klinkenberg plotting function. Be able to understand the effect of reactive fluids on the measurement of permeability. In particular, the effects of fresh and saline water on cores with hydratable clays. Be able to understand the effect of compaction pressure on permeability and the hysteresis which results from compaction cycling. Be able to derive and apply the pseudopressure forms of Forchheimer's equation for the non-laminar flow of liquids and gases in porous media. The objective is to be able to determine the permeability, k, and the "inertial flow coefficient", , of a core using Forchheimer's equation.
Pages to are hidden for
"P311 00C Exam1 StdGde TAB"Please download to view full document