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• What is Genocide? Briefly explain the
  conflict between the Hutus and the
  Tutsis in Rwanda in the 90s.
 Genocide in Rwanda
Aim: Why did Genocide occur in
Rwanda in 1994 and what were its
 What role does the United Nations
   have in Stopping Genocide?

• After WWII the world vowed never to
  allow another genocide to occur.
• United Nations: Organization of 192
  nations charged with maintaining peace
  in the world and mediating global
The legal definition of genocide as defined by
  the Genocide Convention is:

“Acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a
  national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
• Killing members of the group;
• Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
• Creating living conditions of the group with the intent to bring
  about its
• physical destruction in whole or in part
• Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
• Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group”
• ~ Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
  Genocide, Article 2
Genocide occurred again in
    Rwandan in 1994

          • WHY?
Rwanda is a small country in
     Central Africa
Rwanda is the most densely populated country in Africa.
           I. Colonialism
• The Belgian's (remember king Leopold)
  took control over Rwanda after WWI.
• They ruled the country as brutal
       II. Hutus and Tutsis
• After WWI Belgium gained control of
• In order to strengthen control Belgium
  divided Rwanda’s unified population
  Into two groups: Hutus and Tutsis.
          III. Hutus and Tutsis
 Under Belgium Control Tutsi’s (approx
15% of the population) were more favored
because they were considered to be more
              “white” looking.
     IV. Discrimination and
• Under Colonialism Hutus, who make up
  85% of Rwanda’ pop. were denied:
  – higher education
  – land ownership
  – positions in government.
Only Tutsi’s could attend
  V. Independence and Hutu
• IN 1959, violence erupted between Hutus and
• Hutus overthrew Tutsi rule and declared an
  independent Rwanda.
• Mass killings of Tutsis occurred during this
  time period…hinting of things to come.
• Hutus used the same system of racial
  oppression that existed during colonialism.
Rwandan Independence
            VI. The Spark
• Rising tensions based on racial divisions and
  oppression set the stage for genocide. Tutsi
  rebels began to gather forces.
• Hutu officials began preparation to carry out
  massive genocide.
• On 1994 the Rwandan President
  Habyarmana was killed when his plane was
  shot down.
• Hutu’s blamed Tutsi rebels and the Genocide
 The genocide was planned and carried out through orchestrated
public opinion campaigns using radio, television, newspapers, and

                     other hate propaganda.
       Rwandan Genocide
• Rwanda Genocide: In 1994, after a
  long process of planning and
  preparation, the Hutu majority launched
  an intense period of systematic killings
  of Tutsis in the small African country of
    • In less than 100
      days, nearly one
      million people were
      killed. That is nearly
      twice the entire
      population of
      Washington DC.
• Reading: Valentina’s Story
• Clip: Ghosts of Rwanda

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